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Microbial diversity & redundancy

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Microbial diversity & redundancy

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Microbial diversity & redundancy

  1. 1. Microbial Diversity & Redundancy Submitted by: Nazmul Ahmed Oli Reg: 12-05-2835 Level: 2 Course code:FIT-201
  2. 2. Microbiology The study of microscopic organisms. Branches  Pure microbiology • Bacteriology • Mycology • Phycology • Protozoology • Parasitology • Immunology • Virology Fig: Microbial world
  3. 3. Applied Branches Medical microbiology Pharmaceutical microbiology Industrial microbiology Microbial biotechnology Food microbiology Agricultural microbiology
  4. 4. Microbial Diversity Microbial diversity includes microorganism’s distribution in nature, their relationship with each other and other living organisms, their effects on human beings and other animals and plants. They are closely associated with the health and welfare of human beings.
  5. 5. The study of bacteria & the subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species. Important genera & species in Bacteriology: • Pseudomonaceae: Pseudomonas flurescens • Halobacteriaceae: Halobacterium salinarium • Escherichia : Escherichia coli • Lactobacillaceae: Lactobacillus lactis • Streptococcaceae : Streptococcus lactis • Clostridium: Clostridium botulinum Pseudomonas flurescens Bacteriology
  6. 6. Habitat of Bacteria • Bacteria widely distributed in soil and water, or with other biological symbiosis. • Human body also has a considerable number of bacteria. • It is estimated that the human body and the skin on the total number of bacterial cells is about ten times the total number of human cells. • There are also some species found in extreme environments, such as hot springs, they are classified as extremophiles, which is one of the most famous types of habitat . Bacterial Mat The yellow stuff is bacteria
  7. 7. Viruses Effect Papillomavirus Genital infections and cervical cancer Adenovirus Respiratory and gastrointestinal disease Reovirus Respiratory and gastrointestinal disease Calicivirus Gastrointestinal disease Enterovirus Gastrointestinal disease, poliomyelitis Rhinovirus Common cold Hepatitis B virus Liver infection Smallpox virus Smallpox Some common virus & their effect  Habitat of Viruses Viruses are not able to survive with out a host cell, and thus active viruses reside inside a host body. They effect on host vary as well. They can lower host immunity
  8. 8. Fungus • A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. • These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi. Habitat & Distribution • Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including extreme environments such as deserts or areas with high salt concentrations or ionizing radiation, as well as in deep sea sediments. • Most grow in terrestrial environments, though several species live partly or solely in aquatic habitats. • Around 100,000 species of fungi have been formally described by taxonomists. • The fungal kingdom has been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species.
  9. 9. Molds The term mold is applied to a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species where their growth results in a moldy appearance of objects, especially food. A clementine covered with mold Mold in Petridis
  10. 10. Yeast: • Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms, classified in the Kingdom fungi. • Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular • Use organic compounds as a source of energy • Do not require sunlight to grow • Carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose. • Grow best in a neutral or slightly acidic pH environment. • Some species can metabolize pentose sugars like ribose, alcohols, and organic acids NUTRITION AND GROWTH Fig: Yeast
  11. 11.  In bakery industries.  Producing Alcoholic beverages like mead, Beer , Wine etc.  In food spoilage.  Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in baking as a leavening agent  Brewer's yeast is also very rich in essential minerals and the B vitamins(except B12) Usages:

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