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non pharmacological treatment for myocardial infarction


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apart from pharmacological treatment non pharmacological treatment also plays a major role in myocardial infarction management

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non pharmacological treatment for myocardial infarction

  1. 1. Avoiding tobacco smoking, eating a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates, undertaking regular physical activity, maintaining appropriate body weight, and moderating the consumption of alcoholic beverages provide the foundation for prevention of cardiovascular disease.
  2. 2.  Smoking cessation Dietary control (low cholesterol) Weight reduction Exercise
  3. 3. Smoking cessation  Cessation of smoking should be given priority in risk-factor reduction. Patients should be assisted to avoid the increase in weight that can be associated with reduction in tobacco use, but it should be emphasized that in terms of cardiovascular disease risk, the benefits of cessation of smoking far outweigh any disadvantages such as weight gain.
  4. 4. Diet  Appropriate diet exerts a protective effect beyond the associated improvement in major identified risk factors. Dietary changes need to be maintained long term.  Eating food with a high content of saturated or trans fatty acids should be minimized, replaced by unsaturated fats such as olive oil, canola, avocados and nuts.  A balanced diet, which is high in vegetables and legumes, low in meat, low in dairy except yoghurt and cheese, includes daily consumption of nuts, and has most of its fat from olive oil, is the most proven dietary intervention, and these should be recommended.  Dietary fish intake can provide necessary protein with less fat than with other animal protein and probably has additional cardiovascular benefits. Fish should be eaten two or three times each week.  Healthy eating must be maintained long term.
  5. 5.  In addition:  use plant sterols and plant stanols in enriched foods such as yoghurt, milk and margarine  do not add salt to cooking or meals.  If weight loss is required:  to control calorie (kilojoule) intake, minimise high energy-density, low nutrient-density foods (eg those high in fat, alcohol and sugar)  choose nutrient-dense foods that have been associated with reduced coronary heart disease risk (eg oily fish, unsaturated fats and oils, wholegrain breads and cereals, legumes, fruit, vegetables)  be aware of unrecognised fats—such as in cakes, biscuits, pastries and many takeaway and snack foods.
  6. 6. Body weight  The risks of obesity can be assessed by measuring the waist circumference, and calculating the body mass index (BMI). Waist circumference is a very good predictor of risk, and is easy for health professionals and patients to measure. As body mass index increases, so does the risk of cardiovascular disease. Abdominal (visceral) adiposity in particular is associated with adverse changes in several major risk factors. Increased risk is indicated with waist measurements of 94 cm or more in men and 80 cm or more in women. Measurements of 102 cm or more in males and 88 cm or more in females indicate substantially increased risk.  The benefits of weight reduction include lower blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, higher HDL cholesterol. Permanent change in diet and activity is required to achieve and maintain ideal weight and waist circumference. A realistic goal for sustained weight loss is 0.5 kg per week. The benefits of weight loss are less clear in the elderly, in whom the relationship between mortality and obesity is not so clearly defined.
  8. 8. Physical activity  Regular physical activity reduces the incidence of, and fatality rate from, cardiovascular disease. It also reduces the risk of heavy bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid profile. Moderate improvements in physical activity bring substantial health benefits, and improving fitness can reduce the risk of premature death.  Australia's Heart Foundation recommends at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, on at least five days a week (ie 150 minutes per week minimum). This total amount of activity can be accumulated in bouts as short as 10 minutes duration. While this level of moderate physical activity is recommended, more vigorous activity (for those who are willing and able) may confer additional benefit in terms of cardiovascular health  An other non pharmacological treatment include Yoga and meditation This helps in relieving stress and there by reducing the stress on heart and blood circulation
  9. 9. THANK YOU