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Introduction to Nursing


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Introduction to Nursing

  1. 1. Start with the name of ALLAH the most merciful and mighty
  2. 2. Step in to Bright Future SARHAD UNIVERSITY Of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar
  4. 4. NATURE OF NURSING HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: Many authors have contributed their thoughts about the nature of nursing. Nursing has begun as the desire to keep people healthy and provide comfort, care and assurance to the sick.
  5. 5. NATURE OF NURSING • Nursing is as old as medicine. • In ancient india,susrutha defines the ideal relations of doctor,patient,nurse and medicine as the four feet upon which a cure must rest (susrutha samhitha) • The entry of women into nursing can be traced to approximately 300 A.D.
  6. 6. NATURE OF NURSING: •Various definitions of nursing from the times of nightingale to the present, which help to know the nature of nursing are as fallows: •Nursing means" To have charge of the personal health of somebody…and what nursing has to do– is to put the patient in the best condition for the nature to act upon him” (Florence Nightingale 1859)
  7. 7. NATURE OF NURSING, • Nursing is “both an art and science involving the total patient, as promoting spiritual, mental and physical health; stressing health education and health preservation, ministering to the sick, caring for the patient environment and giving health service to the family, the community and the individual” • (Mother Olivia Gowan,1943)
  8. 8. NATURE OF NURSING •In 1965 American Nurses' Association define nursing as fallows: •“Nursing is of a vital consequence to the individual receiving services. It fills the needs that cannot be met by the person, family or other persons in the community”
  9. 9. DEFINITION OF NURSING AS APPROVED BY CNR,1987 •In 1987,international council of nurses approved the following definition of nursing: •“Nursing as an integral part of the health care system, encompasses the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and care of physically ill, mentally ill, and disabled people of all ages,in all health care and other community settings”
  10. 10. NURSING AS A PROFESSION WHAT IS A PROFESSION? •A profession is an occupation based on specialized intellectual study and training, The purpose of which is to supply skilled service with ethical components to others, for a definite fee or salary” (R.Louise Mcmanur,1952)
  11. 11. CRITERIA OF A PROFESSION: •In general to be a professional person, the person must; •Have a grasp of fundamental truth—a kind of truth that will make him free to think and act, •Have the ability to apply truth in dealing with new problem for which there is no precise answer at that moment and •Be able to remain unafraid under perplexities of changing basic knowledge, demands social conditions or personal upsets.
  12. 12. CRITERIA OF A PROFESSION: Many writers have listed the criteria of professionalization are as follows: •Abraham flexner(1915) •William j •William shephard(1948) •Bixler(1945) •Kelly(1981) •According to their criteria of profession, the WHO has recognised”nursing as a profession”.
  13. 13. PROFESSIONAL NURSING: •Professional nursing is an art and science dominated by an ideal service in which certain principles are applied in the skillful care of the such an appropriate relationship with the physician and with others who have related responsibilities.
  14. 14. VALUES OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING: • The values related the professional nursing are under three aspects i.e. 1. Values covering the professional nurse 2. Values covering the nurse-patient relationship 3. Values covering the relationships of the nurse to colleagues and to the community . Are as follows:
  15. 15. PROFESSIONAL NURSE: 1. The nurse should enter the profession with a strong moral character and during the years that she engaged in her profession she should continue to develop ethical and moral principles essential to gain confidence and trust of those with who she works. 2. The nurse should be eager to secure more knowledge of experience in nursing. But this knowledge should be gained to help people
  16. 16. 3.The nurse, when engaged in the practice of her/his profession should have the primary obligation to make as much time as possible available for the study and care of patients. 4.The nurse should make available as much time as possible for her/his work. But she/he should continue her/his self education to gain greater breadth and depth of preparation in nursing skills and to strengthen values which should guide her/his action as a citizen, as a professional nurse and as an individual.
  17. 17. CONTD…… 5.The nurse should be willing to share her/his research findings in nursing with others. 6.The nurse should be interested and willing to add to his/her nursing responsibilities as she/he progresses in her/his profession.
  18. 18. NURSE-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP: 1. It is important that the nurse have friendly, cheerful and pleasant relationships with the patient and his family. But it is equally important she/he not be familiar. 2. The nurses should show appropriate concern for their patients without becoming too involved emotionally. 3. The nurse must provide adequate and unhurried care for each patient.
  19. 19. CONTD…… 4.The nurse should do whatever is needed for the patients physical, mental and spiritual comfort. 5.The nurses should be concerned with the patients emotional needs as well as with his physical needs.
  20. 20. CONTD…. 6.The nurse must know their patient as a person and give substantial attention to their phychologic and social circumstances. They must know themselves and not become too subjective in their relationships to any patient. 7.The nurses should be good listeners but not to the extant that they start offering nothing of values to the conservation when it is needed
  21. 21. RELATIONSHIP OF THE NURSE TO COLLEAGUES AND THE COMMUNITY: 1.The nurse must be conscientious in carrying out the physicians instructions relating to the proper care of the patient. 2.The nurse must respect the reputation of her/his colleagues . 3.The nurse must collaborate with nursing team rather then dominate them.
  22. 22. 4.The nurse should be an active participant in nursing organizations. But she/he should not spend too much time away from her/his job. 5.The nurse must do all she/he can prevent illness and promote health. 6.The nurse must seek better ways of carrying out professional responsibilities. 7.The nurse should develop self-confidence and trust, in emergencies, make quick decisions and judgment.
  23. 23. CODE OF ETHICS OF A PROFESSION. •One of the criterion of a profession is that the profession" must recognize its obligations to society by insisting that its members live up to an established code of ethics” •Ethics has always been an integral part of nursing. •Professional code of ethics are a system of rules and principles by which that profession is demonstrate its responsibility to society.
  24. 24. THE PRACTICAL NURSE PLEDGE: Before God and those assembled here, I solemnly pledge; To adhere to the code of ethics of the nursing profession; To co-operate faithfully with the other members of the nursing team and do carryout faithfully and to the best of my ability the instructions of the physician or the nurse who may be assigned to supervise my work; I will not do any thing evil or malicious and I will not knowingly give any harmful drug or assist in malpractice.
  25. 25. THE PRACTICAL NURSE PLEDGE: Contd… I will not reveal any confidential information that may come to my knowledge in the course of my work. And I pledge myself to do all in my power to raise the standards and prestige of practical nursing; May my life be devoted to service and to the high ideals of the nursing profession.
  26. 26. FUNCTIONS OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING: Lesnik and Anderson have identified seven areas of function in professional nursing, based upon legislative and judicial decisions. six of these are classified as independent areas and one as a dependent area:
  27. 27. INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS: 1. The supervision of a patient involving the whole management of care, requiring the application of principles based upon the biological, the physical and social sciences. 2. The observations of symptoms and reactions, including symptomatology of physical and mental conditions and needs, requiring evaluation or application of principles based upon the biological, the physical and the social sciences.
  28. 28. 3.The accurate recording and reporting of facts, including evaluation of the whole care of the patient. 4.The supervision of others, except physicians, contributing to the care of the patient. 5.The application and the execution of nursing procedures and techniques. 6.The direction and education to secure physical and mental care.
  29. 29. DEPENDENT FUNCTION: 1.The application and the execution of legal orders of physicians concerning treatments and medications with an understanding of cause and thereof
  30. 30. ABILITIES OF PROFESSIONAL NURSE (Arthur corcy 1955) All nurses, should: •Be able to give expert bed side care and have such knowledge of the household arts as will enable them to deal effectively with domestic emergencies arising out of illness. •Be capable of taking part in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. •Possess the required knowledge about legal aspects of nursing.
  31. 31. •Be able to observe and to interpret the physical manifestations of the patient’s condition and also the social and the environmental factors which may hasten or delay his recovery. •Possess the special knowledge and skill required in dealing effectively with situations peculiar to certain common types of illness. •Be able to apply in nursing situations those principles of mental health which make for a better understanding of the psychological factor in illness.
  32. 32. •Possess the essential knowledge and the ability, to reach measures to conserve and restore health. •Be able by means of the practice of nursing profession to attain a measure of economic security and to provide for sickness and old age.
  33. 33. NEED FOR NURSING ADMINISTRATION: •Nursing is a major component of the health care delivery system. •The success of health care business depends on nursing participating in changing the systems for delivering cost-effective care and creating strategies to ensure that clients receive quality care.
  34. 34. •There is need to develop managerial skills and leadership skills in nursing. •These skills are also necessary for team building at the organizational level, ensuring success in all aspects of nursing administration and maintaining high quality in the areas of nursing service, nursing education and nursing administration as a whole. •Nurses in managerial roles must be able to understand the conditions promoting and innovating the expression of talent among team members.
  35. 35. •The nurses must be prepared to look into the matters of all types of management.So,managerial concepts or concepts of administrative needed by the nurses at all level, focus on how to deal with peaple,how to manage resources, and how to manager ones job.
  36. 36. THANK YOU