HISTORY OF ROAD DEVELOPMENT
• ROMAN ROADS
• FRENCH ROAD
CROSS SECTION OF ROAD
• Composed of the following components
• Sub Base
• Base Course
• Sub Grade
• Surface/Wearing Course
• Sub Bases
• Layer of granular material provided above subgrade.
• Enables traffic stresses to be reduced to acceptable levels in subgrade .
• Acts as a working plate form for the construction of upper pavement layers.
• Acts as a drainage layer.
• Intercept upward movement of water by capillary action.
• Acts as a separating layer b/w subgrade and road base.
• Base Course
• layer immediately under the wearing surface.
• It is subjected to severe loading.
• Types of base coarse
• Granular Base Course
• Macadam Base
• In-water bound Macadam
• Treated Bases
• Surface/Wearing Course
• top layers of pavement which is in direct contact with the wheel
• Usually constructed of material in which bitumen is used as binder materials
• Bituminous Pavement:
Necessity of transportation planning
• Ensuring Safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and
environmentally compatible movement of people and goods.
• Transport planning is crucial in planning sustainable developments
and ensuring accessibility for all individuals.
• In the design phase of all major public amenities require significant
• Justify funding
• Obtain planning permission
• Environmental considerations
Classification of Roads
Based on Function:
Major District Roads
Other District Roads
Based on Structural
Based on Pavement
Water bound Macadam
Paved Roads (bitumin or
Based on Function
National highway (NH):
oThese are main roads running length and width of
oConnects the National and State Capitals, major
ports and rail junctions and link up with border
roads and foreign highways
oMost are maintained by the Government of India,
others are operated under a public-private
partnership by the private sector
oThe arterial roads of the state connects National highways
of nearby states, state capitals, district head quarters and
important cities within the state .
oThe geometric design specification and design speed are
more or less to National highways
Major District Roads:
oThese are important roads of the districts
o connects areas of production, markets, near by main
highways and also connects each other
o Geometric specification and speed are lower than NH or
Other District Roads:
oThese roads connects rural areas of production, outlets to
market centre, taluk head quarters block development
centres and to other district roads.
oDesign specifications are lower than Major District Roads
oThese roads serve as the feeder roads of the other
highways as well as the roads for inter village
oThey pass through rural area connecting the villages to
one another and to the nearest District Roads, State
Highways, National Highways, Railway Roads
• These are divided highways with high geometric
• They join major points of traffic generation and
connect residential, industrial and commercial areas.
• In these roads Traffic moves at high speed with high
Based on structural behavior
o Has low flexural strength. External load in this pavement is largely transmitted to
the sub-grade by lateral distribution with increase in depth
o The thickness of the pavement is so designed that stresses in the sub-grade soil are
kept within its bearing capacity
o Design is based on load distributing characteristics of the component layers
o Have low completion cost but repairing cost is high
o No thermal stresses are induced
o Rigid pavements with stand more flexural stress
o Stress developed are not transmitted to the layers
o These type of pavements does not get deformed under wheel load
o Have low repairing cost but completion cost is high
• Rectangular/Block/Grid Pattern
• where the streets and roads are in the form of grids
• blocks running perpendicularly into each other
• normally considered weak from the road safety point of view as the vehicles meet at
opposite directions at intersections
• easier to construct and maintain
• Radial Pattern
• is in the form of circles emanating from the center of the area
• Radial and Block Pattern
• Radial and Grid Pattern
• Hexagonal Pattern
• Linear Pattern
Development of Roads in India
• 1927 Jayakar committee for Indian road development was appointed
• Central government should take the proper charge considering it as a
matter of national interest
• Emphasis on long term plan of 20 years.
• Recommendations of periodic road conferences to discuss about road
construction and development. Lead to formation of IRC.
• Imposition of additional taxation on motor transport. Includes duty on
motor spirit, vehicle taxation, license fees for vehicles plying for hire. Lead
to development of CENTRAL ROAD FUND.
• Research organisation to be made for research work and development
• Led to formation of Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) in 1950
Nagpur road congress 1943:
A twenty year development program for the period (1943-
1963) was finalized.
It was the first attempt to prepare road development
program in a planned manner.
The roads were divided into four classes: National
Highways, State Highways, District Roads and village
The committee planned to construct 2 lakh kms of road
across the country within 20 years.
One of the objective was that the road length should be
increased so as to give a road density of 16 kms per 100
Introduction of star and grid pattern.
Bombay road congress 1961:
It was the second 20 year road plan (1961-1981)
The total road length targeted to construct was
about 10 lakh kms
Rural roads were given specific attention. Scientific
methods of construction was proposed for the rural
They suggested that the length of the road should
be increased so as to give a road density of
The construction of 1600 km of Expressways was
also then included in the plan.
Lucknow road congress 1984:
This was the third 20 year road plan (1981-2001).
It aimed at constructing a road length of 12 lakh kms by
the year 1981 resulting in a road density of 82kms/100
It aims at improving the transportation facilities in villages,
towns etc. such that no part of country is farther than 50
km from NH.
One of the goals contained in the plan was that
expressways should be constructed on major traffic
corridors to provide speedy travel.
Energy conservation, environmental quality of roads and
road safety measures were also given due importance in
DRAWINGS and REPORTS
• DETAILS TO BE INCLUDED IN PROJECT REPORT.
1)Introduction of the Project, its necessity and importance,
geographical features of the area,etc;
2)The factors considered while deciding the finally proposed
3)Details of width, gradients, levels of controlling points, etc;
4)Details of bridges, culverts, railway crossings, etc;
5)Details of rainfall, floods and other climatic conditions.
6)Specifications and other details of constructional standards.
7)Description of proposed alternative routes.
8)Conclusion giving reasons why the proposed route was finally
MAPS AND DRAWINGS REQUIRED
• DETAILED DRAWING- contours, sections, c/s, design of structures.
• INDEX MAP- topography of area symbolically.
• KEY MAP-proposed and existing roads, places to be connected.
• LAND PLANS- land acquisition details, quarries.
• PRELIMINARY SURVEY PLANS- alternative allignments for future growth.
• The distance along road surface at which a driver has visibility of
objects stationary or moving at a specified height above the
• Criteria consider to design Highway:
• Stopping sight Distance
• Overtaking sight Distance
Stopping sight Distance
• The Distance travelled before application of breaks:
• d1= 0.695V
• Distance travelled after application of break
Formula for calculation of super elevation:
μ=Coefficient of lateral friction,0.15 recommended
Value of super elevation (e) by IRC:
0.10 for area affected by snow.
0.07 for all other area unaffected by snow.
• Summit curve
• for sight distance less than length of curve
• for sight distance less than length of curve
• Sag curve
• Need of transition curve.
• The spiral curve
Factors affecting design of pavement
• Pavement material
• Subgrade soil
Design of flexible pavements
• The most commonly adopted design methods are
1] Group index (G.I.) method
2] California bearing ratio (C.B.R.) method
Group index (G.I.) method
Group index= 0.2a + 0.005ac + 0.01bd
a=portion of % of subgrade soil passing 75 micron sieve greater than
35 not exceeding 75, expressed in +ve 0 to 40
b=portion of subgrade soil passing 75 micron sieve greater than 15 and
less than 55, expressed in +ve 0 to 40
c=portion of numerical liquid limit,greater than 40 less than 60,
expressed in +ve 0 to 20
d=portion of numerical plasticity index,greater than 10 and less than
30, expressed in +ve 0 to 20
Design of slab thickness:
1) Critical stress conditions
a) Interior loading
b) Edge loading
c) Corner loading
2) Temperature stresses
3)Combination of stresses