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Cold injuries gk


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Cold injuries gk

  2. 2. IntroductionPrevention of cold injuries is a Command and Individual ResponsibilityALL COLD WEATHER INJURIES ARE PREVENTABLE!!!
  3. 3. Regulation of Body’s Temp Body’s heat  Heat loss production – convection – metabolism – conduction – exercise – radiation – shivering – respiration – evaporation
  4. 4. Typical Victim of a Cold Weather InjuryMaleE-4 or belowApproximately 20 years oldFrom a warm climateLess than 18 months time in serviceUses tobacco, alcohol or medicationsNeglects proper foot care
  5. 5. Susceptibility Factors Previous cold weather  Sick or injured injury  Acclimatization Inadequate nutrition  Ethnic/geographic origin Alcohol, caffeine, nicotine  Wind, cold, rain Dehydration  Age Overactivity  Discipline and morale Underactivity  Physical stamina Long exposure to the  Inadequate training cold  Poor clothing and equip
  6. 6. Types of Cold Injuries Hypothermia  Dehydration Frostbite  Constipation Chilblains  Sunburn Immersion/Trench  Snow Blindness Foot  Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  7. 7. Hypothermia MEDICAL EMERGENCY; life threatening condition Severe body heat loss-body temp falls below 95oF (35 C) Occurs when: – conditions are windy, clothing is wet, and/or the individual is inactive – extended water exposure or immersion  1 hour or less when water temp is below 45oF  prolonged exposure in slightly cool water (e.g. 60oF)  thunderstorms, hail, rain and accompanying winds
  8. 8. The “umbles”-stumbles, mumbles, fumbles, and Hypothermia grumbles Initial Symptoms  Severe Stages – shivering – stops shivering – dizzy, drowsy – desire to lie down – withdrawn behavior and sleep – irritability – heartbeat and – confusion breathing is faint or – slowed, slurred undetectable speech – unconsciousness – altered vision followed by DEATH – stumbling
  9. 9. Hypothermia Treatment – prevent further cold exposure – evacuate immediately if severe hypothermia – remove wet clothing – rewarm with body-to-body contact or in a warmed sleeping bag – warm, sweet liquids if conscious – give CPR if needed
  10. 10. HypothermiaPrevention – eat properly and often – warm liquids (noncaffeinated) and water – wear uniform properly (layers worn loosely) – keep active – stay dry – warming tents – get plenty of rest – buddy watch/observation/NCO checks
  11. 11. BODY TEMP SYMPTOMS OBSERVABLE IN FELT BY YOURSELF OTHERS(Early Stage) Intense and uncontrollable shivering; Slowing of pace. Fatigue. Uncontrollable fits 98.6  95.0 ability to perform complex tasks impaired Intense shivering. Poor of shivering. Immobile, coordination. fumbling hands. (Moderate Violent shivering persists, difficulty in Stumbling, lunching Stumbling. Poor Stage) speaking, sluggish thinking, amnesia gait. Thickness of articulation. Feeling of95.0  91.4 begins to appear. speech. Poor judgment. deep cold or numbness. (Severe Shivering decreases; replaced by Irrationality, Disorientation. Decrease in Stages) muscular rigidity and erratic, jerky incoherence. Memory shivering. Stiffening of91.4  87.8 movements; thinking not clear but lapses, amnesia. muscles. Exhaustion, maintains posture. Hallucinations. Loss of inability to get up after a contact with rest. environment.87.8  85.2 Victim becomes irrational, loses contact Blueness of skin. Blueness of skin. Slow, with environment, drifts into stupor; Decreased heart and irregular, or weak pulse. muscular rigidity continues; pulse and respiratory rate. Drowsiness. respiration slowed. Dilation of pupils. Weak or irregular pulse. Stupor.85.2  78.8 Unconsciousness; does not respond to Unconsciousness. spoken work; most reflexes cease to function; heartbeat becomes erratic. 78.8  Failure of cardiac and respiratory control centers in brain; cardiac fibrillation; probable edema and hemorrhage in lungs; apparent death.
  12. 12. Frostbite Air temps below 32oF – skin freezes at 28oF Superficial frostbite (mild) – freezing of skin surface Deep frostbite (severe) – freezing of skin and flesh, may include bone Hands, fingers, feet, toes, ears, chin, nose, groin area
  13. 13. FrostbiteSymptoms – initially redness in light skin or grayish in dark skin – tingling, stinging sensation – turns numb, yellowish, waxy or gray color – feels cold, stiff, woody – blisters may develop
  14. 14. First-degree frostbite: Hyperemia and edema without skin necrosisSecond-degree frostbite: Large, clear vesicle formation accompanies the hyperemia and edema with partial-thickness skin necrosisThird-degree frostbite: Full-thickness and subcuta-neous tissue necrosis occurs, commonly with hemor-rhage vesicle formationFourth-degree frostbite: Full-thickness skin necrosis, including muscle and bone with gangrene
  15. 15. Deep Frostbite
  16. 16. Frostbite Treatment – remove from cold and prevent further heat loss – remove constricting clothing and jewelry – rewarm affected area evenly with body heat until pain returns  when skin thaws it hurts!!  do not rewarm a frostbite injury if it could refreeze during evacuation or if victim must walk for medical treatment – do not massage affected parts or rub with snow – evacuate for medical treatment
  17. 17. Frostbite
  18. 18. Frostbite Prevention – wear uniform properly – insulate yourself from the (layers and loosely) ground (sleeping – keep socks and clothing pad/tree branches etc…) dry (use poly pro/thermax – “Buddy System” liner socks and foot – warm with body heat powder/ change insoles also) – caution skin contact with – protect yourself from super-cooled metals or wind fuel – drink hot fluids and eat – seek medical aid for all often suspected cases – keep active
  19. 19. Chilblains Nonfreezing cold injury Cold, wet conditions (between 32-60oF, high humidity) Repeated, prolonged exposure of bare skin Can develop in only a few hours Ears, nose, cheeks, fingers, and toes
  20. 20. ChilblainsSymptoms: – initially pale and colorless – worsens to achy, prickly sensation then numbness – red, swollen, hot, itchy, tender skin upon rewarming – blistering in severe cases
  21. 21. ChilblainsTreatment – prevent further exposure – wash, dry gently – rewarm (apply body heat) – don’t massage or rub – dry sterile dressing – seek medical aid
  22. 22. ChilblainsPrevention – keep dry and warm – cover exposed skin – wear uniform properly – use the “Buddy System”
  23. 23. Trench/Immersion FootPotentially crippling, nonfreezing injury (temps from 50oF-32oF)Prolonged exposure of skin to moisture (12 or more hours, days)High risk during wet weather, in wet areas, or sweat accumulated in boots or gloves
  24. 24. Trench/Immersion Foot Symptoms – initially appears wet, soggy, white, shriveled – sensations of pins and needles, tingling, numbness, and then pain – skin discoloration-red, bluish, or black – becomes cold, swollen, and waxy appearance – may develop blisters, open weeping or bleeding – in extreme cases, flesh dies
  25. 25. Trench/Immersion Foot
  26. 26. Trench/Immersion Foot Treatment – prevent further exposure – dry carefully – DO NOT break blisters, apply lotions, massage, expose to heat, or allow to walk on injury – rewarm with body heat – clean and wrap loosely – elevate feet to reduce swelling – evacuate for medical treatment
  27. 27. Trench/Immersion Foot Prevention – keep feet dry – change socks at least every 8 hours or whenever wet and apply foot powder – bring extra boots to field – no blousing bands – report all suspected cases to leadership
  28. 28. DehydrationA loss of body fluids to the point of slowing or preventing normal body functionsIncreases chance of becoming a cold weather casualty, esp hypothermiaCan lead to heat cramps or heat exhaustion
  29. 29. Dehydration Symptoms – dark urine – irritability – headache – decreased amount of – dizziness, nausea urine being produced – weakness – mental sluggishness – dry mouth, tongue, – increased or rapid throat, lips heartbeat – lack of appetite – lethargic – stomach cramps or vomiting – unconsciousness
  30. 30. DehydrationTreatment – drink WATER or other warm liquids – avoid caffeinated liquids (sodas, coffee, tea) – do not eat snow – rest
  31. 31. DehydrationPrevention – drink minimum of 3 canteens of water daily for inactivity and 5-6 quarts for activity – monitor urine color – do not wait until you are thirsty – drink hot liquids for warmth (non-caffeine)
  32. 32. Constipation Infrequent or difficult  Symptoms passage of solid – loss of appetite human waste – headache – cramping – painful defecation
  33. 33. Constipation Treatment  Prevention – water consumption – drink 4-6 quarts – medical treatment water daily may be necessary – available latrine facilities protected from the elements – eating properly, esp high fiber foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads
  34. 34. Sunburn Burning of the skin  Symptoms due to overexposure – redness of skin, to the sun and UV slight swelling (1st light deg) Contributing factors – prolonged exposure – fair skin, light hair (2nd deg) – exposed skin  pain and blistering – reflective qualities of  chills, fever, the snow headache – high altitudes
  35. 35. Sunburn Treatment  Prevention – soothing skin creams – cover exposed skin in mild cases with clothing – in severe cases, – sunscreen, lip balm seek medical – limit exposure of skin attention to the environment – aspirin for pain
  36. 36. Carbon Monoxide PoisoningWhen oxygen in the body is replaced by carbon monoxide – colorless, odorless, tasteless gas resulting from incomplete combustionInadequate ventilation from engines, stoves, heaters
  37. 37. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Symptoms – headache – nausea – dizziness – bright red lips, – weakness eyelids – excessive yawning – drowsiness – ringing in ears – unconsciousness – confusion – possibly death
  38. 38. Carbon Monoxide PoisoningTreatment – move to fresh air immediately – seek medical aid promptly – provide mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if victim is not breathing
  39. 39. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Prevention – ensure proper ventilation – don’t use unvented heaters or engines – ensure heaters are regularly serviced – turn heaters off when not needed (during sleep) – never sleep in vehicle with engine running – never wrap poncho around vehicle exhaust to collect heat
  40. 40. Snow Blindness Inflammation and  Symptoms sensitivity of the – gritty feeling in eyes eyes caused by – redness and tearing ultraviolet rays of – eye movement will the sun reflected by cause pain the snow or ice – headache
  41. 41. Snow Blindness Treatment  Prevention – remove from sunlight – eye protection – blindfold both eyes  dark, UV protective or cover with cool, glasses wet bandages  field expedient-cut narrow slits in MRE – seek medical cardboard and tie attention around head – recovery may take 2- – do not wait for 3 days discomfort to begin
  42. 42. ConclusionDress properlyDrink plenty of fluidsEat rightKeep in shapeGet plenty of restMinimize periods of inactivityMaintain a positive attitude