HISTORY OF SCIENCEAND TECHNOLOGY IN MUSLIM WORLD GROUP: AL-JAZARI
Allah SWT commandment: Maksudnya:Demi sesungguhnya kisah Anbiya` itu mengandungi pengajaran yang mendatangkan iktibar bagi orang2 yang mempunyai akal fikiran.Surah Yusuf ayat 111. Historiography Islam accepts Haramisah ( Hermes or Philosophy teacher and Science ) that recognised in West science history as Corpus Hermeticum.
Anbiya` Skill in Science and TechnologyAll Anbiya‘ a.s. such as Adam a.s.(control philology, agriculture and iron engineering ),Idris a.s. (is origin to six from Adam a.s. dabin astronomyfield, medical, mathematics and constructionengineering ) , Nuh a.s. ( is prophet that tofour after Adam a.s. in ship building engineering ),Nabi Ibrahim a.s. (deepen astronomy ) and Nabi Dauda.s. (iron engineering and war strategist ) notonly skilful in spiritual knowledge and theology butthey also have particular skill which becameprophetic miracle to conserve their prophetic preaching.
Rasulullah in Science and Technology SkillNabi Muhamad SAW 610 – 632 MThis era very important in sparked context knowledgeculture Islamic that projected through Iqra idea‘sthat blew by al-Quran and al-Sunnah.Profesor S.H. Nasr states that spiritual seed plantedby Nabi Muhamad SAW since first century Islamic hadborn external effect in the area ofscience and technology in century 4th and 5th.(S.H.Nasr ,1992 ,Pengenalan DoktrinKosmologi Islam).
Science and Technology inMuslim Government Khulafa’ al-Rasyidin 632 – 661 M:Two important effort in science context and technology Islamic in this era first, province expansion Islamic which covered part of Romawi province such as Iskandariah and Persian that own science centres. Second, Persian tradition absorption and Greek in administrative fields and war especially in Khalifah Umar al- Khattab time.
Bani Umayyah 661 – 750 M : 90 year of reign Bani Umayyah has the beginning of foreign science works translation level especially in practical area of science such as medical, chemistry and astronomy especially in time al-Walid bin Abdul Malik ( 705 – 715 M ). Province expansion Islamic also synthesise Islamic science with science Greek, Persian, India, Chinese, Babylon and E gypt. Abbasiyah 750 – 1258 M: Abbasiyah time be identified by science history scholars as Golden Age of Islamic Intelectual due to excellent achievement in period in various scientific innovation and technology. Abbasiyah era main criteria able to describe like following :
◦ Science policy excellence or the caliphs political patronage especially al-Mamun (813-833 M) on intellectuals and their intellectual activity.◦ Failasuf emergence scientist such as Jabir bin Hayyan, Muhammad bin Musa al- Khawarazmi, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Haytham, al-Biruni and al-Ghazzali which represents Neo- Muslim Abbasiyah society intelligential that famous. They produce various knowledge disciplines and science methodology which encompasses chemical, mathematics, medical, astronomy, geography, physics, biological , optic, botany, zoology and etc
◦ Abbasiyah era also strengthened institutionalization Islamic tradition skills that based on al-Quran and al- Sunnah. In this era emerge fiqh trend predominantly Muslim such as Malikiyyah, Syafiiyyah, Hanabilah, Hanafiyah and so on. Likewise emergence of thinking trends Islamic in fields Islamic mysticism, teaching of Islam, philosophy, science and various field of Islamic thought others.◦ Sparked knowledge institutionalization which covered revelation skills and rational have walked with more splendid more with Bayt al- Hikmah emergence as central foreign knowledge works translation into Arabic which became sign to intellectual rise Islamic that no comparison.
Islamic Science and Technology Contribution in World Civilization Mathematics : ◦ Areas of mathematics Islamic expand as result from mathematician activity Islamic synthesise methodology mathematics India, Greek, Eg ypt and Mesopotamia. Among discovery Islamic mathematics was number system, arismatik decimal system, algebra, trigonometry and major geometry. Major figures field this are Muhammad bin Musa al-Khawarazmi ( 780-863 M ), Al-Kindi ( 801-873 M ), Al-Biruni ( 973 – 1051 m ), Thabit bin Qurrah ( 826 – 901 M ), al-Battani ( m.d. 929 M ),Abu Kamil Syuja bin Aslam ( 850 – 930 M ),Abual-Wafa al-Buzjani ( 940 – 997 M ),Abu Bakar al- Karkhi ( m.d. 1024 M ),Abual-Fath Umar al-Khayyam ( 1048 M – 1121 M ), Abu Jafar Al-Khazini ( m.d. 960 M ), Jamsyid Al-Kashi ( m.d. 1424 M ), Abu al-Hasan al-Qalsadi ( 1412 – 1487 M ) and Baha` al-Din al- Amili ( 1547 – 1622 M ). Most excellentfigure in Islamic mathematics was Al Khawarizmi considered Algebra father. His major work was Kitab al-Jabr wa al-muqabalah.
Astronomi : ◦ It is star study science which involves position, movement and arrangement and interpretation related to star. Islamic astronomer continued astronomical tradition Ptolemy and Persia n tradition and India. First generation astronomers Islam appeared in the middle of the century to 8 Masihi in Baghdad. Earliest record on astronomical observation in Muslim world dated 184 H when Ahmad al-Nahawandi observe movement of sun in Persian ( Nasr ,1976; 112 ).
◦ Islamic astronomy figures was Muhammad al- Fazari m.d. 777 M, al-Khawarazmi, al-Faraghani, al-Batani, Abu Sahl al-Kuhi, Abdul Rahman al- Sufi, Ibn Yunus, Ulugh Beg, Abu Said al- Sijzi, Abu al-Wafa al-Buzjani, Abual-Qasim al- Majriti, al-Zarqali, al-Biruni, Umar Khayyam, Nasiruddin al-Tusi, Ibn al-Shatir, Qutbuddin al- Shirazi, Muhyuddin al-Maghribi and al- Kashani. Astronomy science stress empirical method with observeconstruction stations astron omy since al-Mamun time until to Nasiruddin al- Tusi time in Monggol time century to 13 M.
Medical : ◦ Islamic Medical Science is al-tib al- Nabawi synthesis result or medical Tradition Nabi Muhammad SAW with medical from foreign knowledge culture Greek, Persian, Egypt, Babylon, Chinese and ear liest India. Figures medical are made up Arab Nestorian group that Christian such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Yahya al-Masawayh and Jurjis bin Bakhtishu. After Hunayn generation emerging figures Islamic medical such as Zakaria al-Razi ( 865 – 925 M ). Al Razi learn medicines from Hunayn bin Ishaq in Baghdad. Al-Razi as a doctor that have analysis force that is sharp on symptoms and effects of disease, method of approach and there covert. He places medical ethics in high spot and against any fraud element and deviation in medical practice. He had produced 200 fruit work medical.
Engineering : ◦ Works that still existed to be analysed by latter generation still has among them : i . Works Banu Musa in century to 9 M such as al- Hiyal book ( Kitab Pengetahuan Peranti Mekanik ) that explained on carrier wheel machinewater and machine to grin d corn and cereal others. Ii. al-Muqaddasi ( m.d. 390 H = 1000 M ) explain about water wheelmachine along Sungai Ahwaz, Iran. Iii. al-Idrisi in Toledo, Spanish write a article in year 584 H = 1154 M on water wheel mechanical engineering used to transport water from Sungai Tagus to be supplied to Kota Toledo.
iv. Taqiyuddin, engineer Islamic century to 12M had inscribed and produce watercarrier machine recognised as syaduf, saqiya andnaura. The machines moved with animalenergy and water power or hairdo.v. al-Jazari in century to 13 M hadproduced thaw ejector machine that canchange the fountain jet automatically.vi. al-Himyari an engineer Islamic fromSpain write book engineering entitled Kitab al-Rawdal-Mitar in year 661 H = the 1262 M. Thebook explainedon windmill used as sugar roller machine and flour.vii. Hour creation was performed by anumber of engineer Islamic such as Ibn Haytham (m.d. 1039 M ),al-Zarqali in Spain, al-Khazini andMuhammad al-Saati.
ConclusionIslamic scholars has gave contribution that nocomparison to civilizationand scientificprogress and world technology. This fact soglowing withavailability more than workmanuscript quarter of amillion scientistIslamic that discoveredin largest libraries in the world. Manuscripts still kept inMuslim countries and Europe, although mostly hasbeen devastated by Tartar military in year 1258 Mor ruined by the militarySpanish Christian in year 1492M following Granada forts collapse in Spain.