In the mass beach tourism on the 60’s & 70s tourists to the Caribbean for example, went for the climate, sea and beaches and not for its mountains and rivers, its towns, its forts and history. Such demands put the coastlines under enormous pressure and have redefined its physical landscape. In a generation with hotel, marinas and tourism development demanding and requiring a piece of the beach front, the bays where once local fishermen pulled their seine nets, where villagers went for a sea-bathe or where colonies of birds nested in mangrove have been transformed due to coastal clearance for these developments. Mass tourism, in turn, affected this fragile environment particularly vulnerable to change as it facilitated beach erosion, breakdown of coral reefs, marine and coastal pollution from water sports, the dumping of waste and the non-treatment of sewerage, sand-mining and the destruction of wetlands and salt ponds.
Further amendments include the protection of historical and archaeological resources. Ecotourism has now come to mean one where visitors respect and express interest in local natural history and culture. Compared with mass tourism, ecotourism supports a larger degree of local involvement, better linkages, a reduction in leakages and increased financial returns leading to sustainable development. It allows an opportunity for both environmental conservation and addressing vulnerabilities in small economies. Eco-Tourism may be a feasible tourism option for both conserving the natural & cultural heritage of nations & contributing to Sustainable Development. It offers financial contributions for the protection of indigenous cultures & environments
In contrast to the mainstream tourist, the Eco-Tourist is:interested in helping to preserve the natural beauty of the sites they visit & are less likely to do damagemore willing to adapt to & appreciate local conditions, customs, foodscauses less overall impact by behaving in a more environmentally & socially aware mannerAs an eco-traveler it is your responsibility to prevent or minimize any negative impact on the environment, local community and economy of the destination you are visiting:Choose your travel provider on the basis of their ecoprinciples & practices;Be aware of local history, culture and customs of the locals before arriving;Observe local customs;Learn about the vital eco-systems and the destination before arrivingDon't allow your guide to hunt endangered species or harvest rare plants for your consumption. Encourage practices to conserve the environment, including the use of renewable resources in a sustainable manner and the conservation of non-renewable resources. Eco-Tourism, therefore:Allows negative impacts of tourism to be minimized;Contributes to conservation efforts;Employs locally and give money back to the community;Educates visitors about the local environment and culture;Cooperate with local people to manage natural areas;Provide a positive experience for both visitor and host
Nature Tourism must be subjected to adequate & appropriate management controls, as nature tourism without control is similar to mass tourism. Community tourism allows emphasis on active participation and empowerment of local people in the eco-tourism opportunity. The focus is on culture and heritage activity. Community-based ecotourism is where the local community has substantial control over, and involvement in, its development and management, and a major proportion of the benefits remain within the community.”vities but ensures that the natural environment in the area is not affected the economic needs and livelihoods of the host community addressed.
UNWTO’s Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.6 billion by the year 2020. Of these worldwide arrivals in 2020, 1.2 billion will be intraregional and 378 million will be long-haul travelers. Long-haul travel worldwide will grow faster, at 5.4 per cent per year over the period 1995-2020, than intraregional travel, at 3.8 per cent. Consequently the ratio between intraregional and long-haul travel will shift from around 82:18 in 1995 to close to 76:24 in 2020. (US Travel & Tourism Administration)
Globalization has left most Caribbean small island nations limited alternative economic options;
Products are specialised to cater to any market- the adventurous, the physically fit, the curious, those with special interest. It falls within SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, which is a more appropriate and holistic approach to tourism development that ensures its success now and in the future.Sustainable Tourism is an APPROACH - Practices, Strategies etc.Costa Rica reported that 41% of its 1 billion US made in 1999 was from birdwatching. Hiking and trekking is an activity with one of the highest participation levels in the UK with 125 of adults hiking at least once a week in 2004. Turtle watching in increasing in interest. St Lucia Heritage program noted a 100 increase in one year for turtle watching tours.Growth in overseas cycle tourism is most likely to come from the Dutch, German, Scandinavian and French markets in self-organised cycle tourism holidays. In Germany over 2.2 million people participated in cycling holidays in 2003.
There are outstanding rain forest retreats in Trinidad, Dominica and Puerto Rico. 40% of the country is protected in Belize and Mexico. Great Inagua in The bahamas has a population of less than 1,000 but is home to 60,000 pink flamingos, spoonbills and ducks. Across the Caribbean you will see egrets, sandpipers, terns, parrots and pelicans, hummingbirds and the list goes on.
Costa Rica & Belize: Among the top Eco-tourism Destinations in the WorldBonaire: Pristine Marine EnvironmentTobago: Winner of “the Best Eco-Destination in the World Award” & “The #1 Eco-Destination in the Caribbean” by the Caribbean Travel Awards CommitteeBONAIRE: Pristine Marine EnvironmentTobago: Winner of the Best Eco-Destination in the World Award from the World & The #1 Eco-Destination in the Caribbean by the Caribbean Travel Awards CommitteeEco-Resorts- Low impact, integration with the native environment, commitment to reduced energy use and or renewable energy, activities that The majority of CBT developments in the Caribbean region have been in Belize, St. Lucia, Dominica, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana. The European Union (EU) has been instrumental in providing financial and technical assistance for government tourism development programmes that have supported CBT to alleviate poverty.support and foster knowledge of the local ecosystem, involving local community.
Martinique is 4350 miles from France, 16 miles from Dominica to the north, 75 miles from Guadeloupe and 23 from Saint Lucia in the south.St. Lucia-Hiking, trekking, jeep safaris, bird watching, turtle watching, whale watching , All Terrain Vehicle Mountain Tour
Dive into the daily life of a banana farmVisitors see the different production process stages of the banana from Soil Preparation, Planting, Maintenance and Irrigation to Harvest, Packaging, Ripening, TransformationIt ends with product tasting
The Eco-Tourism Development Programme (ETDP) in Dominica had an important CBT component. The programme developed a Community Tourism Policy that forms part of the national Tourism 2010 Policy, established a Community Tourism Development Fund that disbursed grants to 20 community-based organisations for infrastructure development, and provided skills development and technical assistance in business development.
Access to the market: physical location, economic elites and social constraints on local producers. Commercial viability: product quality and price, marketing, strength of the broader destination and funding mechanisms. Policy framework: Land tenure, regulatory context, planning process, government attitudes and capacity. Implementation challenges in the local context: filling the skills gap, managing costs and expectations and maximising collaboration among stakeholders.
A trip up to the Indian River is a delightful, relaxing ride where the mangrove, swamp and wildlife can be seen at close quarters. (a new moderncatering facility is replacing the bush bar). Cabrits National Park- 1,313 acres. 1,053 marine area. Small Family Accommodations. Local Restaurants and Bars. Start-up capital for boat purchase is low and can be repaid in one season. Major economic activity in the areaInfrastructure development:The Eco-Tourism Development Programme (ETDP) in Dominica built a retaining wall and new jetty for the Indian River Stronger organisational capacity, increased ability to influence national decision-making.Use of common property resourcesCapacity-building &skills developmentTour Guiding & Boating
The waterfall is the highest on the island and cascades down on different levels, creating pools of spring water. Souvenir & Refreshment Sales. US$5 entrance and uniformed guides. In high season the Cooperative’s revenue is approximately US$8,000 a month. Income has been used to upgrade the trail to the waterfall and profits are shared between 16 members, half of whom are female.
ECO-TOURISM & THE CARIBBEAN Protecting Natural Assetsand Enhancing Sustainable Development in Small Economies by T. Jennifer Edwards Specialist in Sustainable Tourism, The Bahamas Regional Policy Briefing no.7Building Resilience in Small Island Economies: From Vulnerabilities to Opportunities Hotel Victoria, Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius, 23-24 April 2012
Presentation Outline1. The Eco-Tourism Sector • Background, Nature & Linked Concepts • Size , Potential & Products2. Caribbean Eco-Tourism • Eco-Assets & Top Eco-Destinations3. Key Caribbean Eco-Tourism Initiatives a) CTO/EU/CRSTDP Good Practices Project4. Case Initiative: The Community Baboon Sanctuary, Bermudian Landing, BELIZE5. Conclusion: Caribbean Eco-Tourism, Enhancing Sustainable Development
ECO-TOURISM: BACKGROUND• Emerged as a move from the MASS BEACH TOURISM of the 60s & 70s• Took off in the 80s & 90s in response to a wider environmental awareness in western consumerist society. The message being ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABILITY with reduced negative impacts• A move to: – More diverse & specialised forms of tourism with tourists also engaging in recreational, sporting and adventure activities – Learning about local cultures – Increased interests in the Natural Environment• Special interests in the Natural Environment has resulted in one of the most popular Tourism terms today, i.e. ECO TOURISM
Eco-Tourism: Early Concept• Focused on travel to undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery with its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural manifestations (both past & present)• Demand-Led, Market-Driven New or Alternate Tourism ProductBUT..... The concept omitted anything about the needs of the host countries or communities
Eco-Tourism: Current ConceptInternational Eco-Tourism Society: “Responsible travel that conserves natural environments & sustains the well-being of local people”IUCN “Environmentally responsible travel & visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy & appreciate nature (& any accompanying cultural features - both past & present) that: – promotes conservation & sustainable development – has low visitor impact, and – provides for beneficially active socio- economic involvement of local populations”
Nature of True Eco-Tourism ExperiencesAn Authentic Eco-Tourism Experience constitutes 4common elements:– The use of the natural environment (including cultural features of the environment), i.e. Enjoyment of nature– Education & Interpretation– Ecological & Cultural Sustainability, i.e. Conservation for continued future enjoyment– Benefits to the local community
Other Concepts Linked to Eco-Tourism• Nature Tourism• Eco-Community or Community Tourism• Soft Adventure Tourism• Green Tourism• Edutainment• Volunteer-Tourism• Eco-Lodge/Environment Friendly Tourism• Cultural & Heritage Tourism• Agro Tourism
The Eco-Tourism Sector: Size & Potential International Centre for Ecotourism Research, Griffith University, Aus. •Eco Tourism - 5% of the International Tourism Market Adventure Travel Society 2003 •Eco adventure has a sectoral annual growth rate of 10-15% US Travel Data Centre 2009UNWTO 2020 Forecast •78% of American travelers•International Arrivals 1.6 Billion consider themselves•Long Hall travellers 378 million “environmentally conscious”Early Studies by USTTA •54% believed that individuals•Nature Tourism expenditure - $12 themselves have the greatest billion in 1988, i.e. 7% of all responsibility for preserving and international travel earnings. In protecting the environment 1989 this figure jumped to 14 •They believe that travel service billion dollars, a 16.6% expansion. suppliers should be good stewards of their environment
Caribbean Tourism & Eco-Tourism• CTO member countries : 1% of the world’s population but attract 3% of global tourism arrivals & expenditure;• Dependent on Tourism to sustain livelihoods more than any other region of the world;• Tourism is the main foreign exchange earner & employs 1/3 of the labour force;• Eco-tourism offers an opportunity to bring benefits to the wider community.
Popular Eco-Tourism Products Eco Tourism deals with PRODUCT, MOTIVATION, MARKET SEGMENTATION ECO-TOURISM : EXPERIENCES/PRODUCTS/ ACTIVITYBird Watching River/Waterfall BathingWildlife Watching e.g. whales, Sightseeing to natural wonders e.g.turtles, monkeys etc. mountains, breathtaking sceneriesDiving e.g. deep sea, caverns, reefs Heritage Sites/Cultural Events(5-7 million divers worldwide)Hiking & Trekking Fishing e.g. fly-fishing/ bone-fishingKayaking/Canoeing Eco LodgingRafting/Tubing Marine, Animal, Ecology StudyHorseback Riding VolunteerismCycling Home-Stays/Local FoodsPhoto Safari CampingSailing Zip Line Tours
The Caribbean: Eco-Assets A Nature Lover’s Dream • Land & Sea National Parks • Landscape ranging from Volcanic mountains, lakes & limestone cliffs to lush green hills, mangrove swamps, deserts and forests • Rare native bird species - Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Barbuda, Montserrat, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada • Wild Life Diversity • Accompanying Culture & Heritage
Top Eco-Tourism Branded Destinations in the Caribbean National Parks The Nature Island Rivers & Lakes of the Caribbean Among the top in Eco-Tourism Forests Bird Watching Pristine Marine Horseback Riding Environment TOBAGO: Canopy tours Eco-tourismCertified Eco-Lodges Rainforest Aerial Award Winner & Green Hotels Tram
Other Caribbean Destinations with Eco-Tourism Packages Caribbean islands 2000 Ecotourism Award for itsDense Forests, Rivers, Heritage Tourism ProgramWaterfalls, Rolling Hills Dominican Republic Waterfalls, Deserts Rich in Nature & Well Preserved Blue Holes, Creeks, Marine Reserves Biodiversity, Jungles, Picturesque Scenery, Rivers, Eco-Lodges National Park Volcano, Coral Reefs, Volcano, Fruits, Heritage Trail Flowers, Birds Eco Hotels & River Tours
CLEAR BLUE MARTINIQUE An environmentally friendly way to raise awareness about the protection of flora and fauna underwater while introducing the great sport kayakingACTIVITY:A 50-75 minute discovertour of a Banana Plantationin Martinique by Train;
The BEST OF DOMINICA through the EYES OF A COMMUNITYI am:• Beauty Unspoilt • Culture Preserved• A Hiker’s Paradise • Volcanic Peaks• Boiling Waters • Sparkling Waterfalls• Rushing Streams • Rainforest Canopies• Underwater Champagne Springs• The trailhead to adventure and discovery, unlike any other Caribbean destination;I am celebrations of Music, Art and Flowers I am Nature’s Island I am Dominica.
Eco-Tourism/Community Initiative in The CaribbeanCTO/EU/CRSTDP: Good Practices in Community-Based Tourism in the Caribbean (2003-2008)
GOOD PRACTICES:Portsmouth India River Tour Environmental impact management • Greater local appreciation ofMAIN ECOTOURISM ACTIVITY biodiversity;• A 1-mile guided up-river tour with • Stronger management of natural nature interpretation. resources;• Bush Bar en route for ‘dynamite rum’ • Improved infrastructure (retaining wall) to prevent erosion.MARKET Socio-Economic Impact Cruise Passengers; French Day Trippers • Significant impact on local livelihoods; from Martinique & Guadeloupe; Tour • Tour fees 2006 were US$80,000; Operators, Yachters, Tourists, Schools • Job creation and income-generation and Residents for river guides and souvenir vendors; • Reinvestment of profits into otherTOUR GUIDES local enterprises (e.g. housing30 male members who are certified tour construction & guest accommodation)guides and have local wooden boats. • Increase in skill levels in tour guiding, hospitality services, business management and organisational development.
ARGYLE WATERFALLS, TOBAGO Roxborough Estate Visitor Services CooperativeECOTOURISM ACTIVITY KEY LESSON LEARNT:• 20-minute walk along gently undulating • The use, development and nature trails through the rainforest to management of common property reach the waterfall with uniformed guides resources for community benefitMARKET can create new income-generating• Cruise Passengers; Domestic and Stay- activities and improve Over Visitors environmental management whenGOOD PRACTICE/IMPACT there is effective organisational• US$8,000/mth capacity at the community level• Trail upgrade• Profits shared: 16 members- 50% females• Guides are trained• Falls are well maintained and tourism impacts are managed by the cooperative• Garbage management introduced to reduce negative environmental impacts• Plans to diversify to offer –guest house, cocoa estate tour etc.
THE COMMUNITY BABOON SANCTUARY Bermudian Landing, Belize NOTEWORTHY • The Sanctuary has engineered a big increase in the Howler Monkey’s primate population and allowed other wild life to repopulate the area SCANTUARY OPERATION • Completely Community-run, Grassroots Conservation Operation managed by a group of women SIZE/LOCATION: 8 Villages along the Belize River Valley (20 sq. Miles), 30 miles from Belize City ENDANGERED SPECIES • Howler Monkey called BaboonsECOTOURISM ACTIVITIES:• Visitor Centre- Exhibits and • Croc Night Tour Wildlife History • Stay at Local Eco-Lodges/Bed• 1-hour guided nature tour- & Breakfast flora, fauna, medicinal plant • Eat Local Foods, Organic• River Canoe Tours livestock, Fruits & Vegetables• Night Hikes • Sale of local farm produce,• Birding (200 bird species) local souvenir, food• Horseback riding preserves, bags, embroidery
ALTERNATE LIVELIHOOD • From slash & burn farmers to Tilapia Backyard Farming • Organic VegetablesAerial Bridge • Organic Corn from farmers feed chickens • Pig rearing • Food preserves • Handicraft & embroidery TRAINING/OTHER GOOD PRACTICES • Land management • Alternate farming methods- mixing good farming practicesLocal Guide with the needs of wildlife ACHIEVEMENTS • Began in 1985 with 12 landowners in Bermudian Landing (assistance from WWF)Nature Resort • By 1988 there were 75 landowners in 7 villages • Now has 240 members • Howler population grew from 840 in 1985 to 1,000 in 1988 • Broad leaf forest and trees are protected (40-50 species) • Aerial bridges protect monkeys from traffic accidents Howler • Deers are reappearing and birds are more abundant (59 Monkey recorded in 1989 to 250 today) Lodge • 150 Children are given the tour annually
Caribbean Eco-Tourism: Enhancing Sustainable Development1. Revenues derived from:• Development of national and regional parks and reserves, as major attractions for tourists;• Utilizing archaeological and historic sites as tourist attractions which may have otherwise deteriorated or disappeared2. Increased environmental awareness among the local community3. Improvement of Environmental Quality4. Conservation of important natural areas and wildlife, including marine environments;5. Synergies and Linkages that occurs with other economic sectors and communities, e.g. with agriculture and with local groups
ECO-TOURISM & THE CARIBBEAN EXPERIENCE Protecting Natural Assets and Enhancing Sustainable Development in Small Economies COMMENTS & DISCUSSIONS Regional Policy Briefing no.7Building Resilience in Small Island Economies: From Vulnerabilities to Opportunities Hotel Victoria, Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius, 23-24 April 2012