Retail GlossaryABC Analysis - an analysis that rank-orders SKUs by some profitability measure to determine which items sho...
Analog Approach - a method of trade area analysis that is also known as the “similar store” or “mapping” approach. The    ...
Base Salary - salary before commission or bonus is added.Basic Merchandise - See Staple Merchandise.Basic Stock List - the...
Cash Discounts - reductions in the invoice cost for paying the invoice prior to the end of the discount period.Catalog Sho...
purposes.Clayton Act (1914) - an act passed as a response to the deficiencies of the Sherman Act, that specifically prohib...
Conditions of Sales - See Terms of Sale.Conflict of Interest - circumstance when a decision maker’s personal interest infl...
Cost Method of Accounting - retailers record the cost of every item on an accounting sheet or include a cost code, a price...
communication objectives.Dating - refers to the dates in which discounts can be taken and the full invoice amount is due.D...
Display Stock - stock placed on various display fixtures that customers can directly examine.Direct Selling - a form of no...
Exclusive Geographical Territories - policy in which no other retailer in the territory is allowed to sell a particular br...
Flexible Pricing - a pricing strategy that allows consumers to bargain over selling prices.FOB Destination - a term of sal...
but is imported into the United States without permission of the U.S. trademark owner.Greeter - a person who greets custom...
Independent - a retailer that owns only one retail store.Infringement - unauthorized use of a registered trademark.Informa...
is ready for sale.Leader Pricing - a pricing strategy in which certain items are priced lower than normal to increase the ...
Manufacturer’s Outlet Store - a discount retail store owned and operated by a manufacturer.Mapping - See Analog Approach.M...
Memorandum Purchase - items not paid for by retailer until they are sold. The retailer can return unsold merchandise;howev...
Negligence - a product liability suit that occurs if the retailer or a retail employee fails to exercise the care that a p...
One-price Retailer - stores that offer all merchandise at a single, fixed price.On-the-job Training - a decentralized appr...
Perceived Risk - the level of risk that a consumer believes exists regarding the purchase of a specific good or service.Pe...
premium priced products.Preprints - advertisements printed at the retailers expense and distributed as a freestanding inse...
Product Liability - a tort that occurs when an injury results from the use of a product.Product Line - a group of related ...
Rebate - money returned to the buyer in the form of cash based on a portion of the purchase price.Receipt of Goods Dating ...
Retail Inventory Method - an accounting procedure whose objectives are to maintain a perpetual or book inventory in       ...
Sale-Leaseback - the practice of retailers building new stores and selling them to real-estate investors who then lease th...
Shrinkage is caused by shoplifting by employee and/or customers, and merchandise being misplaced or         damaged.Situat...
Store Visibility - See Visibility.Straight Salary Compensation - compensation plan in which salespeople or managers receiv...
Theme Center - shopping centers that try to replicate a historical place. Typically contain tenants similar to specialty  ...
their household.Undercover Shoppers - people hired by or working for a retailer who pose as customers to observe the activ...
Wheel of Retailing - a cyclical theory of retail evolution whose premise is that retailing institutions trade from low    ...
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Crer internship glossary

  2. 2. Retail GlossaryABC Analysis - an analysis that rank-orders SKUs by some profitability measure to determine which items should neverbe out-of-stock, which items should be allowed to be out-of- stock occasionally, and which items should be deletedfrom the stock selection.Abilities - the aptitude and skills of an employee.Accessibility - the degree to which customers can easily get into and out of a shopping center.Accordion Theory - a cyclical theory of retailer evolution cycles suggesting that changes in retail institutions areexplained in terms of depth versus breadth of assortment. Retail institutions cycle from high depth/low breadth to beinglow depth/high breadth stores, and back again.Accounts Payable - amount of money owed to vendors, primarily for merchandise inventory.Accounts Receivable - amount of money due to the retailer from selling merchandise on credit.Accrued Liabilities - liabilities that accumulate daily, but are only paid at the end of a period.Acquisition - growth strategy in which one firm acquires another firm usually resulting in a merger. (See also, leveragedbuyout).Actual Selling Cost - Relationship (expressed as a percentage) of salary to net sales; determined by dividing net sales intogross salary for any respective period.Addition Markup - an increase in retail price after and in addition to original markup.Additionally Markup Cancellation - the percentage by which the retail price is lowered after a markup is taken.Additional Markup Percentage - the addition of a further markup to the original markup as a percent of net sales.Advertising - Paid communications delivered to customers through nonpersonal mass media vehicles such as newspapers,television, radio, and direct mail.Advertising Frequency - the number of times the typical potential customer is exposed to an ad.Advertising Manager - a retail manager that manages advertising activities such determining the advertising budget,allocating the budget, developing ads, selecting media, and monitoring effectiveness.Advertising Reach - the percent of customers in the target market exposed at least once to an ad.Affordable Promotional Budgeting - budgeting method by which a retailer first sets a budget from every element of theretail mix except promotion and then funds the left over to a promotional budget.Allowances - deductions from the sale price to a customer in lieu of returning unsatisfactory merchandise.Alteration Costs - expenses incurred to change the appearance or fit, assemble, or repair merchandise. 2
  3. 3. Analog Approach - a method of trade area analysis that is also known as the “similar store” or “mapping” approach. The analysis is divided into four steps: 1) describing the current trade areas by using a technique known as customer spotting. 2) plotting the customer on a map. 3) defining the primary, secondary, and tertiary area zones; and 4) matching the characteristics of stores in the trade areas with the potential new store to estimate its sales potential.Anticipation Discount - discount offered in addition to the cash discount or dating, if an invoice is paid before the end ofthe cash discount period.Anti-competitive Leasing Arrangement - leases that limit the type and amount of competition a particular retailer faceswithin a trading area.Anti-trust legislation - a set of laws directed at preventing unreasonable “restraint of trade” and “unfair trade practices” tofoster a competitive environment. See Restraint of Trade.Application Blank - information on an applicant’s education, employment experience, hobbies and references.Asset Turnover - net sales divided by total assets.Assets - economic resources with expected economic benefit in the future that are owned or controlled by an enterprise asa result of past transactions or events.Assortment - the number of SKUs within a merchandise category.Atmosphere - the physical characteristics of the store such as architecture, layout, signs and displays, color, lighting,temperature, noise, and smells creating an image in the customer’s mind.Automatic Reordering System - system for ordering staple merchandise using a predetermined minimum quantity ofgoods in stock is reached. An automatic reorder can be generated by a computer on the basis of a perpetual inventorysystem and reorder point calculations.Average BOM Stock-to-Sales Ratio - the number of months in the period divided by planned inventory turnover for theperiods.Average Sales - net sales divided by total number of sales transactions.Average Inventory - the sum of inventory on hand at several periods in time divided by the number of periods.Backward Integration - a form of vertical integration in which a retailer owns some or all of its suppliers.Bait and Switch - an unlawful deceptive practice that lures customers into a store by advertising a product at lower thanusual prices (the bait), then inducing the customers to switch to a higher priced model (the switch).Balance Sheet - summary of a retailer’s financial resources and claims against the resource at a particular date. Indicatesthe relationship between assets, liabilities and owners equity.Bank Cards - credit cards issued by banks such as Visa and Mastercard.Bar Code - See UPC (Universal Product Code).Barriers to Entry - conditions in a retail Market that make it difficult for firms to enter the retail market. 3
  4. 4. Base Salary - salary before commission or bonus is added.Basic Merchandise - See Staple Merchandise.Basic Stock List - the descriptive and record-keeping function of an inventory control system including the stock number,item description, number of unit on hand and order, and sales for the previous periods.Basic Stock Method - an inventory management method used to determine the beginning-of-month (BOM) inventory byconsidering both the forecasted sales for the month and a safety stock.Benefits - specific needs satisfied when a customer buys a product.Benefits/Price Effect - condition arising when customers’ price sensitivity increases because they cannot perceive specialbenefits from the product.Blue Laws - these laws were primarily designed to prohibit retailers from operating their stores seven days a week and tocontrol operating hours. Most states no longer have Blue Laws.Bonuses - additional compensation awarded periodically based on a subjective evaluation of the employee’sperformance.Book Inventory - See Retail Inventory Method.Boutique Layout - a store design that placing all departments on the “main aisle” by drawing customers through the storein a series of major and minor loops. Also known as a loop.Brand - a distinctive grouping of products identified by corporate name, logo, design, symbol, or trademark.Breaking Point - the location between two towns where customers on one side of the location patronize one town, whilethose on the other side patronize the other town.Breaking Sizes - running out of stock on particular sizes.Building Codes - legal restriction describing the type of building, signs, size and type of parking lot, etc., that can be usedat a particular location.Bulk of Stock - store area in which the total assortment of merchandise is placed. Usually contains gondolas in groceryand discount stores and freestanding fixtures for soft goods.Buyer’s Report - information on the velocity of sales, the availability of inventory, the amount of order, the inventoryturnover, the forecasted sales, and most importantly, the quantity that should be ordered for each SKU.Buying Behavior - the activities customers undertake when purchasing a good or service.Buying Power - the customer’s financial resources available for making purchases.Buying Power Index (BPI) - an index indicating the percentage of total U.S. retail sales occurring in a specificgeographic area. Used to forecast demand for new stores and to evaluate the performance of existing stores.Career Path - the set of positions to which management employees are promoted within a particular organization, as theircareer progresses.Cash - money on hand. 4
  5. 5. Cash Discounts - reductions in the invoice cost for paying the invoice prior to the end of the discount period.Catalog Showroom - a retailer using a showroom displaying merchandise combined with an adjacent warehouse.Typically specializes in hard goods such as housewares.Category - an assortment of items (SKUs) that the customer sees as reasonable substitutes for each other.Category Killers - discount retailers offering a complete assortment in a category and thus dominate a category from thecustomer’s perspective. Also known as Category Specialist.Caveat Emptor - Latin term for “let the buyer beware.”Cellar-Kefauver Anti-Merger Act (1950) - an act passed to amend section 7 of the Clayton Act by clarifying when assetor stock acquisitions are illegal.Census Tracts - subdivisions of a SMSA with an average population of 4,000.Central Business District (CBD) - traditional downtown area of a city or town.Centralization - the degree to which the authority for making the retailing decisions is delegated to corporate managersrather then to geographically dispersed regional, district, and store management.Centralized Buying - a situation in which a retailer has all purchase decisions made at one location, typically the firm’sheadquarters.Central Market - See Market.Central Place - as used in Christaller’s Central Place Theory -- a center of retailing activity such as a town or city.Chain - See Retail Chain.Chain Discount - a number of different discounts taken sequentially from the suggested retail price.Channel of Distribution - See Distribution Channel.Checking - the process of going through the goods upon receipt to make sure it arrived undamaged and that themerchandise received matches the merchandise ordered.Christaller’s Central Place Theory - See Central Place.Classic - a fashion that has both a high level and a long duration of acceptance.Classification - a group of items of SKUs for the same type of merchandise, such as pants as opposed to jackets or suits,supplied by different vendors.Classification Dominance - an assortment so broad that customers should be able to satisfy all their consumption needsfor a particular category by visiting the retailer.Classification Merchandising - divisions of departments into related types of merchandise for reporting and control 5
  6. 6. purposes.Clayton Act (1914) - an act passed as a response to the deficiencies of the Sherman Act, that specifically prohibits pricediscrimination, tying arrangements, and exclusive dealing contracts that have the effect of limiting free trade, andprovides for damages to parties injured as a result of violations of the act.Close-Out Store - a retailer offering merchandise obtained through retail liquidations and bankruptcy proceedings.Cocooning - a term that describes a behavioral pattern of consumers who increasingly turn to the nice, safe, familiarenvironment of their homes to spend their limited leisure time.COD (Collect of Delivery) - payment for a product is collected at the time of delivery.Code of Ethics - rules of behavior which society generally determines as right or wrong.Combination Stores - food based retailers between 30,000 and 100,000 square feet in size with over 25 percent of theirsales from nonfood merchandise such a flowers, health and beauty aids, kitchen utensils, photo developing, prescriptiondrugs, and videotape rentals.Commercial Bribery - a vendor offer of money or gifts to a buyer for the purpose of influencing purchasing decisions.Commissions - compensation based on a fixed formula, such as percentage of sales.Common Law - laws based on pervious court decisions. When judges render a decision on a case, these decisionsbecome part of the common law.Common Stock - the type of stock most frequently issued by corporations. Owners of common stock usually have votingrights in the retail corporation.Communication Objectives - specific goals for a communication program related to the effects of the communicationprogram on the customer’s decision making process.Community Center - shopping center that includes a discount store, specialty department store, super drug store, homecenters and other convenience and shopping goods stores.Comparison Shopping - a market research method by which retailers shop at competitive stores comparing themerchandise, pricing, visual display, and service to their offering.Compensation - monetary payments including salary, commission, and bonus such as paid vacations, health and insurancebenefits, and a retirement plan.Competitive Parity Method - an approach for setting promotion budgets so that the retailer’s share of promotion expensesis equal to its share of market.Competitive-Oriented Pricing - a pricing approach in which a retailer uses competitors’ prices as guides rather thandemand or cost considerations.Computerized Checkout - see Point-of-Sale Terminals (POS).Conditional Sales Agreement - agreement passing title of goods to the consumer conditional on full payment. 6
  7. 7. Conditions of Sales - See Terms of Sale.Conflict of Interest - circumstance when a decision maker’s personal interest influences or has the potential to influencehis or her professional decision.Conjoint Analysis - survey research tool that has become popular in recent years for evaluating the relative importance ofproduct attributes.Consideration Set - the set of alternatives the customer evaluates when making a merchandise selection.Consignment Purchase - items not paid for by retailer until they are sole. The retailer can return unsold merchandise;however, retailer does not take title until final sale made.Consumer Goods Pricing Act (1975) - statute repealing all resale price maintenance laws and making it possible forretailers to sell products below suggested retail prices.Consumerism - the activities of government, business, and independent organizations designed to protect individualsfrom practices that infringe upon their rights as consumers.Contests - sales promotional activities in which customers compete for rewards.Contract Distribution Service Companies - firms that perform all the distribution functions for retailers or vendors,including transportation to the contract company’s distribution center, merchandise processing, storage, andtransportation to retailers.Contribution Margin - gross margin less any expense that can be directly assigned to the merchandise.Convenience Center - shopping center that typically includes stores like convenience market, a dry cleaner, or a liquorstore.Convenience Products - those products that the consumer buys from the most convenient location and is not willing tospend effort evaluation prior to purchase.Convenience Stores - stores providing a limited assortment of merchandise at a convenient location and time inneighborhood store between 3,000 and 8,000 square feet.Conventional Supermarket - a self-service food store offering groceries, meat, and produce with annual sales over $2million and size under 20,000 square feet.Converse’s Breaking Point Model - See Breaking Point.Cooperative (co-op) Advertising - a program undertaken by a vendor in which a vendor agrees to pay all or part of apromotion for their products.Cooperative Buying - group of independent retailers who work together to make large purchases from a single supplier.Copy - the text in a advertisement.Corporation - a retail firm that is formally incorporated under state law that is a different legal entity than stockholdersand employees.Cost Complement - the percentage of net sales represented by the cost of goods sold. 7
  8. 8. Cost Method of Accounting - retailers record the cost of every item on an accounting sheet or include a cost code, a pricetag or merchandise container. When a physical inventory is conducted, the cost of each item must be determined, thequantity in stock is counted, and the total inventory value at cost is calculated. See Retail Inventory Method.Cost Multiplier - the cumulative markup multiplied by 100 percent minus cumulative markup percentage.Cost Oriented Method - method for determining the retail price by adding a fixed percentage to the cost of themerchandise. Also know as cost-plus pricing.Counterfeit Merchandise - goods that are made and sold without permission of the owner of a trademark.Coupons - discount on the price of specific items when they are purchased at the stores.Credit - the amount of money that is placed at consumer’s disposal by a retailer or financial or other institution.Purchases are made with payment due in the future.Cross Selling - sales associates in one department attempting to sell complementary merchandise from other departmentsto their customers.Cumulative Markup - the average percentage markup for the period. The total retail price minus cost divided by retailprice.Cumulative Quality Discounts - discounts earned when retailers by purchasing certain quantities over a specified periodof time.Current Assets - cash and other assets that can normally be converted into cash within one year.Current Liabilities - debts that are expected to be paid in less than one year.Current Ration - current assets divided by current liabilities. Indicates the firm’s ability to meet current debt with currentassets.Customer Allowances - any additional price reduction given to the customer.Customer Buying Process - the stages a customer goes through in purchasing a good or service. Stages include needrecognition, information search, evaluation and choice of alternatives, purchase, and post purchase evaluation.Customer Returns - the amount of merchandise that a customer’s return because it is damaged, doesn’t fit, etc.Customer Service - the set of retail activities that increase the value customers receive when they shop and purchasemerchandise.Customer Service Departments - departments in retail organizations used for handling customer inquiries and complaints.Customer Spotting - a technique used in trade area analysis that “spots” or locates the residence of the customers for astore or shopping center.Cycle Stock Merchandise - inventory that adheres to a normal receipt-sale cycle.DAGMAR (defining advertising goals for measured advertising results) - a method for setting advertising goals based on 8
  9. 9. communication objectives.Dating - refers to the dates in which discounts can be taken and the full invoice amount is due.Debit Card - a card that resembles a credit card but allows the retailer to automatically subtract payments from acustomer’s checking account at the time of sale.Deceptive Advertising - any advertisement that contains a false statement about or misrepresents a product or service.Deffered Billing - enables customers to buy merchandise and not pay for it for several months, with no interest charge.Demand/Destination Areas - department in stores in which demand for their products or services are created beforecustomers get to their destination.Demand-Oriented Method - setting prices based on what the customers would expect – or be willing -- to pay.Demographics - factors commonly used to define market segments such as age, sex, and income.Department - merchandise that represents a group of classifications the consumer views as being complementary.Departmentalization - an organizational design in which employees are grouped together into department performingspecific activities to achieve the operating efficiencies through specialization.Department Stores - retailers carrying a wide variety and deep assortment, offering considerable customer services, andorganized into separate departments for displaying merchandise.Deseasonalized Demand - forecasted demand without the influence of seasonality.Destination Store - a retail store where the merchandise, selection, presentation, pricing, or other unique features act as amagnet for customers.Dialectic Process - an evolutionary theory based on the premise that retail institutions evolve. The theory suggests thatnew retail formats emerge by adopting characteristics from other forms of retailers in much the same way that a child isthe product of the pooled genes of two very different parents.Difficult Comparison Effect - condition arising when customers’ price sensitivity increases because it is difficult to makecomparisons between existing brands.Direct Marketing - a form of nonstore retailing in which customers are exposed to merchandise through an impersonalmedium and then purchase the merchandise by telephone or mail.Direct Product Profitability (DPP) - the profit associated with each category or unit of merchandise. DPP is equal to theper-unit gross margin less all variable costs associated with the merchandise such as procurement, distribution, sales, andthe cost of carrying the assets. Also known as Residual Income.Disclosure of Confidential Information - an ethical issue in which it is considered unethical for a retail employee todisclose proprietary information to anyone outside the firm any confidential information relating about the firm’s businessfor non business activities.Discount-Anchored Center - a shopping center that contains one or more discount stores and smaller retail tenants.Discounts - reductions in the original retail price granted to store employees as special benefits. 9
  10. 10. Display Stock - stock placed on various display fixtures that customers can directly examine.Direct Selling - a form of nonstore retailing that involves selling merchandise through salespeople who contact theconsumers directly or by telephone at home or place of work.Discount Stores - a general merchandise retailer offering a wide variety of merchandise, limited service, and lower prices.Distribution - See Retail Distribution.Distribution Channel - a set of firms that facilitates the movement of products from the point of production to the point ofsale to the ultimate consumer.Diversionary Pricing - practice sometimes used by retailers in which low price is stated for one or a few goods or services(emphasized in promotion) to give the illusion that all of a retailer’s prices are low.Diverters - firms that buy unwanted merchandise from retailers and manufacturers and resell the merchandise to otherretailers.Diversification - a strategic investment opportunity involving an entirely new retail format directed toward a marketsegment that is not presently being served.Double Coupon - a retail promotion that allows the customer double the face value of the coupon.Dual distribution - when a manufacturer or wholesaler use multiple channels of distribution to reach ultimate consumer.Some of these channels may bypass present retailers.Economic Order Quantity - the order quantity that minimizes the total costs of processing orders and holding inventory.Economy-Priced Products Index (EPP) - an index indicating the percentage of U.S. retail sales in a geographic area foreconomically priced products.Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - the computer-to-computer exchange of business documents from retailer to vendorand back.End Caps - display fixtures located at the end of an aisle.End of Month Dating (EOM) - discount period starts at the end of the month in which the invoice is dated (except whenthe invoice is dated the 25th or later).Ethics - a system or code of conduct based on universal moral duties and obligations which indicate how one shouldbehave.Evaluation of Alternatives - Stage in the buying process where the customer compares the benefits offered byalternatives.Everyday-Low-Price Strategy - a pricing strategy that attempts to have, on average, the lowest prices on all itemseveryday rather than periodically advertising price promotions on a few items.Exclusive Dealing Agreements - restrictions a manufacturer or wholesaler places on a retailer in terms of carrying only itsproducts and no competing vendors’ products. 10
  11. 11. Exclusive Geographical Territories - policy in which no other retailer in the territory is allowed to sell a particular brand.Executive Training Programs (ETPs) - training programs for supervisors, managers, and executives.Experiment - a market research method in which a variable is manipulated under controlled conditions.Expert Systems - computer programs incorporating knowledge of experts in a particular field. Systems are used to aid indecision making and problem solving.Expenses - costs incurred in the normal course of doing business to generate revenues.Exponential Smoothing - forecasting technique in which sales in previous time periods are weighted to develop a forecastfor future periods.Express Warranty - guarantee supplied by either the retailer or the manufacturer that details the terms of the warranty insimple and easily understood language so customers know what is and what is not covered by the warranty.Extended Problem Solving - A buying process in which customers spend considerable time at each stage because thedecision is important and they have limited knowledge about alternatives.Extra Dating - discount offered by a vendor in which the retailer receives an extra amount of time to pay the invoice andstill take the cash discount.Extrinsic Rewards - rewards provided to employees by either their manager or the firm such as money, promotion, andrecognition.Factory Outlet Stores - off-price retailers that are owned by manufacturers.Fad - product with a very short life cycle.Fair Trade Laws - See Vertical Pricing Fixing.Fashion Merchandise - a particular style of merchandise that has a relatively short and unpredictable selling life, such as aseason.Fashion-Oriented Center - a type of specialty shopping center that contains a higher quality department store and smallboutiques.Fashion-Oriented Shopping Center - shopping center usually containing a higher quality department store as well as othersmaller boutiques.Features - the qualities or characteristics of a product that provide benefits to customers.Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) - congressional act creating the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and giving theCommission the power to enforce federal trade laws.Financial Leverage - financial measure based on the relationship between the retailer’s liabilities and owners’ equityindicating financial stability of the firm.Fixed Assets - assets requiring more than a year to convert to cash.Fixed Expenses - expenses that remain consistent for a given period of time regardless of the sales volume. 11
  12. 12. Flexible Pricing - a pricing strategy that allows consumers to bargain over selling prices.FOB Destination - a term of sale which designating that the shipper owns the merchandise until it is delivered to theretailer and is therefore responsible for transportation and any damage claims.FOB Origin - a term of sales that designates that the retailer takes ownership of the merchandise at the point of origin andis therefore responsible for transportation and any damage claims.Focus Group - a marketing research technique in which a small group of respondents are interviewed by a moderatorusing a loosely structured format.Forward Integration - a form of vertical integration in which a manufacturer owns wholesalers and/or retailers.Franchising - a contractual agreement between a franchisor and a franchisee, which allows the franchisee to operate aretail outlet using a name and format developed and supported by the franchisor.Free-Form - a store design used primarily in smaller specialty stores or within the boutiques of larger stores that arrangesfixtures and aisles in an asymmetrical pattern.Freestanding Retailer - a location for a retailer that is not located adjacent to other retailers.Frequency - See Advertising Frequency.Fringe Trade Area - See Tertiary Trade Zone.Full-Line Forcing - suppliers requiring a retailer to carry the supplier’s full line of products if the retailer wants to carryany part of that line.Full Warranty - guarantee provided by either the retailer or manufacturer to repair or replace merchandise without chargeand within a reasonable time in the event of a defect.Functional Discounts - See Trade Discounts.Functional Needs - needs satisfied by a product or service that are directly related to the performance of the offering.Functional Product Grouping - categorizing and displaying merchandise by common end uses.Future Dating - allowing the buyer additional time to take advantage of the cash discount or to pay the net amount of theinvoice.Generics - unbranded, unadvertised merchandise found mainly in drug, grocery, and discount stores.Gentrification - old buildings torn down or restored with new offices, housing developments, and retailers.Gondola - a gondola is an island type of self-service counter with tiers of shelves back-to-back.Good Faith Defense - legal price discrimination based on actions done in good faith to meet competitive pricing.Graduate Lease - lease including precise rent increases over a specified period of time.Gray Market Good - merchandise that possesses a valid U.S. registered trademark and is made by a foreign manufacturer, 12
  13. 13. but is imported into the United States without permission of the U.S. trademark owner.Greeter - a person who greets customers when entering the store and provides information and/or assistance.Grid - a store design layout, typically used by grocery stores, in which merchandise is displayed on long gondolas inaisles with a repetitive pattern.Gross Leasable Area (GLA) - a term used in trade area analysis to estimate the “supply” of stores that can theoretically besupported or warranted by the population residing in the area.Gross Margin - the difference between the price that the customer pays for merchandise and the cost of the merchandise(the price the retailer paid the supplier of the merchandise). More specifically, gross margin = net sales - cost of goodssold (=maintained markup) + alteration cost - cash discounts.Gross Sales - the total dollar revenues received from sales of merchandise & services during a stated period of time fromwhich customer returns and allowances have not bee deducted.Group Boycott - a concerted refusal by either retailers or vendors to deal with a particular business.Habitual Decision-Making - A type of buying process in which customers routinize their purchase decision and do not gothrough the stages of the buying process but rely on specific rules. Also known as Routine Decision Making.Hand Making - use of grease pencils, ink stamps, and pens to directly mark, package, label, tag or ticket the merchandise.Hart-Scott-Rodino Anti-Trust Improvements Act (1976) - requires notifications and waiting times of large corporationsthat are contemplating the acquisition of other business.Historical Centers - shopping center located in a place of historical interest.Home Improvement Center - a category specialist combining the traditional hardware store and lumber yard.Horizontal Price Fixing - agreements between retailers who are in direct competition with each other to have the sameprices.Huff’s Model - a trade area analysis model used to determine the probability that a customer residing in a particular areawill shop at a particular store or shopping center.Human Resource Management - management of a retailer’s employees.Hypermarket - a very large retail store offering low prices that combines a discount store and a superstore food retailer inone warehouse-like building.Implied Warranty of Merchantability - a guarantee that accompanies all merchandise sold by a retailer assuring customersthat the merchandise is “fit” for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are used.Impulse Purchase - an unplanned purchase by a customer.Incentive Compensation Plan - compensation to employees based on their productivity.Income Statement - a summary of the financial performance of a firm for a period of time. 13
  14. 14. Independent - a retailer that owns only one retail store.Infringement - unauthorized use of a registered trademark.Information Search - a stage in the buying process in which a customer seeks additional information to satisfy a need.Ingress/Egress - ease of entering and exiting the parking lot of the site.In-house Credit System - See Proprietary Store Credit and System.Initial Markup - difference between the cost and the retail selling price originally placed on the merchandise.Installment-Credit Plan - plan enabling consumers to pay their total purchase price (less down payment) in equalinstallment payments over a specified time period.Institutional Advertisement - advertisement that emphasize the retailer’s name and positioning rather than specificmerchandise or prices.Interest - the amount charged by a financial institution to borrow money.Intertype Competition - competition between different types of retailers, e.g., Safeway versus Wal-MartIntratype Competition - competition between the same type of retailers, e.g., Kroger versus Safeway.Intrinsic Rewards - rewards employees get from doing their job.Inventory - goods or merchandise available for resale.Inventory Management - process of acquiring and maintaining a proper assortment of merchandise while keepingordering, shipping, handling, and other related costs in check.Inventory Shrinkage - See Shrinkage.Inventory Turnover - net sales divided by average retail inventory. It is used to evaluate how effectively managers utilizetheir investment in inventory.Invoice Cost - the actual amount due for the merchandise after both trade and quantity discounts are taken.Item Price Removal - marking prices only on shelves or signs and not on individual items.Job Description - the activities that the employee needs to perform and the firm’s performance expectations expresses inquantitative terms.Junk Bonds - bonds that offer investors a higher risk/higher yield investment than conventional bonds.Keystone Method - method of setting retail prices in which retailers simply double the cost of the merchandise to obtainthe original retail selling price.Lay-a-way - a method of deferred payment in which merchandise is held by the store for the customer until it iscompletely paid for.Lead Time - the amount of time between recognition that an order needs to be placed and when it arrives in the store and 14
  15. 15. is ready for sale.Leader Pricing - a pricing strategy in which certain items are priced lower than normal to increase the traffic flow ofcustomers, and/or increase the sale of complementary products.Leased Department - a department in a retail store that is operated by an outside party. The outside party either paysfixed rent or a percentage of sales to the retailer for the space.Leveraged Buyout (LBO) - a financial transaction in which a buyer, either the firms management or an outside individualor group acquires a company by borrowing money form a financial institution or by issuing junk bonds using its assets ascollateral. (See also, merger, acquisition).Liabilities - obligations of an enterprise to pay cash or other economic resources in return for past, present, or futurebenefits.Licensed Brands - those brands in which the owner of a well-known name licensor enters a contractual arrangement witha licensee that may be a retailer a or third party. The licensee either manufactures or contracts with a manufacturer toproduce the licensed product and pays a royalty to the licensor.Life-Style - the manner in which an individual consumer or family (household) live and spend their time and money.Life-Style Merchandising - development of merchandise lines bases on consumer living patterns.Limited Problem Solving - a buying process that occurs when customers do not need to spend a great deal time in each ofthe steps because of their knowledge and prior experience.Limited Warranty - a type of guarantee in which any limitations on the warranty must be stated conspicuously so thatcustomers are not misled.Lines of Authority and Responsibility - Organizational principle that employees should be given the authority toaccomplish whatever responsibilities that have been assigned to them.Logistics - See Retail Distribution.Long-term Liabilities - obligations that the retailer commits to pay after at least one year. (see liabilities) They representclaims against assets.Loop Layout - See Boutique Layout.Loss Leader - item priced near or below cost to attract customer traffic into the store.Mail-Order Retailers - See Direct Mail Catalog Retailer.Maintained Markup - the amount of markup that the retailer wishes to be maintained on a particular category ofmerchandise. Net sales - cost of goods sold.Management by Objectives - a popular method for linking the goals of the firm to goals for each employee and providinginformation to employees about their role.Manufacturer Brands - products that are produced and controlled by and carry the name of a manufacturer. Also knownas National Brands. 15
  16. 16. Manufacturer’s Outlet Store - a discount retail store owned and operated by a manufacturer.Mapping - See Analog Approach.Marginal Analysis - the economic principle that firms should increase expenditures so long as each additional dollarspent generates more than a dollar of additional contribution.Markdowns - percentage reduction in the initial retail price.Markdown Cancellation - the percentage increase in the retail price after a markdown is taken.Markdown Money - funds provided by a vendor to a retailer to cover decreased gross margin from markdowns, and othermerchandising issues.Market - a group of vendors in a concentrated geographic location or even under one roof. Also know as central market.Market Attractiveness - Competitive Position Matrix - a method for analyzing opportunities that explicitly considers thecapabilities of the retailer and the attractiveness of retail markets.Market Development - See Market Penetration Opportunity.Market Positioning - See Positioning.Market Expansion Opportunity - a strategic investment opportunity employing the same retailing format in new marketsegments.Market Expansion Potential (MEP) - a term used in trade area analysis to estimate an area’s potential for creating newdemand.Market Indexes - a term used in trade area analysis that estimates the annual per-person spending potential for each of theretail categories for the area divided by the national average.Market Penetration Opportunity - a investment opportunity strategy focusing on increasing sales to present customersusing the same retailing format.Market Research - the systematic collection and analysis of information about a retail market.Market Share - a retailer’s sales divided by the sales of all competitors within the same market.Marketing Segmentation - the process of dividing a retail market into smaller homogeneous groups. See Retail MarketSegments.Markup - the increase in the retail price after the initial markup percentage has been applied, but before it’s placed on theselling floor.Marquee - a sign that is used to display the store’s name and/or logo.Mazur Plan - a method for all retail organizations in which all retail activities into four functional areas: merchandising,publicity, store management, and accounting and control.Media Coverage - the theoretical number of potential customers in a retailer’s market that could be exposed to an ad in amedia vehicle. 16
  17. 17. Memorandum Purchase - items not paid for by retailer until they are sold. The retailer can return unsold merchandise;however, the retailer takes title on delivery and is responsible for damages. See Consignment Purchase.Merchandise Budget Plan - plan used by buyers to determine how much money they should spend in each month on aparticular merchandise category, given the sales forecast, inventory turnover, and profit goals.Merchandise Category - See Category.Merchandise Classification - See Classification.Merchandise Management - the analysis, planning, acquisition, promotion, and control of merchandise sold by a retailer.Merchandise Shows - See Trade Shows.Merchandising - See Merchandise Management.Merchandising Variety - See Variety.Mergers - financial strategy in which one larger firm acquires a smaller firm. This term is used interchangeably withacquisition (see also, leveraged buyout).Mission Statement - a broad description on the scope of activities a retailer plans to undertake in the future.Mixed-use Developments (MXDs) - shopping centers that have office towers, hotels, residential complexes, civic centers,and convention complexes on top of or attached to the shopping areas.Model Stock List - an assortment of fashion merchandise indicating in very general terms (product lines, colors, and sizedistributions) what should be carried in a particular merchandise category. Also known as Model Stock Plan.Moderate -Priced Products index (MPP)- an index indicating the percentage of U.S. retail sales in an area for moderatepriced products.Monthly Additions to Stock - the amount to be ordered for delivery in each month, given turnover and sales objectives.Morals of Society - See Code of Ethics.Motivation - the drive within people to expend effort to achieve goals.Multiattribute Attitude Model - a description of how customers evaluate alternatives based on the notion that customerssee a store or a product as a collection of attributes or characteristics.Multiple-Price Policy - discounts given to customers for making quantity purchases. Reduced price offered whencustomers purchase several units at the multiple-unit price. Also known as Multiple-Unit.Multiple-Unit Pricing - See Multiple-Price Policy.National Brands - See Manufacturer Brands.Needs - the basic psychological forces that motivate customers to act. 17
  18. 18. Negligence - a product liability suit that occurs if the retailer or a retail employee fails to exercise the care that a prudentperson usually would.Negotiation - an interaction between two or more parties to reach an agreement.Neighborhood Business Districts (NBD) - group of stores directed toward convenience shopping needs of customers in aneighborhood. Typically includes a supermarket and is located on the major street(s) of a residential area.Neighborhood Center - shopping center that includes a supermarket, drug store, home improvement center, or varietystore (smaller stores often include apparel, shoe, camera, and other shopping goods stores).Net Invoice Price - the net value of the invoice or the total minus all other discounts.Net Lease - lease requiring all maintenance expenses such as heat, insurance, and interior repair to be paid by the retailer.Net Profit - a measure of the overall performance of the firm; revenues (sales) minus expenses and losses for the period.Net Sales - total amount of dollars received by a retailer after all funds have been paid to customers for returnedmerchandise.Net Worth - See Owner’s Equity.Never-Out List - key items or best-sellers that are separately listed planned, and controlled. These items account for largesales volume and are stocked in manner so that they are always available. These are “A” items in and ABC analysis.Noncumulative Quality Discounts - discounts offered to retailers as an incentive to purchase more merchandise on asingle order.Nondurables - perishable products that are consumed in one or a few uses.Nonstore Retailing - retailing to ultimate consumers that is not store-based. Nonstore retailing is conducted throughvending machines, direct selling, and direct marketing.Notes Payable - current liabilities representing principal and interest the retailer owes to financial institutions (banks) thatare due and payable in less than a year.Objective-and-task Approach - method for setting a promotion budget that requires the retailer to undertake specific tasksfor accomplishing communication objectives.Observation – a type of market research in which customer behavior is observed and recorded.Odd Price – prices ending in an odd number (such as 57 cents or 63 cents), to a price just under around number (such as$98 instead of $100).Off-price Shopping Centers - centers specializing in off-price retail tenants such as T.J. Maxx or Burlington Coat Factory.Off-price Retailer - retailers offering an inconsistent assortment of brand-name, fashion-oriented soft goods at low prices.Off-the-job Training - training conducted in centralized training classrooms away from the employees work environment. 18
  19. 19. One-price Retailer - stores that offer all merchandise at a single, fixed price.On-the-job Training - a decentralized approach in which training occurs in the work environment where employees are performing their jobs.Open-to-buy - plan that keeps track of how much is spent in each month (and how much is left to spend). Opinion Leaders - persons whose attitudes, opinions, preferences, and actions affect others.Opportunity Cost of Capital - is the rate available on the next best use of the capital invested in the project at hand. It should be no larger than the rate at which a firm borrows funds, since one alternative is to pay back borrowed money. It can be higher, however, depending on the range of other Opportunities available. Typically, this rate rises with the risk of the investment.Optical Character Recognition (OCR-A) - an industry wide classification system for coding information onto merchandise. Enables retailers to record information on each SKU, when it is sold and transmit the information to a computer.Option Credit Account - revolving account that allows partial payments without interest charges if the bill is paid in full when it is due.Option-Term Revolving Credit - offers customers two payment options: (1) pay full amount within a specified number of days and avoid any finance charges, or (2) make a minimum payment and be assessed finance charges on the unpaid balance.Order Form - a legally binding contract when signed by both parties, specifying the terms and conditions under which the transaction is to be conducted.Order Point System - an inventory management system in which the buyer places an order when the quantity available gets down to a specified amount called the order point. The review time is fixed, such as every two weeks, but the order quantity can vary.Organization Chart - graphic displays the reporting relationships within the firm.Organization Structure - A description of how a retailer assigns authority and responsibility for performing retail functions and activities to employees.Organizational Culture - A set of values, trading, and customs that guides employee behavior.Outlet Centers - center specializing in manufacturers outlets.Outshopping - customers shopping in other areas because their needs are not being met locally.Overstored - areas that have too many stores to profitably satisfy demand.Owners Equity - the amount of assets belonging to the owners of the retail firm, after all obligations (liabilities) have been met. Also known as net worth. 19
  20. 20. Perceived Risk - the level of risk that a consumer believes exists regarding the purchase of a specific good or service.Percentage Lease - a lease relating rent to a retailers sales or profits.Percentage of Sales Approach - a method for setting promotion budget based on a fixed percentage of forecasted sales.Percentage Variation Method - an inventory planning method wherein the actual stock on hand during any month varies from average planned monthly stock by only half of the months variation from average estimated monthly sales.Perpetual Book Inventory - See Retail Inventory Method.Personal Selling - an oral presentation with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making sales.Physical Inventory - gathering stock information using an actual physical count and inspection of the merchandise items.Planogram - a map that illustrates exactly where every SKU should be placed in a store.P.M. - See PushMoney.Point-of-Purchase Display - an interior display that provides customers with information and promotes the merchandise.Point-of-Sale Terminals (POS) - cash registers that often have the capability to electronically scan a UPC code with a laser and electronically record a sale. Also known as Computerized Checkout.Polygons - trade areas whose boundaries conform to streets and other physical characteristics rather than being concentric circles.Popping the Merchandise - focusing spotlighting on special feature areas and items.Population Density - the number of persons living within a geographic area.Positioning - the design and implementation of a retail mix to create an image of the retailer in the customers mind relative to its competitors.Post Purchase Behavior - further purchases and/or reevaluation based on a purchase.Poverty of Time - condition when greater affluence results in less, rather than more free time, because the alternatives competing for consumers time rise.Power Shopping Centers - open-air shopping centers with the majority of space pre-leased to several well-known anchor retail tenants with high credit ratings.Predatory Pricing - method for establishing merchandise prices for the purpose of driving competition from the marketplace.Premium - merchandise offered at a lower price, or free, as an additional incentive for a customer to make a purchase.Premium-Priced Products Index (PPP) - an index indicating the percentage of U.S. retail sales in a geographic area for 20
  21. 21. premium priced products.Preprints - advertisements printed at the retailers expense and distributed as a freestanding insert in the newspaper.Press Conference - meeting with the news media that is called by a retailer.Prestige Pricing - pricing based on the assumption that consumers will not buy goods and services at prices that they feel are too low.Price Bundling - the practice of offering two or more products or services for sale at one price. Also know as Multiple- unit Pricing.Price Comparisons - consumers comparing the price of merchandise offered for sale with a higher “regular" price or a manufacturers list price.Price Discrimination - vendors illegally selling the same product to two or more retailers at different prices.Price Elasticity of Demand - a measure of the effect a price change has on consumer demand. Percentage change in demand divided by percentage change in price.Price Fixing - an illegal pricing activity in which several marketing channel members establish a fixed retail selling price for a product line within a market area. See Vertical price Fixing and Horizontal Price Fixing.Price Guarantee - terms of purchase that protects retailers against price declines. In the event a retailer cannot sell merchandise at a given price, the manufacturer pays the retailer the difference between the planned retail and the actual retail selling price.Price Lining - pricing policy in which retailers offer a limited number of predetermined price points within a classification.Pricing Experiment - a retailer actually changes the price in a systematic manner to observe changes in purchases or purchase intentions.Primary Data - market research information collected through surveys, observations and experiments to address a problem confronting a retailer.Primary Trade Zone - the geographical area from which the store or shopping center derives 60 percent to 65 percent of its customers.Private Label Brands - products that are designed, produced, controlled by and carry the name of the store or a name owned by the store. Also known as Store or Dealer Brands.Private Label Store Credit Card System - credit cards with the stores name on it, but the accounts receivable are sold to a financial institution.(PRIZM) Potential Rating Index for Zip Markets - data base combining census data, nationwide consumer surveys and interviews with hundreds of people across the country into a geo-demographic segmentation system.Product Attributes - characteristics of a product that affect customer evaluations. 21
  22. 22. Product Liability - a tort that occurs when an injury results from the use of a product.Product Line - a group of related products.Profit Margin - net profit after taxes divided by net sales.Profitability - a company s ability to generate revenues in excess of the costs incurred in producing those revenues.Promotion - activities undertaken by a retailer to provide consumers information about the retailers ~tore and its retail mix.Promotional Department Store - a departmentalized store concentrating on apparel that sells a substantial portion of its merchandise on weekly promotion.Promotional or Discount-Oriented Centers - a type of specialty shopping center that contains one or more discount stores, plus smaller retail tenants.Proprietary Store Credit Card System - credit cards with the stores name on it, and the credit system is administered by the retailer. Also known as In-house Credit System.Psychological Needs - needs associated with the personal gratification that customers get from shopping or from purchasing and owning a product.Publicity - communications through a significant, unpaid presentation about the retailer (usually a news story) in nonpersonal media.Puffing - a advertising or personal selling practice in which a retailer simply exaggerates the benefits or quality of a product in very broad terms.Purchase Visibility Curve - display technique in which the retailer tilts lower shelves so more merchandise is in direct view.Push Money - an incentive for retail salespeople provided by a vendor to promote or ~ a particular product. Also known at a "Spiff" or P.M.Quantity Discounts - see Noncumulative Quantity Discounts and Cumulative Quantity Discounts.Quick-Response (QR) Delivery Systems - systems designed to reduce the lead time for receiving merchandise, thereby lowering inventory investment, improving customer service levels, and reducing distribution expenses. Also known as just-in-time inventory management system.Quota Bonus - additional salary of commission paid for attaining or exceeding an established sales quota.Quotas - performance goals or objectives established to evaluate employee performance such as sales per hour for salespeople and maintained margin and turnover for buyers.Rainchecks - promises given to customers when merchandise is out of stock to sell customers merchandise at the sale price when the merchandise arrives.Reach - See Advertising Reach. 22
  23. 23. Rebate - money returned to the buyer in the form of cash based on a portion of the purchase price.Receipt of Goods Dating (ROG) - a dating policy in which the cash discount period starts on the day the merchandise is received.Receiving - the process of filling out paperwork to record the receipt of merchandise that arrives at a store or distribution center.Recruitment - activity by a retailer to generate job applicants.Reductions - markdowns, discounts to employees and customers, and inventory shortages that are due to shoplifting, breakage or loss.Refusals to Deal - a legal issue in which both a vendor and a retailer reserve the right to deal or refuse to deal with anyone they choose.Regional Center - shopping center that includes up to three department stores plus shopping or specialty stores rather than convenience stores (Super-regionals are similar but have at least four department stores.).Reillys Law - model used in trade area analysis to define the relative ability of two cities to attract customers from the area between them.Related Diversification - a diversification opportunity strategy in which the retailer operates shares something in common with the market that the retailer is entering.Reorder Point - the stock level at which a new order is placed. Resale Price Maintenance - See Vertical Price Fixing.Resident Buying Office - an agent of or owned and operated by a retailing organization that is located in an important market area (source of supply) and provides valuable information and contacts.Restraint of Trade - any contract that tends to eliminate or stifle competition, create a monopoly, artificially maintain prices, or otherwise hamper or obstruct the course of trade and commerce as it would be carried on if left to the control of natal forces. Also known as "unfair trade practices".Retail Accordi6n Theory - See Accordion Theory. Retail Audit - See Situation Audit.Retail Chain - a firm consisting of multiple retail units under common ownership that usually has some centralization of decision making in defining and implementing its strategy.Retail Distribution (also known as logistics) - the organization process of managing the flow of merchandise from the source of supply - the vendor, wholesaler, or distributor - through the internal processing functions - warehouse and transportation - until the merchandise is sold and delivered to the customer.Retail Format -~ A type of retail mix used by a number or retailers.Retail Format Development Opportunity - a investment opportunity strategy by a retailer offering a new retail format to present customers.Retail Information Systems - system providing the information needed by retail managers by collecting, organizing, and storing relevant data continuously and directing the information to the appropriate managers. 23
  24. 24. Retail Inventory Method - an accounting procedure whose objectives are to maintain a perpetual or book inventory in terms of retail dollar amounts; and to maintain records that make it possible to determine the cost value of the inventory at any time without taking a physical inventory. Also known as Book Inventory System or Perpetual Book Inventory.Retail Market - a group of consumers with similar needs (a segment) and a group of retailers using similar retail mixes (types of merchandise, prices, promotions, and services) to satisfy~ those consumer needs.Retail Market Segment - a group of customers whose needs will be satisfied by the same retail offering because they have similar needs and go through similar buying processes.Retail Mix - the factors used by a retailer to satisfy customer needs and influence their purchase decisions. Includes merchandise and service offered, pricing, advertising and promotions, store design and location, and visual merchandising.Retail Strategy - a statement indicating (1) the target market toward which a retailer plans to commit its resources, (2) the nature of the retail offering that the retailer plans to use to satisfy the needs for the target market, and (3) the bases upon which the retailer will attempt to build a sustainable competitive advantage over competitors.Retailer - a business that sell products and services to ultimate consumers.Retailing - the set of business activities involved in selling products and services to the ultimate (final) consumer.Retailing Concept - a management orientation that holds that the key task of a retailer is to determine the needs and wants of its target markets and to direct the firm toward satisfying those needs and wants more effectively and efficiently than competitors.Retained Earnings - the portion of owners equity that has accumulated over time through profits, but has not been paid out in dividends to owners.Returns - goods sold which are brought back for credit.Return of Assets - net profit after taxes divided by total assets.Return on Owners Equity - net profit after taxes divided by owners equity. Also known as Return on Owners Equity.Review Time - the period of time between reviews of the line for buying purchase decisions.Ribbon Centers - See Strip Centers.Robinson-Patman Act (1946) - congressional act revising section 2 of the Clayton Act and specifically prohibits price discrimination.Role Clarity - the degree to which employees know what their duties and responsibilities are.Role Conflict - the degree to which employees receive mixed messages about the scope of their activities.Routine Decision Making - See Habitual Decision Making. SKU - See Stockkeeping Unit.Safety Stock Merchandise - Inventory used as a safety cushion for cycle stock so the retailer wont run out of stock if demand exceeds the sales forecast. 24
  25. 25. Sale-Leaseback - the practice of retailers building new stores and selling them to real-estate investors who then lease the buildings back to the retailers on a long-term basis.Sales Productivity - the efficiency of salespeople, typically measured by sales per hour.Sales Promotions - paid, nonpersonal communication activities that offer extra value and incentives to customers to visit a store and/or purchase merchandise during a specific period of time.Sales Quota - projected volume of sales assigned to a selling unit or sales associate for use in mgmt of sales efforts; applies to a specific time period & may be expressed in dollars or in physical units.Satisfaction - a postconsumption evaluation of the degree to which a store or product meets or exceeds customer expectations.Scale Economies - cost advantages due to the size of a retailer.Scrambled Merchandising - a retailer offering unrelated merchandise categories.Seasonal Discount - an additional discount offered as an incentive to retailers to place orders for merchandise in advance of the normal buying season.Secondary Data - market research information gathered for purposes other than solving the current problem under investigation.Secondary Trade Zone - the geographic area of secondary importance in terms of customer sales, generating about 20 percent of a stores sales.Self-Service - retailers offering minimal customer service.Selling Space - area set aside for displays of merchandise, interactions between sales personnel and customers, demonstration, and so on.Sell-Through Analysis - a comparison between actual and planned sales to determine whether early markdowns are required or whether more merchandise is needed to satisfy demand.Service Level - used in inventory management to define the level of support or level of product availability. The number of items sold divided by the number of items demanded. Should not be confused with customer service (see customer service).Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) - act protecting small businesses and consumers from large corporations by outlawing any person, corporation, or association from engaging in activities that have the effect of restraining trade or commerce.Shoplifting - the act of stealing merchandise from a store by customers or people posing as customers.Shopping Goods Products - Products for which consumer will spend time comparing alternatives.Shortage - See Shrinkage.Shrinkage - difference between the recorded value of inventory (at retail) based on merchandise bought and the retail value of actual inventory in stores and distribution centers divided by retail sales during a time period. 25
  26. 26. Shrinkage is caused by shoplifting by employee and/or customers, and merchandise being misplaced or damaged.Situation Audit - analysis containing three elements (1) the assessment of the attractiveness of different retail markets in which the business is competing or might compete, (2) the assessment of the objectives and capabilities of competitors, and (3) the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the business relative to its competition.Slotting Allowances - fees paid by a vendor for space in a retail store.Socialization - the steps taken to transform new employees into effective and committed members of the firm.Sole Proprietorship - an unincorporated retail firm owned by one person.Span of Control - the number of subordinates reporting to a manager.Specialty Center - see promotional or discount anchored centers and fashion-oriented center.Specialty Department Stores - stores with a department store format that focus primarily on apparel and soft home (such as Neiman Marcus and Parisian).Specialty Products - those products for which the customer will spend considerable effort to buy.Specialization - employees are assigned a limited set of tasks to perform.Spiff - See Push Money.Spotting Techniques - See Analog Approach.Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) - geographic area consisting of a central city with a population exceeding 50,000.Standard Selling Cost - a figure which stores establish as an average selling cost for use in budgeting, planning and evaluating sales associates and/or selling units, usually between 5% and 7 ~.Staple Merchandise - inventory that has continuous demand by customers (also known as basic merchandise).Stock Balance - tradeoffs associated with determining variety, assortment, and service levels.Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) - the smallest unit available for keeping inventory control. In soft goods merchandise, an SKU usually means size, color, style.Stock Overage - the amount by which a retail book inventory figure exceeds a physical ending inventory.Stock-to-Sales Ratio - beginning of month inventory divided by sales for the month. The average stock-to-sales ratios is 12 divided by planned inventory turnover. This ratio is an integral component of the merchandise budget plan.Store Brands - See Private Label Brands.Store Image - the way in which a store is defined in a shoppers mind. It is based on the stores physical characteristics, retailing mix, and a set of psychological attributes.Store Loyalty - a condition in which a customer regularly patronizes a specific retailer. 26
  27. 27. Store Visibility - See Visibility.Straight Salary Compensation - compensation plan in which salespeople or managers receive a fixed amount of compensation for each hour or week they work.Strategic Profit Model - involves the planning of retailers financial strategy based on both margin management (net profit margin), asset management (asset turnover), and financial leverage management (financial leverage ratio). Using the strategic profit model, a retailers objective is to achieve a target return on owners equityStrategic Retail Plan - a grand design or blueprint indicating the retail strategy and the steps for implementing the plan.Strict Product Liability - a product liability suit in which the injury may not have been intentional or under the retailers control.Strip Centers - smaller shopping centers that ~comprise several adjacent stores located along a major street or highway. Also known as Ribbon Centers.Style - the characteristic or distinctive form, outline, or shape of a product.Subjective Employee Evaluation - assessment of employee performance based on supervisors ratings, rather then objective measures such as sales per hour.Substitute Awareness Effect - a condition in which customers become more price sensitive because there are a lot of substitutes for a product or for a retailer.Suggested Tenant Mix (MIX) - a term used in trade area analysis to define percentage of space which should be devoted to each retailer type in the shopping center.Supermarket - See Conventional Supermarket.Superstores - large supermarkets between 20,000 and 50,000 square feet in size.Survey - a market research technique for systematically collecting information.Sustainable Competitive Advantage - a distinct competency of a retailer relative to its competitors that can be maintained over a considerable time period.Sweepstakes - promotions in which customers win prizes based on chance.Target Market - the customer group to which a retailer targets its retail mix.Terms of Purchase - conditions in a purchase agreement with a vendor that includes the type(s) of discounts available and responsibility for transportation costs.Terms of Sales - conditions in a sales contract with customers including such issues as charges for alterations, delivery, or gift wrapping, or the stores exchange policies.Tertiary Trade Zone - the outermost ring of a trade area, includes customers who occasionally shop at the store or shopping center. Also known as fringe trade area. 27
  28. 28. Theme Center - shopping centers that try to replicate a historical place. Typically contain tenants similar to specialty centers, except there usually is no large specialty store or department store as anchor (see historical center and specialty center).Ticketing and Marking - procedures for making price labels and placing them on the merchandise.Tie-Ins - an approach to attract attention to a stores offering by associating the offering with an event.Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act - it is unlawful for a retailer to discriminate on the basis of race, religion, sex, age or national origin.Tonnage Merchandising - display technique in which a large quantity of merchandise is displayed ~together.Tort - law suit occurring when one person or firm disturbs another person or firms legally created rights.Tort of Disparagement of Goods - unlawful publication of a false statement about the character or quality of a competing retailers product.Tort of False Imprisonment - unlawful restraint of an individuals liberty or freedom of movement.Tort of Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress - occurs when a retailer creates an unreasonable distress on a competitor or a customer.Tort of Interference with Business Relations or a Contract - involves cases where a third party interferes or disrupts a relationship or a contract between two parties.Total Expenditure Effect - a condition in which customer price sensitivity increases when the total expenditure is large.Trade Area - geographic sector containing potential customers for a particular retailer or shopping center.Trade Discounts - reductions in a retailers suggested retail price granted to wholesalers or retailers. Also known as functional discounts.Trade Shows - a temporary concentration 6f vendors that provide retailers opportunities to place orders and view what is available in the marketplace. Also known as Merchandise Shows.Traditional Specialty Store - retailer selling a limited number of complementary merchandise categories, and providing a high level of service in under 8,000 square feet in size.Trademark - any mark, work, picture, or design that is associated with merchandise.Transaction - purchase exchange between the customer & retailer.Transportation Cost - the expense a retailer incurs if they pay the cost of shipping merchandise from the vendor to the stores.Triple Coupon Promotion - a retail promotion that allows the customer triple the face value of the coupon.Tying Contracts - vendor and a retailer entering into an agreement requiring the retailer to take a product it does not necessarily desire (the "tied product") to ensure it can buy a product it does desire (the "tying product").Ultimate Consumers - individuals who purchase goods and services for their own personal use or for use by members of 28
  29. 29. their household.Undercover Shoppers - people hired by or working for a retailer who pose as customers to observe the activities and performance of employees.Unit Price - practice of expressing price both in terms of the total price of an item and the price per unit of measure.Unity of Command - describes the appropriate relationship between managers and their subordinates.UPC (Universal Product Code) - black and white bar-codes found on almost all grocery and discount store products and on an increasingly large number of department and specialty store merchandise.Unrelated Diversification - Diversification in which there is no commonality between the present and the new business.Utility - the consumers perception of the benefits of the product and services offered by the retailer.Value Pricing - setting prices based on fair value for both the service provider and the consumer.Variable Expenses - expenses that vary with the volume of sales.Variety - the number of different merchandise categories within a store or department.Vending Machine Retailers - a form of nonstore retailing in which customers purchase and receive merchandise from a machine.Vendor - any firm from which a retailer obtains merchandise.Vertical Integration - a firm that performs more than one function in the channel.Vertical Merchandising - method of organizing merchandise whereby merchandise is organized to follow the eyes natural movement to move up and down.Vertical Price Fixing - involves agreements to fix prices between parties at different levels of the same marketing channel, e.g., retailers and their vendors. Also known as Resale Price Maintenance or Fair Trade Laws.Videotex Retailing - an interactive electronic system in which a retailer transmits data and graphics over cable or telephone lines to a consumers TV or terminal.Visibility - the ability to see the store and enter the parking lot safely.Visual Communications - providing information to customers involving graphics, signage, and theatrical effects both in the store and in windows to help boost sales by providing information on products, suggesting items or special purchasesWant Book - information collected by retail salespeople to record out-of-stock or requested merchandise. Similar to a Want Slip.Warehouse Store - discount food retailers that offer merchandise in a no-frills environment.Weeks Supply Method - an inventory management method that is most similar to the stock-to-sales method. The difference is that everything is expressed in weeks rather than months 29
  30. 30. Wheel of Retailing - a cyclical theory of retail evolution whose premise is that retailing institutions trade from low price/service to higher price/service operations.Wholesale Club - a general merchandise retailer that offers a limited merchandise assortment with little service at low prices and sells to ultimate consumers and member trade people.Zoning - the regulation of the construction and use of buildings in certain areas of a municipality. 30