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Pests and Diseases of Greenhouse sweet peppers in Mauritius


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Pests and Diseases of Greenhouse sweet peppers in Mauritius

  1. 1. Pests and diseases of Greenhouse sweet peppers in Mauritius Presented by: Nawsheen Hosenally Soofiya Lotun Danny Mourat February 2011
  2. 2. OverviewIntroduction Major pests and diseases of GH sweet pepper in Mauritius Major Pests and their control Major diseases and their control Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction• Crop production under controlled conditionis a quite new concept in Mauritius• In 1999, 6 promoters in 25 hydroponic units• In 2006, 179 promoters in 301 units• In 2011, around 2.9 ha of sweet pepper isgrown under hydroponics• Expected to increase to 5.0 ha in 2015
  4. 4. Introduction Advantages and disadvantages of growing sweet pepper in greenhouses Advantages DisadvantagesAvoiding soil problems High cost of investmentMore efficient use of water and fertilizer High degree of management skillsIncrease yield Daily monitoring of crops neededNo crop rotation needed Good sanitationNo weed control Condensation of water droplets causes blight & fungal diseasesBetter quality of produceHigh density of produceProtected from adverse conditions
  5. 5. Introduction cont’ Crop calendar Can be grown all year round Varieties grown in Queen Star, Sonar, Big Star, Blue Star, Beauty Mauritius Bell, Paso Real, Yellow Star, Heldor, Kerala No. of crop cycle/year 2 Plants/225 m2 635 Expected yield 3,825 - 5,100 kg (per 255 m2/ year) Indicative market price Rs 50/Kg Expected revenue (Rs) 191,250 - 255,000 (per 255 m2/year)Source: Agricultural Research and Extension Unit
  6. 6. Major Pests and Diseases affecting sweet pepper in MauritiusPests Diseases • Damping off• Whitefly • Powdery mildew• Leafminer • Phytophthora Blight• Aphids • Anthracnose• Spider mite • Grey mould rot• Thrips • Bacterial Wilt • Viruses • Sun scald Physiological • Blossom end rot disorders • Intumescence
  7. 7. Pests1. Whitefly Whitefly on sweet pepper leaf Leaf of distorted
  8. 8. Pests1. Whitefly Visual symptoms Leaf is distorted. Honeydew on leaf Parts affected Leaf Magnitude of damage Suck sap of plant, causing distortion of the leaf. caused Excrete honeydew which encourage growth of sooty mould. Can also transmit plant diseases. Chemical control Confidor 200 SC – 1mL/L Non-chemical control •Firm spray of water •Application of detergent (1 mL/L of water) •Use natural enemies (Nephaspis bicolor)
  9. 9. Pests2. Leaf miners Damage caused by Leaf miners
  10. 10. Pests2. Leaf miners Visual symptoms “Tunnels” found on leaves. Leaves may blister or curl, turn brown and die Parts affected Leaf Magnitude of damage Larvae tunnel and feed inside leaves. Leaf may caused die Chemical control Karate 5 CS at 0.5 mL/L Non-chemical control •Destroy infected leaves •Use yellow sticky traps
  11. 11. Pests3. Aphids Aphids on leaf Leaf distortion after aphid attack
  12. 12. Pests3. Aphids Visual symptoms Leaf distortion, presence of large amounts of honeydew on leaves Parts affected Leaf Magnitude of damage Aphids pierce the leaves and suck the sap from caused many vegetable crops, causing leaf distortion. Act as a primary vector of several economically significant virus diseases, spreading the virus as they feed Chemical control Confidor 200 SC - 1 mL/L Non-chemical control •Clip infested plant tips and discard •Water spray or soap spray •Use of natural enemies (e.g ladybirds, lacewings)
  13. 13. Pests4. Spider mite Egg of spider mite Spider mites on sweet pepper leaf
  14. 14. Pests4. Spider mite Visual symptoms Leaves are punctured. Web forming underside of affected leaves Parts affected Leaf Magnitude of Web forming, pierce plant cells and remove their damage caused contents. May be severe if not controlled. Chemical control Agrimec 1.8 EC – 0.5 mL/L Non-chemical control •Firm water spray •Use pest free plantlets
  15. 15. Pests5. Thrips Leaves are punctured by thrips Damage on fruit caused by thrips
  16. 16. Pests5. Thrips Visual symptoms Punctures on leaves, with brown spots. Egg laying scars and feeding damage on fruit Parts affected Leaf, fruit Magnitude of Pierce the plant surface with mouthparts and suck damage caused the contents of plant cells. White or brown spots formed on the leaves. These spots are also speckled with dark fecal droppings from the thrips feeding. They are also vectors of other diseases Chemical control Confidor 200 SL – 1 mL/L Non-chemical Use natural enemies control
  17. 17. Diseases1. Damping off Treated SeedlingUntreatedSeedling
  18. 18. Diseases1. Damping off Visual symptoms Rotting of roots and seedlings topple over Parts affected Roots, stem Magnitude of damage Seedlings rot at ground level and topple over. caused On older plants, root rots causing stunting and wilting Chemical control Apply 2-3 L of mixture (2.5 ml/L Proplant + 1.5 ml/L Topsin) to the substrate (preventive + curative) Non-chemical control Best control is prevention by using high quality, fresh seed, and by maintaining optimum growing conditions for young plants
  19. 19. Diseases2. Powdery mildew Profuse sporulation on undersurface Necrotic lesions develop in later of leaves stages of disease
  20. 20. Diseases2. Powdery mildew Visual symptoms Starts with light green/yellow patches on surface of leaf with white powder beneath leaf. Then there are necrotic lesions formed, and leaves fall Parts affected Leaves Magnitude of damage caused Severe. Leaves fall and the fruits are affected by other diseases Chemical control Altenate Microthiol – 4g/L with Dash 50 – 0.5 mL/L every 10 days immediately after first symptoms appear Non-chemical control Good sanitation as a preventive measure
  21. 21. Diseases3. Phytophtora Blight Affected parts of the plant by the disease
  22. 22. Diseases3. Phytophtora Blight Visual symptoms Leaf first show dark green spots which are bleached. Stems are infected, and irreversible wilt of foliage occurs. Infected fruits show water soaked patches, and coated with mould, which finally wither. Parts affected Leaf, Stem, Fruits Magnitude of damage Severe if not controlled as the whole plant is caused damaged Chemical control Either 3g/L Ridomil Gold MZ 68 (preventive) Or 2.5 mL/L Proplant (Curative) Non-chemical control Use of quality seeds. Sanitation of infested plant/fruit
  23. 23. Diseases4. Anthracnose Early stage Late stage
  24. 24. Diseases4. Anthracnose Visual symptoms Fruit lesions appear as small, sunken, circular spots. Lesions gradually expands and darken in centre. Lesions develop a pattern of concentric rings and black, orange or tan fungal structures may appear in centre Parts affected Fruits Magnitude of damage If not controlled, both young and mature fruits caused can be affected, which cannot be sold Chemical control Either Score 250 EC – 0.5 mL/L + Complement - 1 mL/L (Curative) Or Cuprox – 3g/L Non-chemical control Use quality seeds. Sanitation of infested fruits.
  25. 25. Diseases5. Grey mould rotEpidermispeels away Grey mould rot on sweet pepper
  26. 26. Diseases5. Grey mould rot Visual symptoms Fungus colonises dying flowers and fruit through the stem end, growth cracks and wounds. Affected areas are gray to olive green, slightly sunken and have distinct margins. The epidermis peels away easily from lesions to reveal softened, watery underlying tissue. Parts affected Stem, Flower, Fruit Magnitude of damage The whole fruit can be infested caused Chemical control Either Rovral FLO - 2 mL/L (Preventive) Or Topsin M ULV – 1.5 mL/L (Curative) Non-chemical control Good ventilation. Prevent wounding of plant. Sanitation of infested plants.
  27. 27. Diseases6. Bacterial wilt Vascular bundle is rotting & white substance formed Leaves drop without yellowing
  28. 28. Diseases6. Bacterial wilt Visual symptoms Leaves drop without yellowing and dry up. In the stem, there is a white substance which is formed in the vascular bundle, which can be seen when put in a container full of water Parts affected Stem, leaf and eventually whole plant Magnitude of When plant is attacked by the bacteria, there is no curative damage caused measures and evreything is lost Chemical control No chemical control Non-chemical •Use a substrate which is well disinfected by watering it control with 0.5 % Virkon S. •Change the substrate if previous crop had been infested. •Have a foot dip containing 0.5 % Virkon S at the entrance of the greenhouse. • Sanitation of infested crops
  29. 29. Diseases7. Viruses• Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)• Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)• Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMV)
  30. 30. Diseases7. Viruses Visual symptoms Symptoms vary between viruses, cultivars and conditions and include stunting, leaf and/or fruit mottling, etc. It is recommended to do identification of virus in a laboratory. Parts affected Depending on virus Magnitude of damage Depending on virus and stage of infection caused Chemical control None Non-chemical control •Do weeding near the greenhouse •Use quality/certified seeds and do seed treatment •Use proper insecticide •Use tolerant varieties
  31. 31. Diseases8. Sun Scald Sun scald on sweet pepper Later stage
  32. 32. Diseases8. Sun Scald Visual symptoms Affected areas are sunken and light brown to white. The fruit can then be invaded by secondary organisms, causing fruit rot. Early in the season, tender young leaf and stem tissue may show injury. Parts affected Fruit, stem, leaf Magnitude of If proper shade is provided to the crop if its leaves damage caused have fallen, the damage may not be severe Chemical control None Non-chemical Provide proper shade to the plant when leaves have control fallen down
  33. 33. Diseases9. Blossom end rot Blossom end rot in sweet pepper
  34. 34. Diseases9. Blossom end rot Visual symptoms Small water-soaked/light brown area appears around the blossom-end or the side of the fruit, when the fruit is green or ripening. Lesion enlarges rapidly, becoming papery. Secondary fungi may colonize the damaged tissue as lesion also provides an entrance for soft rot organisms. Parts affected Fruit Magnitude of Blossom-end rot is associated with fluctuations in damage caused the plants water supply and heavy fruit load. It can be more severe under high nitrogen rates and fast growth. Chemical control none Non-chemical Regular supply of water and calcium control
  35. 35. Diseases10. Intumescence Visual symptoms Cells of the leaf are filled with water and are yellow at the surface. Parts affected Leaf Magnitude of Not severe if controlled damage caused Chemical control None Non-chemical control Provide good ventilation inside greenhouse to decrease humidity
  36. 36. Conclusion• Main pests of sweet pepper production ingreenhouses are thrips• Pests and disease outbreak in a greenhouseis dependent on the management(sanitation)• Biological control not really applicable inMauritius when it comes to hydroponicsproduction
  37. 37. References•AREU Publication on disease management ofsweet pepper in greenhouse•Non-Sugar strategic plan 2007-1015•Mr. C. Sembhoo, Information Unit, AREU•
  38. 38. Thank you!
  39. 39. Question Time….