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transportation

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road development in india

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transportation

  1. 1. TRANSPORTATION
  2. 2. ROAD DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING
  3. 3. HISTORY OF ROAD DEVELOPMENT • ROMAN ROADS • FRENCH ROAD BRITSH ROAD
  4. 4. CROSS SECTION OF ROAD • Composed of the following components • Sub Base • Base Course • Sub Grade • Surface/Wearing Course
  5. 5. • Sub Bases • Layer of granular material provided above subgrade. • Enables traffic stresses to be reduced to acceptable levels in subgrade . • Acts as a working plate form for the construction of upper pavement layers. • Acts as a drainage layer. • Intercept upward movement of water by capillary action. • Acts as a separating layer b/w subgrade and road base. • Base Course • layer immediately under the wearing surface. • It is subjected to severe loading.
  6. 6. • Types of base coarse • Granular Base Course • Macadam Base • In-water bound Macadam • Treated Bases • Surface/Wearing Course • top layers of pavement which is in direct contact with the wheel • Usually constructed of material in which bitumen is used as binder materials • Bituminous Pavement:
  7. 7. Necessity of transportation planning • Ensuring Safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods. • Transport planning is crucial in planning sustainable developments and ensuring accessibility for all individuals. • In the design phase of all major public amenities require significant transportation planning. • Justify funding • Obtain planning permission • Environmental considerations
  8. 8. Classification of Roads Based on Function: National Highways  State Highways Major District Roads Other District Roads Village Roads Expressways Based on Structural behavior: Flexible pavement Rigid Pavement  Based on Pavement Surface:  Earth Roads  Gravel Roads Water bound Macadam Road  Paved Roads (bitumin or concrete)
  9. 9. Based on Function National highway (NH): oThese are main roads running length and width of the country oConnects the National and State Capitals, major ports and rail junctions and link up with border roads and foreign highways oMost are maintained by the Government of India, others are operated under a public-private partnership by the private sector
  10. 10. State Highways oThe arterial roads of the state connects National highways of nearby states, state capitals, district head quarters and important cities within the state . oThe geometric design specification and design speed are more or less to National highways Major District Roads: oThese are important roads of the districts o connects areas of production, markets, near by main highways and also connects each other o Geometric specification and speed are lower than NH or SH
  11. 11. Other District Roads: oThese roads connects rural areas of production, outlets to market centre, taluk head quarters block development centres and to other district roads. oDesign specifications are lower than Major District Roads Village Roads: oThese roads serve as the feeder roads of the other highways as well as the roads for inter village movements. oThey pass through rural area connecting the villages to one another and to the nearest District Roads, State Highways, National Highways, Railway Roads
  12. 12. Expressway: • These are divided highways with high geometric standards. • They join major points of traffic generation and connect residential, industrial and commercial areas. • In these roads Traffic moves at high speed with high intensity.
  13. 13. Based on structural behavior Flexible Pavement: o Has low flexural strength. External load in this pavement is largely transmitted to the sub-grade by lateral distribution with increase in depth o The thickness of the pavement is so designed that stresses in the sub-grade soil are kept within its bearing capacity o Design is based on load distributing characteristics of the component layers o Have low completion cost but repairing cost is high o No thermal stresses are induced Rigid pavement: o Rigid pavements with stand more flexural stress o Stress developed are not transmitted to the layers o These type of pavements does not get deformed under wheel load o Have low repairing cost but completion cost is high
  14. 14. ROAD PATTERNS • Rectangular/Block/Grid Pattern • where the streets and roads are in the form of grids • blocks running perpendicularly into each other • normally considered weak from the road safety point of view as the vehicles meet at opposite directions at intersections • easier to construct and maintain • Radial Pattern • is in the form of circles emanating from the center of the area • Radial and Block Pattern • Radial and Grid Pattern • Hexagonal Pattern • Linear Pattern
  15. 15. Development of Roads in India Jayakar Committee • 1927 Jayakar committee for Indian road development was appointed • Central government should take the proper charge considering it as a matter of national interest • Emphasis on long term plan of 20 years. • Recommendations of periodic road conferences to discuss about road construction and development. Lead to formation of IRC. • Imposition of additional taxation on motor transport. Includes duty on motor spirit, vehicle taxation, license fees for vehicles plying for hire. Lead to development of CENTRAL ROAD FUND. • Research organisation to be made for research work and development • Led to formation of Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) in 1950
  16. 16. Nagpur road congress 1943: A twenty year development program for the period (1943- 1963) was finalized. It was the first attempt to prepare road development program in a planned manner. The roads were divided into four classes: National Highways, State Highways, District Roads and village Roads The committee planned to construct 2 lakh kms of road across the country within 20 years. One of the objective was that the road length should be increased so as to give a road density of 16 kms per 100 sq.km Introduction of star and grid pattern.
  17. 17. Bombay road congress 1961: It was the second 20 year road plan (1961-1981) The total road length targeted to construct was about 10 lakh kms Rural roads were given specific attention. Scientific methods of construction was proposed for the rural roads. They suggested that the length of the road should be increased so as to give a road density of 32kms/100 sq.km The construction of 1600 km of Expressways was also then included in the plan.
  18. 18. Lucknow road congress 1984: This was the third 20 year road plan (1981-2001). It aimed at constructing a road length of 12 lakh kms by the year 1981 resulting in a road density of 82kms/100 sq.km It aims at improving the transportation facilities in villages, towns etc. such that no part of country is farther than 50 km from NH. One of the goals contained in the plan was that expressways should be constructed on major traffic corridors to provide speedy travel. Energy conservation, environmental quality of roads and road safety measures were also given due importance in this plan.
  19. 19. HIGHWAY LOCATION AND ALLIGNMENT
  20. 20. POINTS TO BE COVERED • Basic Requirements of an Ideal Allignment. • Factors Controlling the Allignment. • Engineering Surveys for Highway Location. • Drawings and Reports.
  21. 21. Requirements of an Ideal Allignment Def? -Easiness. -Economics. -Safety. -Shortness.
  22. 22. Factors Controlling the Allignment • Availability of Road Building Materials. • Crossings. • Geological Features. • Land Acquisition. • Easy Grades and Curves. • Obligatory Points. • Proper Drainage. • Traffic. • Miscellaneous.
  23. 23. ENGINEERING SURVEYS • Reconnaissance Survey. • Preliminary Survey. • Location Survey.
  24. 24. RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY • Object. • Importance. • Information Collected. • Instruments.
  25. 25. PRELIMINARY SURVEY • Objects. • Importance. • Work. • Instruments.
  26. 26. LOCATION SURVEY • Object. • Importance. • Work. • Instruments.
  27. 27. DRAWINGS and REPORTS • DETAILS TO BE INCLUDED IN PROJECT REPORT. 1)Introduction of the Project, its necessity and importance, geographical features of the area,etc; 2)The factors considered while deciding the finally proposed allignment. 3)Details of width, gradients, levels of controlling points, etc;
  28. 28. Cont…… 4)Details of bridges, culverts, railway crossings, etc; 5)Details of rainfall, floods and other climatic conditions. 6)Specifications and other details of constructional standards.
  29. 29. Cont….. 7)Description of proposed alternative routes. 8)Conclusion giving reasons why the proposed route was finally recommended.
  30. 30. MAPS AND DRAWINGS REQUIRED • DETAILED DRAWING- contours, sections, c/s, design of structures. • INDEX MAP- topography of area symbolically. • KEY MAP-proposed and existing roads, places to be connected. • LAND PLANS- land acquisition details, quarries. • PRELIMINARY SURVEY PLANS- alternative allignments for future growth.
  31. 31. HIGHWAY GEOMETRY DESIGN
  32. 32. Highway Cross section Element
  33. 33. SIGHT DISTANCE • The distance along road surface at which a driver has visibility of objects stationary or moving at a specified height above the carriageway. • Criteria consider to design Highway: • Stopping sight Distance • Overtaking sight Distance
  34. 34. Stopping sight Distance • The Distance travelled before application of breaks: • d1= 0.695V • Distance travelled after application of break • d2=
  35. 35. Horizontal Alignment Formula for calculation of super elevation: μ=Coefficient of lateral friction,0.15 recommended by IRC. Value of super elevation (e) by IRC: 0.10 for area affected by snow. 0.07 for all other area unaffected by snow.
  36. 36. Vertical Alignment • Summit curve • for sight distance less than length of curve • L= • for sight distance less than length of curve • L=2S- • Sag curve • L=
  37. 37. Transition curve • Need of transition curve. • The spiral curve
  38. 38. Design of Highway Pavements
  39. 39. • TYPES OF PAVEMENT • FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT • RIGID PAVEMENT
  40. 40. Factors affecting design of pavement • Climate • Environment • Geometry • Pavement material • Subgrade soil • Traffic
  41. 41. Design of flexible pavements • The most commonly adopted design methods are 1] Group index (G.I.) method 2] California bearing ratio (C.B.R.) method
  42. 42. Group index (G.I.) method Group index= 0.2a + 0.005ac + 0.01bd a=portion of % of subgrade soil passing 75 micron sieve greater than 35 not exceeding 75, expressed in +ve 0 to 40 b=portion of subgrade soil passing 75 micron sieve greater than 15 and less than 55, expressed in +ve 0 to 40 c=portion of numerical liquid limit,greater than 40 less than 60, expressed in +ve 0 to 20 d=portion of numerical plasticity index,greater than 10 and less than 30, expressed in +ve 0 to 20
  43. 43. Design chart of G.I method
  44. 44. C.B.R. method • C.B.R. of a soil gives an idea about quality of subgrade material compared to the excellent base material of crushed rock and gravel.
  45. 45. C.B.R design chart
  46. 46. Design of Rigid pavements • Plain concrete • Reinforced concrete • Continuously reinforced concrete • Prestressed concrete • Factors governing design: Traffic parameters Environmental parameters Foundation strength Characteristics of concrete
  47. 47. Design of slab thickness: 1) Critical stress conditions a) Interior loading b) Edge loading c) Corner loading 2) Temperature stresses a)Wraping stresses b)Fractional stresses 3)Combination of stresses
  48. 48. CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS
  49. 49. Types of Roads • Earth Roads • Gravel Roads • Water Bound macadam roads. • Bituminous pavement • Cement concrete pavement
  50. 50. Earth Roads: low cost or cheapest type of road made of locally available natural soil
  51. 51. Gravel Road: oThese roads are superior to earth roads. oGravel roads does not become slippery when wetted by rain. oThe material used is crushed gravel of specified gradation and soil
  52. 52. Water Bound Macadam Road: broken aggregates that are interlocked mechanically by rolling and voids filled with screening and binding materials with the help of water
  53. 53. Bituminous Road: Construction is similar to WBM road. Surface layer is formed with the bitumen material
  54. 54. Cement concrete roads
  55. 55. Concrete pavements joints
  56. 56. END

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