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006 - Musa

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006 - Musa

  1. 1. The Adoption and Use of ICT by Small Scale Farmers in Gezira State, Sudan Nada Siddig Abdallah Musa and Jason Githeko
  2. 2. Introduction• It is thought that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (radio, TV, mobile phone and Internet) can be applied to narrow the gap between researchers and farmers by providing channels to convey information between researchers, extension agents and farmers.• Several trials of such use of ICT have been conducted worldwide (Nyirenda-Jere, 2010).• In Sudan little is known about the interaction of ICT use and flow of agricultural information linking farmers, extension agents and researchers.
  3. 3. Study Objectives• The study reported here set out to ascertain how cultural, socio-economic factors influence the adoption and use of ICT by farmers for accessing agricultural information. Additionally,• The study was intended to help identify the challenges of ICT use and adoption among farmers.
  4. 4. Methodology• A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 with a sample of 120 farmers using proportionate stratified sampling.• The key data collection instrument was a self-designed questionnaire.• The instrument was in English but required to be translated in the field because the farmers spoke Arabic.• 30 researchers from the Gezira Research Station and Ministry of Agriculture were surveyed about farmers’ adoption and use of ICT.• The researchers included plant scientists, entomologists, agricultural engineers and agricultural extension officers
  5. 5. The study Area N Legend Gezira Stat Gezira Boundary
  6. 6. Results and Discussion Education Levels of the Farmers• The vast majority (93.3%) of the respondents were literate based on: Items Frequency Percent No formal education 8 6.7 Adult literacy education 6 5.0 Primary school 41 34.2 Secondary school 36 30.0 Post-secondary school 29 24.1 Total 120 100.0
  7. 7. Age of Farmers• the majority (61%) of the farmers were 50 years and below Age of farmers Frequency Percent 20-35 years 32 26.7 36-50 years 41 34.2 51-65 years 38 31.7 66-80 years 9 7.4 Total 120 100.0
  8. 8. Experience in AgricultureYears of experience Frequency PercentLess than 5 years 7 5.85- 10 years 26 21.7More than 10 years 87 72.5Total 120 100.0
  9. 9. ICT Used by Farmers in GeziraState
  10. 10. ICT Used by Farmers in GeziraState• Others: print media, friends, neighbours, agrochemical companies, research stations and extension officers.
  11. 11. ICT Adoption Challenges• Four categories of challenges were investigated:• Socio-economic factors,• Cultural factors,• Technical factors and• Infrastructural support.
  12. 12. Socio-economic Factors A chi-square cross-tabulation was carried out between the various ICT and the socio-economic factorsSocioeconomic ICT Radio TV Internet Mobile Phone Print Media TotalFactors Co % Co % Co % Co % Co % Co %Education 6 20.0 2 6.7 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 3.3 10 33.3LevelIncome 0 0.0 2 6.7 1 3.3 0 0.0 5 16.7 8 26.7Farm Size 1 3.3 3 10.0 0 0.0 2 6.7 0 0.0 6 20.0Gender 3 10.0 1 3.3 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 3.3 6 20.0Total 10 33.3 8 26.7 1 3.3 4 13.3 7 23.3 30 100. 0
  13. 13. Cultural Factors A chi-square cross-tabulation was carried out between the various ICT and the cultural factorscultural ICTFactors Radio TV Internet Mobile Print Total Phone Media Co % Co % Co % Co % Co % Co %Beliefs 4 13.3 4 13.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 6.7 10 33.3Political & 5 16.7 0 0.0 1 3.3 4 13.3 5 16.7 15 50.0IntuitionalleadershipLaws 1 3.3 4 13.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 16.7Total 10 33.3 8 26.7 1 3.3 4 13.3 7 23.3 30 100.0
  14. 14. Technical Factors A chi-square cross-tabulation was carried out between the various ICT and the technical factorsTechnical ICTFactors Radio TV Internet Mobile Print Total Phone Media Co % Co % Co % Co % Co % Co %Skilled staff 3 10.0 5 16.7 0 0.0 1 3.3 2 6.7 11 36.7andtechnicianICT centres 4 13.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 10.0 1 3.3 8 26.7Disseminatio 3 10.0 2 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.3 6 20.0n methodsPackaging of 0 0.0 1 3.3 1 3.3 0 0.0 3 10.0 5 16.7informationTotal 10 33.3 8 26.7 1 3.3 4 13.3 7 23.3 30 100.0
  15. 15. Infrastructural Support• It was found that 50.8% of farmers have little or no access to electricity (grid or solar) making it difficult to use ICT such as TV that cannot easily run on batteries.• Similar figures were obtained for access to roads with 54.2% of the farmers indicating that there is little or no road infrastructure in the places they lived.• With regard to telecommunications infrastructure, 30.8% reported little or no infrastructure indicating relatively good coverage of the target population.
  16. 16. Conclusions• In this survey was found that while the uptake of older ICT such as radio and TV was relatively established at 21.9% and 14% respectively newer ICT were less used with only 3.3% using the Internet.• Some of the reasons for lower adoption of the newer ICT were identified as: – high cost relative to farmer income. – limited availability. – little localised content. – cultural inertia.
  17. 17. Conclusions• Although more than 90% of farmers were literate yet the researchers who were surveyed rated low education levels as the key barrier to adoption of ICT by farmers.• The scarcity of skilled staff and technicians in the research institutions was additionally rated as a key hurdle as was shortage of electricity.
  18. 18. Recommendations• It is recommended that key interventions to improve ICT adoption and use include: Awareness campaigns to counteract cultural inertia. Improve ICT skills of research staff and related technical staff. Provide more localised content relevant to farmers. Reduce the relative cost of the newer ICT especially the Internet. Improve rural infrastructure especially provision of electricity.
  19. 19. Further research• Further research is needed on issues such as:• The role of gender,• Culture and politics on ICT adoption.• Similarly, the capability of research institutions to provide appropriate localised content is an issue that requires further research.

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