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Slides ch08ol

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Greece, Turkey and Cyprus Nathalie Tocci
  2. 2. Greece, Turkey and Cyprus <ul><li>From Ottoman Empire to Independence and Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey’s Rocky Road to Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Politics and Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy in the Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Greece, Turkey and Cyprus born out of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Rough paths to democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between the three, and with EU, are crucial to their external affairs </li></ul>
  4. 4. From Ottoman Empire to Independence and Conflict <ul><li>Greece establishes independence 1829 </li></ul><ul><li>Greek military campaign 1920-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey emerged in 1923 out of the Greek-Turkish War </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus divides between Greece and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>1944-9 – Greek Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>1960 – Cyprus becomes independent bi-communal Republic (collapses 1963) </li></ul><ul><li>1967-74 – Greek dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>1974 – Greek junta targets Cyprus, prompting own downfall </li></ul><ul><li>1975 – Hellenic Republic created </li></ul>
  5. 5. Turkey’s Rocky Road to Democracy <ul><li>Turkey created 1923 by Atat ürk </li></ul><ul><li>Kemalist vision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>western, stable, homogenous nation-state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend of westernization, secularism, nationalism, statism, populism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges to Turkish state: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurdish separatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Islam </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Domestic Politics and Institutions: post-1974 Greece <ul><li>Parliamentary democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Party system centred around New Democracy and PASOK </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of strong state, clientelism and weak civil society </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms since late 1980s have created stable 2-party system, civil society and sub-state level government </li></ul>
  7. 7. Domestic Politics and Institutions: Republic of Turkey <ul><li>One-party system (Republican People’s Party (CHP)) until 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat Party (DP) legalised in 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Both Kemalist moderate parties </li></ul><ul><li>Turbulent development of party system, due to periodic military rule and outlawing of parties </li></ul><ul><li>Post-1961: Justice Party (ex-DP) vs. CHP </li></ul><ul><li>Post-1983: dominance of Motherland Party (neo-liberal) emerges </li></ul><ul><li>2002: AKP (Justice and Development Party) (moderate Islam) vs. CHP </li></ul>
  8. 8. Domestic Politics and Institutions: Greek Cyprus <ul><li>Presidential executive </li></ul><ul><li>All parties committed to reunification, repatriation and Turkish withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Divide between Greek Cypriot nationalists and Cypriot nationalists </li></ul>
  9. 9. Domestic Politics and Institutions: Turkish Cyprus <ul><li>Semi-presidential executive </li></ul><ul><li>Political unity around call for political equality with Greek Cypriots, autonomy for Turkish Cypriots, continued role for Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Divide between nationalists and centre-left/liberals </li></ul>
  10. 10. Foreign Policy in the Eastern Mediterranean <ul><li>Since 1975 Greek foreign policy has changed dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey has close, but problematic, ties with West and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>North-South conflict is key factor in Cypriot foreign policy in both communities </li></ul>