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Manufacturing Industries



                By Nazal Noushad
                       X-B
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale
using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological
processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range
of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is
most commonly applied to industrial production, in
which raw materials are transformed into finished
goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used
for manufacturing other, more complex products, such
as air craft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold
to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who
then sell them to end users – the "consumers".
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING
 Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising
  agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they
  also reduce the heavy dependence of people on
  agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary
  sectors.

 Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of
 unemployment and poverty from our country.

 Export of manufactured goods expands trade and
 commerce , and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

 Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide
  variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.
INDUSTRIAL LOCATION
Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are
influenced by availability of raw material,
labour, capital, power and market, etc. It is rarely
possible to find all these factors available at one
place. Consequently, manufacturing activity tends
to locate at the most appropriate place where all the
factors of industrial location are either available or can be
arranged at lower cost. After an industrial activity starts,
urbanisation follows. Sometimes, industries are located in
or near the cities.
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Classification on the basis of source of raw
materials used:-
Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile,
  rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
Mineral based: iron and steel, cement,
  aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Classification according to their main role:-
Basic or key industries which supply their
  products or raw materials to manufacture
  other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper
  smelting, aluminium smelting.
Consumer industries that produce goods for
  direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste,
  paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Classification on the basis of capital
  investment:-
Small scale Industry
Large scale Industry
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
On the basis of ownership:-
Public sector
Private sector
Cooperative sector
Joint sector
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
Based on the bulk and weight of raw material
  and finished goods:-
 Heavy industries such as iron and steel
 Light industries that use light raw materials
  and produce light goods such as electrical
  industries.
AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES
 Textile Industry: The textile industry occupies unique position in the
  Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial
  production (14 per cent), employment generation (35 million
  persons directly – the second largest after agriculture) and foreign
  exchange earnings (about 24.6 per cent).
 Jute Textiles: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute
  goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.
  There are about 70 jute mills in India. Most of these are located in
  West Bengal. The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at
  Rishra.
 Sugar Industry: India stands second as a world producer of sugar
  but occupies the first place in the production of gaur and khan sari.
  The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its
  sucrose content reduces. There are over 460 sugar mills in the
  country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra,
MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES
 Iron and Steel Industry: The iron and steel
  Industry is the basic industry since all the other
  industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on
  it for their machinery. Steel is needed to
  manufacture a variety of engineering goods,
  construction material, defence, medical,
  telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of
  consumer goods.
EVOLUTION OF ALUMINIUM
             SMELTING
  In 2004, India produced over 600 million tons of
  aluminium. Bauxite, the raw material used in the
  smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured
  rock.
 Aluminium Smelting: Aluminium smelting is the
  second most important metallurgical industry in
  India. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good
  conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong
  when it is mixed with other metals.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES OF INDIA
The Chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying. It
contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. It is the third largest
in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in term of its size. It
comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.
 Fertiliser Industry: The fertiliser industry is centred around the
   production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphatic
   fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilisers
   which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and
   potash (K)
 Cement Industry: Cement is essential for construction activity such
   as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for
   other commercial establishments. This industry requires bulky and
   heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal
   and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.
AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF INDIA
Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transport
of good services and passengers. Trucks, buses,
cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and
multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India
at various centres.
 Information Technology and Electronics Industry
   The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from
   transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers,
   telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other
   equipments required by the telecommunication industry. Bangalore
   has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important
   centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune,
   Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND
     ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
   Although industries contribute significantly to India’s economic
growth and development, the increase in pollution of land, water, air,
noise and resulting degradation of environment that they have caused,
cannot be overlooked. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:-

 Air: Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of
 undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
 Water: Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial
  wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.
 Land: Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon
  production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil
  and water pollution are closely related.
 Noise: Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also
  cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure
  among other physiological effects.
CONTROL OVER ENVIRONMENTAL
          DEGRADATION
 Every litre of waste water discharged by our industry pollutes eight
  times the quantity of freshwater. Some suggestions are-
 Minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in
  two or more successive stages
 Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
 Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and
  ponds.

 Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases
 Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening,
  grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
 Secondary treatment by biological process
 Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
  This involves recycling of wastewater.
END
PRESENTED
         BY
          NAZAL NOUSHAD
                 X-B

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Manufacturing industries

  • 1. Manufacturing Industries By Nazal Noushad X-B
  • 2. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as air craft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".
  • 3. IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING  Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.  Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.  Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce , and brings in much needed foreign exchange.  Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous.
  • 4. INDUSTRIAL LOCATION Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc. It is rarely possible to find all these factors available at one place. Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. After an industrial activity starts, urbanisation follows. Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities.
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES Classification on the basis of source of raw materials used:- Agro based: cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil. Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES Classification according to their main role:- Basic or key industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting. Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES Classification on the basis of capital investment:- Small scale Industry Large scale Industry
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES On the basis of ownership:- Public sector Private sector Cooperative sector Joint sector
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:-  Heavy industries such as iron and steel  Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.
  • 10. AGRO BASED INDUSTRIES  Textile Industry: The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy, because it contributes significantly to industrial production (14 per cent), employment generation (35 million persons directly – the second largest after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 per cent).  Jute Textiles: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. There are about 70 jute mills in India. Most of these are located in West Bengal. The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra.  Sugar Industry: India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gaur and khan sari. The raw material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its sucrose content reduces. There are over 460 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra,
  • 11. MINERAL BASED INDUSTRIES  Iron and Steel Industry: The iron and steel Industry is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
  • 12. EVOLUTION OF ALUMINIUM SMELTING In 2004, India produced over 600 million tons of aluminium. Bauxite, the raw material used in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock.  Aluminium Smelting: Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
  • 13. CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES OF INDIA The Chemical industry in India is fast growing and diversifying. It contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. It is the third largest in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in term of its size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.  Fertiliser Industry: The fertiliser industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilisers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K)  Cement Industry: Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.
  • 14. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF INDIA Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transport of good services and passengers. Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres.  Information Technology and Electronics Industry The electronics industry covers a wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipments required by the telecommunication industry. Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
  • 15. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION Although industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development, the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise and resulting degradation of environment that they have caused, cannot be overlooked. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:-  Air: Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.  Water: Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.  Land: Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil and water pollution are closely related.  Noise: Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects.
  • 16. CONTROL OVER ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION  Every litre of waste water discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of freshwater. Some suggestions are-  Minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages  Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements  Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.  Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases  Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.  Secondary treatment by biological process  Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.
  • 17. END PRESENTED BY NAZAL NOUSHAD X-B