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The seed & biotech industry


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The seed & biotech industry

  1. 1. The Seed & Biotech Industry: Past, Present & Future By M Prabhakar Rao President, NSAI 1
  2. 2. Phenomenal Progress in Agriculture India made phenomenal progress in agricultural sector in the post-independent era. Food grain production increased from a mere 50 million tonnes to over 227 million tones in the last six decades. Production increased by 11 times in Wheat, 4 times in Rice. Cotton production increased by 11 times. Oil seed production increased by 5 times. Though production index (total food produced per land area) has risen considerably, the food index (food produced per person) has not increased proportionately. 2
  3. 3. Agriculture Production & Quality Seed Distribution Year Food Grain Cotton Oil Seeds Quality Production Production Production seeds (million tonnes) (million bales (million distributed tonnes) (lakh qtls)1950-51 50.82 3.04 5.16 -1960-61 82.02 5.60 6.98 -1970-71 108.42 4.76 9.63 5.01980-81 129.59 7.01 9.37 35.01990-91 176.39 9.84 18.61 57.102000-01 195.92 9.65 18.40 85.442007-08 227.30 31.00 28.82 110.00 3
  4. 4. Role of Seed Industry Seed sector made impressive progress over the last five decades. Quantity of quality seeds handled crossed 100 lakh qtls as against 1 lakh qtls in the 60s Growth of food grain production and seed production happened simultaneously, clearly establishing linkage between the two and dependence of agricultural production on quality seed production and availability. Seed is the only vehicle to carry superior genetics with high yield potential and biotech traits to the farmer. Technology delivery to both small and big farmers through seed is the most convenient and effective way (as compared to other productivity enhancing inputs like fertilizers, irrigation etc). Seed offers “low cost - easy to deliver”, solutions for raising the crop productivity. 4
  5. 5. The establishment and growth of seed industry Seed Industry was primarily in public sector in 60’s and 70’s. From 70’s onwards, participation of private sector strengthened the seed industry. In the beginning, public sector was instrumental in bringing in hybrid seed production technology, seed certification systems, seed processing, testing methods and quality control. Subsequently, private sector took over and made spectacular progress in the supply of quality seed. Seed Industry in India has grown largely on Indigenous technology. 5
  6. 6. The establishment and growth of seed industry (Contd...) Crop research institutes of the ICAR and the State Agricultural Universities were sources of technology for the seed companies in initial stages until 1980. Subsequently, several large private seed companies took up in-house breeding activities and developed excellent hybrids in the crops like Cotton, Maize, Jowar, Sunflowers, Bajra etc. The development of hybrids is largely based on indigenous germplasm except in Corn and some vegetable crops. The Biotech traits like Bt Cotton were brought into India by the private sector which contributed significantly to the yield increases in cotton. 6
  7. 7. Present Status There are two Govt. of India organizations ie., National Seeds Corporation (NSC) and State Farms Corporation of India (SFCI) and 14 State Seed Corporations (SSC). There are estimated to be 500 private seed companies operating at various levels. Total value of seeds sold in India is estimated at Rs. 5,000 Crores. Private sector seed companies account for about 90% of the total value of the seed distributed. 7
  8. 8. Present Status Contd….. Hybrid Seeds In the several important crops hybrid seeds have contributed a lot in improving yields, quality and pest / disease resistance. S. No Crop % of hybrid seed Estimated Value usage (Rs. In Crores) 1 Cotton 80 1870 2 Maize 55 690 3 Bajra 80 150 4 Sunflower 100 250 5 Rice 3 190 6 Veg crops like Chillies, Bhendi, Tomato, Cabbage, Cauliflower, - 250 Brinjal 8
  9. 9. Present Status Contd….. Extension activities taken up by the Seed Industry Seed companies take up extension of appropriate crop production technologies particularly in case of hybrid seeds so that the farmers harness the full genetic potential by adopting proper agronomic practices.Ex: (i) Bt Cotton – Closer spacing and increase of plant population on account of change in the land architecture has resulted in increase in productivity by 100 – 150% 9
  10. 10. Present Status Contd…..Extension activities taken up by the Seed Industry (ii) Hybrid Maize – High density planting, Yield increase up to 70- 100% (iii)Hybrid Rice - Reduced seed rate (Also benefitting OPV users) (iv)Hybrid Tomato - Staking for 4 – 5 time higher yields. (v) Introduction of seed treatments in Cotton, Maize, Sunflower, Bajra to provide ease of cultivation to the farmer. 10
  11. 11. Future Thrust Areas in Agriculture The food grain production needs to be increased faster than the demand, for the food security of the country. Technologies to produce crops with less water, less fertilizer and other inputs is the need of the hour. Enhancing disease and pest tolerance to reduce application of chemicals and minimizing production risks to the farmers. Breed crops to enable farmers practice sustainable agriculture. Technologies to reduce use of human labour and enable mechanization in agriculture. 11
  12. 12. Rice In Rice, increasing usage of hybrids from the present 3% to a level of at least 25% can contribute an additional 25 million tones of Rice production. All the area under hybrids now is in Central part of the country around Uttar Pradesh. The industry is working overtime to develop suitable Rice hybrids for the South, East and Northern parts of the country. 12
  13. 13. Other Major Crops In crops like Wheat, Mustard, Redgram (Arhar) also there is potential to develop hybrids and industry is spending huge financial and human resources for breeding hybrids in these crops which may be launched in the next few years. The Introduction of the hybrids in these crops can enhance the yields @ 10% per annum. 13
  14. 14. Impact of Biotechnology The introduction of Bt Cotton in India has seen the cotton production increased from 140 Lakh bales to 310 Lakh bales in five years. India is poised to become the largest cotton producer in the world surpassing China in the next 5 years. There are several technologies that can revolutionize agricultural production impacting other major crops like Maize, Soybean, Rice etc. 14
  15. 15. Current Research in Biotechnology There are several technologies which are mostly addressing pest and disease problems at various stages of development which are likely to make a great impact on Indian agriculture. Biotech Crops under regulatory process in India, 2007 S. No Crop Organization Transgene IARI, New Delhi cry1Aa and cry1Aabc Sungrow Seeds Ltd, New Delhi cry1Ac Mahyco, Mumbai cry1Ac 1 Brinjal TNAU, Coimbatore 2 Cabbage Nunhems India Pvt Ltd cry1Ba and cry1Ca Directorate of Oilseeds Research (DOR), 3 Castor Hyderabad cry1Aa and cry1Ec Cauliflowe Sungro Seeds Ltd, New Delhi cry1Ac, cry1Ba and cry1Ca 4 r Nunhems India Pvt Ltd cry1Ac, cry1Ba and cry1Ca cry1Ab gene (MON 810 event) 5 Corn Monsanto, Mumbai Herbicide resistance 15
  16. 16. Current Research in Biotechnology Biotech Crops under regulatory process in India, 2007S. No Crop Organization Transgene 6 Groundnut ICRISAT, Hyderabad chitinase gene from rice (Rchit) 7 Okra Mahyco, Mumbai cry1Ac, cry2Ab Central Potato Research Institute 8 Potato (CPRI), Shimla RB gene derived from Solanum bulbocastanum IARI, New Delhi cry1B-cry1Aa fusion gene Mahyco, Mumbai cry1Ac, cry2Ab 9 Rice TNAU, Coimbatore rice chitinase (chi11) or tobacco osmotin gene antisense replicase gene of tomoto leaf curl IARI, New Delhi virus 10 Tomato Mahyco, Mumbai cry1Ac 11 Cotton MMBL, Mumbai RR Flex for herbicide resistance 16
  17. 17. Future Biotech technologies Agri biotech technologies under various stages of development globally that would impact Indian agriculture.c) Crops resistant to drought and other environmental stresses like salinityd) Crops engineered for Nitrogen use efficiency.e) Crops engineered to produce pharmaceuticals such as vaccines and anti biotics.f) Crops engineered for industrial uses like enhanced starch content, useful enzymes, higher biofuel efficacy.g) Crops with Nutritional enhancement.h) Crops with herbicide resistance for enabling low till / mechanized agriculture 17
  18. 18. The Industry Views There is a great potential for raising productivity of all the major crops in India. Seed industry can contribute substantially towards this goal by not only providing quality seeds but also through extension of production techniques. The cost benefit ratio on the money spent on seeds is very high as compared to the other options for raising crop productivity like fertilizers, irrigation etc. Seed prices in India are reasonable and affordable to the farmers and therefore there is no necessity for Govt. intervention. 18
  19. 19. What the Govt. can do The research and extension efforts of the seed companies need to be recognized and encouraged by the Govt. Launching of technology mission to encourage R&D, enhance seed production and distribution. To devise Seed Crop Insurance Scheme to cover the risk of seed growing farmers taking into consideration various aspects of seed productions. Establishment of Seed Banks. 19
  20. 20. The support sought by seed industry Grant of infrastructure status to seed industry. Availability of soft loans for capital investment and working capital. Creation of a corpus fund for acquiring agri biotechnologies globally and make them available to the farmers by distributing / licensing through the seed companies. Inclusion of labelled seeds of the private sector seed companies in centrally sponsored seed distribution schemes of Govt. of India 20
  21. 21. The support sought by seed industry Contd.. Extending production and distribution subsidies to the private sector for their privately bred varieties / hybrids. Creation of enabling environment for the seed industry to grow and perform. NSAI through its members is set to achieve much needed growth in Agri-Productivity for the benefit of millions of Indian Farmers and to ensure Nation’s Food Security. 21
  22. 22. THANK YOU 22