Testing the waters:
Dogger Bank and Jutland
through the lens of a model for
Command and Control

Dr Alexander Kalloniatis
...
Outline
• The question
• A Model for C2
• Test Case: Jutland
(1916)
• Battle of Dogger
Bank, 1915
• Dogger Bank
Analysis
•...
C2: an individual or a system?
• Australian Brigadier
(C.2007):
“I am the C2 system!”
• WWMCCS/GCCS/GIG
= NCW
The WWI Royal Navy Network

NCW … an ancient concept: “A line of First World War battleships should really be understood
a...
Q.
• Can we detect the personality of the
Commander through the artefacts of the
Command and Control system?
Command and Control
• Pigeau-McCann1 definition:
– Command: creative expression of human will
necessary to accomplish the ...
Boyd* model for C2
• C2 is an ongoing
cycle:
Observe
Orient
Decide
Act

= OODA loop
*John R. Boyd, USAF COL (1927-1997),
K...
A Unified C2 Model
Dynamical System:
Phase Space
Analysis of the Battle of Jutland
From Kalloniatis, Papers in Aust. Mar. Affairs 35, SPC-A Annual, 2010, 34-65

HMS Barham...
Phases at Jutland
31st May – 1st June 1916
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

14:28-15:58: “German coded message
intercepted…” Ba...
Jutland Data
AG
PAG
AS
PAS
ME+
MEFS
PFS
IE
RE
QE
IEC
REC
QEC
PES
PEG
QS
IS
QU
POG
POS
QOC
ROC
IOC
QO
RO
IO
XD
M0
C
AO
MP
MS
MO
PMO
E
H
...
OODA State

Extended Effect
Keep close to me during the night.
Immediate Action
Report when all ships are in station
Delay...
Plotting the data
For every ‘From’
signal in a period of
time plot the
coordinates
representing its C2
‘content’. Build up...
Jutland Phase 1: 14.28-15.58

166 signals sent in 90 mins = 1.84 signals/min = signal every 32 s.
70
65
60
55
50
45
40

B
...
Jutland Phase 2: 15.58-17.28

121 signals sent in 90 mins = 1.34 signals/min = signal every 44 s.
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
...
Jutland Phase 3: 17.28-18.58

199 signals sent in 90 mins = 2.21 signals/min = signal every 27s.
70

Hot Spots –
A: Coordi...
Jutland Phase 4: 18.58-20.28

226 signals sent in 90 mins = 2.51 signals/min = signal every 24 s.
70
65

Hot Spots –
A: Co...
Jutland Phase 5: 20.28-21.58

130 signals sent in 90 mins = 1.44 signals/min = signal every 41s.
70

Hot Spots –
A: Coordi...
Jutland Phase 6: 21.58-23.28

53 signals sent in 90 mins = 0.59 signals/min = signal every 101 s.
70

Hot Spots –
A: Coord...
Jutland Phase 7: 23.28-00.58

35 signals sent in 90 mins = 0.39 signals/min = signal every 153 s.
70

Hot Spots –
A: Coord...
Jutland Phase 8: 00.58-02.28

50 signals sent in 90 mins = 0.56 signals/min = 107 s.
70

Hot Spots –
A: Coordination.
B: A...
Jutland Phase 9: 02.28-03.58

184 signals sent in 90 mins = 2.04 signals/min = signal every 29 s.
70

Hot Spots –
A: Coord...
Observations and Validation I:
Control
•

Control, control, … immediate control …
Jellicoe used his C2-system as a tightly...
Observations and Validation II:
Insufficient focus on the Enemy
• In particular, few signals for
maneouvering with respect...
The Battle of the Dogger Bank
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•

23 January 1915 Admiralty ‘Room 40’
decodes German signal of ene...
Dogger Bank Data
Limitations
• Only 85 Telegrams and Signals published in
Naval Staff Monograph.
• Not complete: Despatches refer to other
...
Jutland Phase 3: 17.28-18.58

70

Hot Spots –
A: Coordination.
B: Adversary Info
C: Own info.
D: Adversary Q
E: Higher Int...
Dogger Bank: 23-24 Jan 1915

B
19

Hot Spots –
A: Coordination.
B: Adversary Info
C: Own info.
D: Adversary Q
E: Higher In...
Result 1
• Certainly more
aggressive than Jutland,
consistent with Beatty’s
command philosophy.
• Maybe the proximity of
t...
Jutland Phase 1: 14.28-15.58

70
65
60
55
50
45
40

B

35
30
25

F

20

D

C

15

E

10
5
0

4
1
2

0

-2

-4

-3
-6
12

1...
Jutland Phase 2: 15.58-17.28

70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25

A

B

20
15

C

10

E

5
0

4
1
2

0

-2

-4

-3
-6
12

10

8...
Jutland: BCF to 18:00

85
75

A

B

65

Hot Spots –
A: Coordination.
B: Adversary Info
C: Own info.
D: Adversary Q
E: High...
Jutland all Phases: BCF Only

250
235
220
205
190
175
160
145
Number of
130
Signals
115
100
85
70
55
40
25
10
-5

Hot Spot...
Result 2
• More focus on adversary, especially up to
18:00, but still dominated by internal C2.
• Compare scales in ORBAT:...
Conclusions – Future Work
• Conclusions:
– Novel Representation and Visualisation of Data in an abstract
C2 Model.
– Valid...
Conclusions – Future Work
•

Conclusions:
–
–

•

Novel Representation and Visualisation of Data
in ab abstract C2 Model.
...
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2013 King Hall Day 2 Session 1 - 1

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  • Note the “Concept diagram”: dynamics implied but still static.
  • 2013 King Hall Day 2 Session 1 - 1

    1. 1. Testing the waters: Dogger Bank and Jutland through the lens of a model for Command and Control Dr Alexander Kalloniatis Joint Operations Division
    2. 2. Outline • The question • A Model for C2 • Test Case: Jutland (1916) • Battle of Dogger Bank, 1915 • Dogger Bank Analysis • Conclusions HMS Lion, Ivan Berryman
    3. 3. C2: an individual or a system? • Australian Brigadier (C.2007): “I am the C2 system!” • WWMCCS/GCCS/GIG = NCW
    4. 4. The WWI Royal Navy Network NCW … an ancient concept: “A line of First World War battleships should really be understood as a single weapons system …[to] coordinate … gunnery …[in a] system of systems … [provide] commander … accurate information … connect sensor to shooter … appropriate information was passed around the fleet in a timely manner.” Geoffrey Till, Seapower: A Guide for the 21st Century.
    5. 5. Q. • Can we detect the personality of the Commander through the artefacts of the Command and Control system?
    6. 6. Command and Control • Pigeau-McCann1 definition: – Command: creative expression of human will necessary to accomplish the mission. – Control: those structures and processes devised by command to enable it and to manage risk. – Command and Control: the establishment of common intent to achieve coordinated action. 1. Pigeau and McCann, “Reconceptualising Command and Control”, Can. Mil. J. 2002
    7. 7. Boyd* model for C2 • C2 is an ongoing cycle: Observe Orient Decide Act = OODA loop *John R. Boyd, USAF COL (1927-1997), Korean War combat pilot, military strategist.
    8. 8. A Unified C2 Model Dynamical System: Phase Space
    9. 9. Analysis of the Battle of Jutland From Kalloniatis, Papers in Aust. Mar. Affairs 35, SPC-A Annual, 2010, 34-65 HMS Barham leads the 5th BS, Anthony Saunders
    10. 10. Phases at Jutland 31st May – 1st June 1916 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 14:28-15:58: “German coded message intercepted…” Battlecruiser Duel: BCF vs SG 15:58-17:28: BCF Run to the North 17:28-18:58: “Where is the Enemy?” (CinC). Deployment of the Grand Fleet. 18:58-20:28: Clash of the Battle Fleets; German about face. 20:28-21:58: Nightfall. 21:58-23:28: Tails of the Fleets intersect 23:28-00:58: and engage sporadically 00:58-02:28: but does anyone inform the CinC? 02:28-03:58: Dawn and the Enemy has escaped; Cease-Fire.
    11. 11. Jutland Data
    12. 12. AG PAG AS PAS ME+ MEFS PFS IE RE QE IEC REC QEC PES PEG QS IS QU POG POS QOC ROC IOC QO RO IO XD M0 C AO MP MS MO PMO E H PH OH SH CU FT Attack generally -10 Prepare to attack generally -10 Attack Specific target -9 Engage the Enemy’s Prepare to Attack specific target -9 right from 1 to 4 Maneouvre towards Enemy -7 Maneouvre away from Enemy -6 Form Screen -5 Prepare to Form Screen -5 Information about Enemy State -4 At 2.30 German Main Reply about Enemy State -4 Fleet in Lat …Long.. Question about Enemy State -4 Course.. German coded message -3 16 knots. Information about Enemy Communications intercepted from DZ to Reply about Enemy Communications -3 Question about Enemy Communications -3 DR…. Prepare/Look out for Enemy Specific -2 Prepare/Look out for Enemy General -1 Question about battle Space 0 Information about battle Space 0 Question about Unknowns State 0 Prepare/Look out for Own General 1 Prepare/Look out for Own Specific 2 Did you get signal from Question about Own Communications 3 CinC to close? Reply about Own Communications 3 Information about Own Communications 3 My position at Question about Own State 4 Reply about Own State 4 15:15, Information about Own State 4 ..Lat..Long..course.. Admiral intends to Negative of any order X that has movement or attack content: it removes constraint on addressee to 5 Speed. Delegation of Responsibility/Discretion 5 proceed at … Statement of move intent 5 Communicate 6 Adjust Own Physical State, aside from Movement 7 Move with reference to a Plan 8 Move with reference to Space 9 Move with reference to Own forces 10 Remember traditions of Prepare to Move with reference to Own 10 glorious 1 June… Encouraging, morale boosting 11 Provide help 12 Prepare to Help 12 Submit van of Offer, Suggest or Proposing Help 12 Battleships follow Seek (Question) Help 12 Battle Cruisers. We can Change Unit 13 cut off whole of Flag Transfer 13 Enemy’s Battlefleet. Command | Control Of The Enemy Orientation and Scope of Intended Effect Own Forces of Control | Command
    13. 13. OODA State Extended Effect Keep close to me during the night. Immediate Action Report when all ships are in station Delayed Action - specific time and correct. Preparatory to Effect Admiral intends to proceed at …knots. Suggestion for Effect Am I to follow you or steer south after fleet? Information Correcting/disputing information An Enemy force, apparently consisting Uncertainty in information being conveyed (preceded by IO,IE,RO,RE) of 7 ships besides Destroyers … Scrambled Communication/Received message does not match sent message. Not logged as having been received CinC: Where is Enemy’s BF? Question SOBCF: Have sighted Enemy battlefleet bearing SSW. No answer: Unresponded Question 6 5 4 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 A D O O FOG OF WAR
    14. 14. Plotting the data For every ‘From’ signal in a period of time plot the coordinates representing its C2 ‘content’. Build up count at each point.
    15. 15. Jutland Phase 1: 14.28-15.58 166 signals sent in 90 mins = 1.84 signals/min = signal every 32 s. 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 B 35 30 25 F 20 D C 15 E 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals A Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. Sense-Decision Making
    16. 16. Jutland Phase 2: 15.58-17.28 121 signals sent in 90 mins = 1.34 signals/min = signal every 44 s. 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 A B 20 15 C 10 E 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. Sense-Decision Making
    17. 17. Jutland Phase 3: 17.28-18.58 199 signals sent in 90 mins = 2.21 signals/min = signal every 27s. 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 A 50 45 40 35 30 B F 25 20 E 15 C 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    18. 18. Jutland Phase 4: 18.58-20.28 226 signals sent in 90 mins = 2.51 signals/min = signal every 24 s. 70 65 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. A 60 55 50 45 40 30 E 25 B 20 15 G 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals C 35 Sense-Decision Making
    19. 19. Jutland Phase 5: 20.28-21.58 130 signals sent in 90 mins = 1.44 signals/min = signal every 41s. 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 C B 25 20 15 A E G 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    20. 20. Jutland Phase 6: 21.58-23.28 53 signals sent in 90 mins = 0.59 signals/min = signal every 101 s. 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 B 20 15 C 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    21. 21. Jutland Phase 7: 23.28-00.58 35 signals sent in 90 mins = 0.39 signals/min = signal every 153 s. 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 B 20 15 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    22. 22. Jutland Phase 8: 00.58-02.28 50 signals sent in 90 mins = 0.56 signals/min = 107 s. 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    23. 23. Jutland Phase 9: 02.28-03.58 184 signals sent in 90 mins = 2.04 signals/min = signal every 29 s. 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 50 45 40 C 35 30 A 25 B 20 G 15 E 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    24. 24. Observations and Validation I: Control • Control, control, … immediate control … Jellicoe used his C2-system as a tightly coupled control network. • “Jellicoe’s main fault was that ‘control’ was a contract he tried to make with fate: he feared losing it, sublimated the possibility that he might do so, and imposed a doctrinal regime which seemingly presumed to govern the very nature of warfare.” Jutland Phase 3: 17.28-18.58 70 65 • 60 “Jellicoe’s desire for control and centralisation caused his command style to be .. Signals oriented …” 55 A 50 45 40 Number of Signals 30 “The over-centralization of British commandand-control at the time of Jutland is commonly attributed to the Victorian cultural conditioning of a service which had ‘forgotten what war was’.” B F 25 20 E 15 C 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 Andrew Gordon, Rules of the Game -8 -5 -10 • 35 Sense-D Ma
    25. 25. Observations and Validation II: Insufficient focus on the Enemy • In particular, few signals for maneouvering with respect to the enemy. Jutland Phase 3: 17.28-18.58 • “… the Dreyer system [of firecontrol] abetted an inhibition about one’s own movements, at the expense of a proactive interest in those of the enemy, and compounded the Grand Fleet’s psychosomatic command-andcontrol constraints.” Gordon 70 65 60 55 A 50 45 40 35 30 B F 25 20 E 15 C 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-D Ma
    26. 26. The Battle of the Dogger Bank • • • • • • • • • • • • • 23 January 1915 Admiralty ‘Room 40’ decodes German signal of enemy plan. 14.10 info conveyed to CinC. 07.05 24 January: Beatty’s BCF intercept Hipper. 07.35: Hipper seeks to escape, slowed down by Blücher. 08.52: Beatty’s flagship Lion opens fire. British fire concentrates on Blücher and Seydlitz. 10.18: Lion hit by Derfflinger. Hipper abandons Blücher. 10.47< Lion seriously disabled, can only signal by flag now. 11.10-11.12: 2 concurrent signals “Course NE” and “Engage enemy’s rear” But Beatty’s Intent: ships should pursue rest of German fleet†; Beatty begins transfer of flag from Lion. a/CO RADM Moore on NZ misunderstands signals and focuses British fire on disabled Blücher. 11.13-11.21: Last act on Lion, Beatty frantically signals “Keep nearer to the enemy”, but Moore too far away. Remaining German ships escape. 12.02: “Cease firing” from NZ 12.15: Beatty - “Shifted flag to Princess Royal” † “It is inconceivable that anybody should have thought it necessary for 4 BCs to have turned on the … defeated … Blücher…” Beatty to Jellicoe.
    27. 27. Dogger Bank Data
    28. 28. Limitations • Only 85 Telegrams and Signals published in Naval Staff Monograph. • Not complete: Despatches refer to other signals not published in Appendix A. • 3 Signals reconstructed based on these Despatches. • Total of 88 incl. Appendix B signals (10.2711.13, at climax of battle) folded into time sequence.
    29. 29. Jutland Phase 3: 17.28-18.58 70 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 65 60 55 A 50 45 40 35 30 B F 25 20 E 15 C 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    30. 30. Dogger Bank: 23-24 Jan 1915 B 19 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 17 A 15 13 C 11 F 9 7 5 3 1 4 -6 12 10 6 8 Orientation-Scope -3 4 2 0 -2 1 -4 -6 -8 -1 -10 Number of Signals Sense-Decision Making
    31. 31. Result 1 • Certainly more aggressive than Jutland, consistent with Beatty’s command philosophy. • Maybe the proximity of the adversary makes a difference? Jellicoe could barely see the HSF at Jutland but Beatty was consistently “in their teeth” up to 18:00. – Test BCF only at Jutland. Battle of Dogger Bank Approx. 09:00 24 Jan 1915 ~20km
    32. 32. Jutland Phase 1: 14.28-15.58 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 B 35 30 25 F 20 D C 15 E 10 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals A Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. Sense-Decision Making
    33. 33. Jutland Phase 2: 15.58-17.28 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 A B 20 15 C 10 E 5 0 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -3 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -6 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. Sense-Decision Making
    34. 34. Jutland: BCF to 18:00 85 75 A B 65 Hot Spots – A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. 55 45 C 35 25 15 5 4 1 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -3 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 -8 -5 -10 Number of Signals -6 Sense-Decision Making
    35. 35. Jutland all Phases: BCF Only 250 235 220 205 190 175 160 145 Number of 130 Signals 115 100 85 70 55 40 25 10 -5 Hot Spots – A A: Coordination. B: Adversary Info C: Own info. D: Adversary Q E: Higher Intent F: Attack adversary G: Confusion about own. C B E F G 0 3 -2 -6 12 10 8 Orientation-Scope 6 4 2 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 D Sense-Decision Making
    36. 36. Result 2 • More focus on adversary, especially up to 18:00, but still dominated by internal C2. • Compare scales in ORBAT: – Dogger Bank BCF: • 5 BCs, 7 LCs, 35 Ds (47) – Jutland BCF: • 6 BCs, 4 BSs, 14 LCs, 27 Ds, 1 AC (52) + coordination w.r.t some of 90+ ships of Grand Fleet after 18:00
    37. 37. Conclusions – Future Work • Conclusions: – Novel Representation and Visualisation of Data in an abstract C2 Model. – Validation of insights from this against expert historical analysis. • The command philosophy of a Commander can be detected through the data of the System; but the larger the system the less attention by the centre on the adversary. • Further validation required: – Comparison with pre- and post-battle Jutland signals; – Comparison with German signals at Jutland; – Heligoland Bight (28 Aug 1914); Scarborough Raid; WWII?
    38. 38. Conclusions – Future Work • Conclusions: – – • Novel Representation and Visualisation of Data in ab abstract C2 Model. Validation of insights from this against expert historical analysis. The command philosophy of a Commander can be detected through the data of the System; the larger the system the less attention by the centre on the adversary. ZZZ003 ZZZ002 Jutland Phase 1: 14.28-15.58 7: 23.28-00.58 6: 21.58-23.28 5: 20.28-21.58 4: 18.58-20.28 3: 17.28-18.58 2: 15.58-17.28 Jutland Phase 9: 02.28-03.58 8: 00.58-02.28 ZZZ001 R-----------ZN----------R 17105Z APR 13 A FM HQJOC ----A TO R---/HQJTF 6-- --INFO R---/HQJOC J--- CC A B Number of Number of R---/HQ71WG Signals Signals AA B C E F B B F DB BT A B B E C E G E C G C UNCLAS E C E SUBJ: DGOPS TASKORD 010/12 DO THIS. THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT. YOU NEED TO DO THESE IMMEDIATELY UNTIL Sense-Decision Sense-Decision I SAY STOP. Orientation-Scope Making Making Orientation-Scope A. STEP ONE. B. STEP TWO. 1.SITUATION 2.MISSION 3.EXECUTION 4.ADMIN AND LOG 5.COMMAND AND SIGNAL BT #6791 70 70 65 65 60 60 55 55 • 50 50 Further validation required: – – – Comparison with pre- and post-battle Jutland signals; Comparison with German signals at Jutland; Heligoland Bight (28 Aug 1914); Scarborough Raid; WWII? 45 45 40 40 35 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 • Strategic and Operational: How to apply to more sophisticated high-tech artefacts = ppt briefs, emails with attachments/video conferencing? 4 4 1 1 2 2 0 0 -3 -3 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 -2 -2 -4 -4 -6 -6 -8 -8 Operational to Tactical C2: Immediately applicable with Algorithmic Text Analysis Capability to real-time trawl through ‘Mercury’ Traffic. -10 -10 • -5 -5 -6 -6

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