Chapter 9 - Singapore Gain Independence


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  • Supersededto replace in power, authority, effectiveness, acceptance, use, etc., as by another person or thing. Federation  uniting of a league
  • Chapter 9 - Singapore Gain Independence

    1. 1. CHAPTER NINE<br />Howdid Singaporegainindependence?<br />Ang Leck Mien [2]<br />Caitlin De Boer [5]<br />Jessica Swain [17]<br />Nayli Irdina Bte Imran [27]<br />Nur Arafah Banu [28]<br />
    2. 2. Learning Objectives<br />Understand the reasons for Singapore`s merger with Malaya<br />Comprehend reasons for separation<br /> Know the challenges faced<br />
    3. 3. General : What has happened so far?<br />1945 – SG was still a British Colony<br /> 1948 – SG`s first baby step [Not a British colony anymore]<br />1955 – SG is a child<br />1959 – SG is in its teenage years<br />Now, SG wants independence [To break free from the British] <br />
    4. 4. Solution???<br />MERGER!!!<br />
    5. 5. Merger with Malaya<br />Singapore’s merger with Malaya was closely associated to the idea of Federation of Malaya.<br /> The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January until 16 September 1963.<br />It was eventually superseded by Malaysia, which comprised of the nine Malay states [Perlis, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johore, Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan] and the British settlements of Penang and Malacca.<br />
    6. 6. Why did Singapore want to merge with Malaya ?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    7. 7. Gain Full Independence<br />Singapore’s government wanted to gain FULL independence from the British.<br />British did not want to grant Singapore full independence because they fear that Singapore will fall to the Communists.<br />Singapore’s way to freedom was through a merger with Malaya [neighboring country].<br />
    8. 8. Free from Communists<br />Singapore was facing a communist threat at that time<br />PAP believed that if Singapore were to merge with Malaya, Malaya could suppress the communists.<br />Malaya is a strong anti-communist country.<br />
    9. 9. Fulfill promise made during the 1959 elections [PAP]<br />PAP had promised the locals that SG would gain independence.<br />If SG doesn’t merge with Malaya, this means that SG would not be able to fulfill their promise they made during the 1959 elections [gain full independence]<br />Locals would then not trust PAP anymore.<br />
    10. 10. Why did Singapore want to merge with Malaya?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    11. 11. Economic Problems Faced<br />Singapore lacked natural resources<br />Slow economic growth [Declining Entrepot Trade]<br />Increasing unemployment<br />Declining trade due to tariffs<br /> introduced by Malaya on goods<br /> traded between the two countries.<br />
    12. 12. Lack of Natural Resources<br />If SG merges with Malaya, Malaya could share its natural resources and raw materials.<br />Malaya had many natural resources and other raw materials such as clean water, etc.<br />SG could then tap on these resources if both countries merge.<br />
    13. 13. Increase in Unemployment<br />There were more people than jobs in Singapore.<br />If SG merges with Malaya, more jobs would be created.<br />Also, Singaporeans can look for jobs in Malaya too.<br />Thus, the unemployment rate in SG would then decrease. <br />
    14. 14. Common Market<br />A common market will be set up.<br />Agreement between countries allowing goods produced in one country to enter another country without having to pay taxes.<br />Goods can be bought and sold freely<br />Lead to an increase in trade, expansion of industries and create more jobs for Singaporeans.<br />Overall, merger increase trade and<br /> industries, job opportunities and<br /> economic growth for Singapore.<br />*** Merger -> SG + Malaya = Solves<br />Singapore`s declining entrepot trade and<br /> high unemployment.<br />
    15. 15. Did Malaya Want Singapore?<br />Initially, before 1961, Malaya did NOT want Singapore.<br />The question now is WHY ? ? ! ! !<br />
    16. 16. Quote Taken from Malaya’s then Prime Minister<br />“Firstly, Singapore has about ONE MILLION CHINESE. The inclusion of this one million into the Federation will upset the racial balance of power in the Federation. <br />Secondly, Singapore has too MANY PRO-COMMUNISTS who are supported by the Chinese in Singapore.”<br /><ul><li>Tunku Abdul Rahman</li></ul>(Malaya`s Prime Minister)<br />
    17. 17. Did Malaya Want Singapore?<br />Initially, in 1961, Malaya did NOT want Singapore, due to the following reasons :<br />Tunku was scared that Malaya will have more Chinese than Malays.<br />Tunku was scared that Malaya would be influenced by the communists in Singapore. [Communists might use Singapore as a base to spread communism to other countries, such as Malaya]<br />
    18. 18. Did Malaya Want Singapore?<br />After 1961, Tunku changed his mind, due to the following reasons. <br />
    19. 19. Troublesome Situation in SG<br /><ul><li>Pro-communist PAP leader, Ong Eng Guan left PAP and challenged them in a by-election.
    20. 20. He won the Hong Lim by-election and defeated the PAP candidate.
    21. 21. This made Tunku scared that the radicals would take over PAP and make SG a communist country.
    22. 22. Communists could use SG as a base to spread Communism to Malaya.
    23. 23. Tunku did not want this to happen.</li></li></ul><li>For Security<br />Tunku wanted to avoid the situation whereby Singapore becomes a communist country and gives trouble to Malaya. <br />
    24. 24. A quick SUMMARY!<br />
    25. 25. And so, Malaya and SG began to work on the terms of the merger.<br />Main Reason why Singapore want to MERGE.<br />Manage the communist threats<br />Ensure the continued support from the locals<br />Raw materials<br />Get full independence from the British<br />Economic growth [Trade, Jobs, $$$]<br />
    26. 26. Conditions of Merger<br />
    27. 27. Was the merger smooth?<br />Internal issues<br />External issues<br />
    28. 28. Information on Referendum<br />Held on 1st September 1962<br />Referendum :<br />- A direct vote by people of the country to decide on a particular issue, instead of the government making decision [democratic].<br />
    29. 29. Opposition : Referendum<br />Radicals, of whom supported the Communists, in PAP hated merger.<br />PAP split. The Radicals left PAP and formed BarisanSosialis.<br />Its aim was to convince locals and organize campaigns to oppose the merger.<br />PAP had tried to convince SG that Malaya was necessary [a NEED, not a WANT] for Singapore’s stability and survival. <br />
    30. 30. 71% voted for Choice A (:<br />
    31. 31. Was the merger smooth?<br />Internal issues<br />External issues<br />
    32. 32. Konfrontasi : Cobbold Commission<br />Made up of 3 British men and 2 Malays from Sabah and Sarawak.<br />Led by Lord Cobbold.<br />The aim was to find out whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak wanted to join Malaysia.<br />Results : more than 2/3 of the people wanted merger.<br />
    33. 33. Konfrontasi<br />A campaign by Indonesia and Philippines to oppose the merger.<br />-Indonesia : Sabah and Sarawak should belong to them.<br />- Philippines : Claimed that Sabah belonged to them.<br />
    34. 34. 16th September 1963<br />SG, Sabah and Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaya to form MALAYSIA <br />
    35. 35. Separation<br />However, in 1965, SG and Malaysia ‘broke up’.<br />
    36. 36. What led to separation?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    37. 37. Problems faced : Background<br />SG politics : Multiracial<br />Alliance Party<br />Singapore Alliance<br />Malaysia politics : Communal<br />UMNO<br />MCA<br />MIC<br />
    38. 38. Problem : 1963 SG Elections<br />SG Alliance decided to challenge PAP in the SG elections of 1963.<br />However, in the end, SG Alliance did not win any seats in the elections.<br />This made the SG Alliance angry.<br />
    39. 39. Problem : 1963 SG Elections<br />UMNO too became unhappy because it meant they were not popular in SG.<br />Alliance Party vowed to re-organized Singapore Alliance to defeat PAP in the next elections.<br />Such comments affected the relationship between UMNO and PAP in a NEGATIVE manner. <br />
    40. 40. Problem :1964 Federal Elections <br />PAP participated in the 1964 Federal Elections of Malaysia [April].<br />Their political campaigns attracted large crowds.<br />Sadly, PAP won only 1 seat. <br />The Alliance won 89 out of 104 seats.<br />
    41. 41. Problem : 1964 Federal Elections<br />Even though Alliance won, they was upset with PAP as they felt politically threatened.<br />Alliance Party started an anti-PAP campaign using media (newspaper)<br />Spread rumours to Malays [tarnish PAP`s reputations]<br />Created more tensions and problems between PAP and Alliance Party.<br />
    42. 42. Problem : 1964 Racial Riots<br />Alliance Party`s anti-PAP campaign created tensions and anger between the Chinese and Malays in SG.<br />This turned into violence during Prophet Muhammad’s birthday celebrations.<br />
    43. 43. Problem : 1964 Racial Riots<br />During the celebration of Prophet Muhammad’s birthday in July 1964, there was a clash between Chinese policemen and Malay participants.<br />Turned into full-blown race riots.<br />
    44. 44. Problem : 1964 Racial Riots<br />36 people were killed<br />556 people were injured<br />3000+ people were arrested<br />Serious damage of properties<br />Fear and suspicion between the Chinese and the Malays.<br />
    45. 45. Problem : Malaysian Solidarity Convention<br />Political party formed by PAP and other Malaysia political parties who opposed/against the Alliance Party .<br />The aim was to campaign for a “Malaysian Malaysia”, where everyone would be treated equally regardless of their race or religion.<br />It was formed as a response to what the Alliance Party did.<br />Alliance Party and PAP had an agreement not to challenge each other politically.<br />Alliance Party did not keep their promise and wanted to participate again in SG’s 1967 elections.<br />
    46. 46. Problem : Malaysian Solidarity Convention<br /><ul><li>The campaign was seen as a challenge to Alliance Party.
    47. 47. It was also seen as a threat to the special privileges enjoyed by Malays.
    48. 48. Cause a further strain in relations between PAP and UMNO.</li></li></ul><li>Difference in political ideology<br />Communalism VS Multiracialism<br />Malaya expected SG to follow their political system .<br />Malay : Communal Politics (political parties were formed along racial groups)<br />Singapore : Multiracialism (political parties include different races)<br />
    49. 49. Different Treatment of Races <br />Malaya : Malays were given special privileges and rights to help them improve on their standard of living.<br />Singapore : Meritocracy for all – everyone is equal and is treated equally regardless of race or religion.<br />Meritocracy<br />
    50. 50. Political Rivalry between Alliance Party and PAP<br />This can be seen from the 1963 SG Elections, 1964 Federal Elections and the Malaysia Solidarity Convention.<br />
    51. 51. What led to separation?<br />Political Reasons<br />Economic Reasons<br />
    52. 52. Not enough economic benefits<br />The Central Government delayed the setting up of the Common Market.<br />Introduction of new taxes by the Central Government.<br />Increase of SG’s contribution of its revenue to Central Government [from 40% to 60%]<br />SG was seen as an economic rival [for Malaya]<br />
    53. 53. Link<br />These political and economic differences led to disagreements and increase tensions between the Alliance Party and PAP.<br />Tunku Abdul Rahman, then, realized that many disagreements could not be settles.<br />He felt that it was best for SG to leave Malaysia.<br />PAP finally agreed to the decision. <br />
    54. 54. Singapore’s Independence  <br />9th August 1965 was a joyful day for all Singaporeans! <br />Singapore is now an independent nation and a republic! <br />Nation : consists of organized population and government<br />Republic : nation governed by representatives elected by the people, and where the Head of the State is not a king or a queen, but a President. <br />
    55. 55.
    56. 56. Singapore’s Journey<br />SG joined the United Nations on 16th September 1965.<br />Formed ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] on 8th August 1967.<br />This is to help promote keeping peace among neighboring countries.<br />Founding Members : Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand.<br />
    57. 57. For your kind attention…<br />