non pharmacological treatment for myocardial infarction
Avoiding tobacco smoking, eating a well-balanced diet that is
low in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates,
undertaking regular physical activity, maintaining
appropriate body weight, and moderating the
consumption of alcoholic beverages provide the foundation
for prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Cessation of smoking should be given priority in
risk-factor reduction. Patients should be assisted
to avoid the increase in weight that can be
associated with reduction in tobacco use, but it
should be emphasized that in terms of
cardiovascular disease risk, the benefits of
cessation of smoking far outweigh any
disadvantages such as weight gain.
Appropriate diet exerts a protective effect beyond the
associated improvement in major identified risk factors.
Dietary changes need to be maintained long term.
Eating food with a high content of saturated or trans fatty
acids should be minimized, replaced by unsaturated fats such
as olive oil, canola, avocados and nuts.
A balanced diet, which is high in vegetables and legumes, low
in meat, low in dairy except yoghurt and cheese, includes daily
consumption of nuts, and has most of its fat from olive oil, is
the most proven dietary intervention, and these should be
Dietary fish intake can provide necessary protein with less fat
than with other animal protein and probably has additional
cardiovascular benefits. Fish should be eaten two or three times
Healthy eating must be maintained long term.
use plant sterols and plant stanols in enriched foods such as yoghurt,
milk and margarine
do not add salt to cooking or meals.
If weight loss is required:
to control calorie (kilojoule) intake, minimise high energy-density, low
nutrient-density foods (eg those high in fat, alcohol and sugar)
choose nutrient-dense foods that have been associated with reduced
coronary heart disease risk (eg oily fish, unsaturated fats and oils,
wholegrain breads and cereals, legumes, fruit, vegetables)
be aware of unrecognised fats—such as in cakes, biscuits, pastries and
many takeaway and snack foods.
The risks of obesity can be assessed by measuring the waist circumference,
and calculating the body mass index (BMI). Waist circumference is a very
good predictor of risk, and is easy for health professionals and patients to
measure. As body mass index increases, so does the risk of cardiovascular
disease. Abdominal (visceral) adiposity in particular is associated with
adverse changes in several major risk factors. Increased risk is indicated
with waist measurements of 94 cm or more in men and 80 cm or more in
women. Measurements of 102 cm or more in males and 88 cm or more in
females indicate substantially increased risk.
The benefits of weight reduction include lower blood pressure, lower LDL
cholesterol and triglycerides, higher HDL cholesterol. Permanent change in
diet and activity is required to achieve and maintain ideal weight and waist
circumference. A realistic goal for sustained weight loss is 0.5 kg per week.
The benefits of weight loss are less clear in the elderly, in whom the
relationship between mortality and obesity is not so clearly defined.
Regular physical activity reduces the incidence of, and fatality rate from,
cardiovascular disease. It also reduces the risk of heavy bodyweight,
blood pressure and lipid profile. Moderate improvements in physical
activity bring substantial health benefits, and improving fitness can
reduce the risk of premature death.
Australia's Heart Foundation recommends at least 30 minutes of
moderate intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, on at least
five days a week (ie 150 minutes per week minimum). This total amount
of activity can be accumulated in bouts as short as 10 minutes duration.
While this level of moderate physical activity is recommended, more
vigorous activity (for those who are willing and able) may confer
additional benefit in terms of cardiovascular health
An other non pharmacological treatment include Yoga and meditation
This helps in relieving stress and there by reducing the stress on heart
and blood circulation