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Unconventional ScienceRL Jones
Horizon Scanning• For MOD to maintain its technical excellence and retain  its position of superiority a keen awareness of...
Some Examples of Unconventional               Science•    Cold Fusion (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)•    Bio-communication...
Cold Fusion (Low Energy Nuclear            Reactions)• Original concept by Fleishman and  Pons in 1988 entailed fusion of ...
Transmutation Y Iwamura et al• Iwamura LENR transmutation  experiment in 2002 less  ambiguous using XPS.• Cs transmutated ...
Intercellular Communication• Communication between biological  systems is traditionally considered  in terms of chemical s...
Water Memory• Originated from J Beveniste claim  of persistent activity Billion fold  dilution of allergen.• 1988 paper su...
Casimir Force• The force was postulated in 1948 by H                                  a  Casimir when working for Phillips...
Hydrogen Storage in carbon             nanofibres• New Scientist Dec 1996“Hydrogen-Powered cars could travel up to 8000 ki...
QinetiQ graphite nanostacks20 April 2005            Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001              Ministry of Defence
Gravity Shielding• In 1992 Podkletnov published  results of weight loss above a  superconducting disc, which was  magnetic...
P o d k le tn o v G ra vity Im p u ls e G e n e ra to r                                                                   ...
Boeings Van de Graaff generator proposed for the            Podkletnov experiments [15].• Device could be used as a  balli...
Asymmetric Capacitors• Originates from the Biefield-Brown effect   – When a high voltage ~30KV is applied to electrodes   ...
Background                            Basic Lifter DesignSlightly more complex ...                             Huge …!!   ...
Why are MOD interested?• Potentially a disruptive technology• Possible applications include   – Propulsion   – Drag Reduct...
Current Dstl project  Dimensions                   Materials                             • Foil• Wire height              ...
Current Project Aims• Attempt to fully understand the physics• Investigate how voltage/current & thrust are effected by:  ...
Current Dstl Lifter project      20 April 2005           Dstl is part of the      © Dstl 2001             Ministry of Defe...
Lifter Size     Length = 200 mm   Length = 50 mm      20 April 2005                Dstl is part of the      © Dstl 2001   ...
Wire height• Lifter IW3                                d = 15mmd = 30mm                          d = 25mm          20 Apri...
Foil height• Lifter IW4     Foil height = 36 mm   Foil height = 21 mm          20 April 2005                  Dstl is part...
Modeling Electrostatic Field• Using MatLab PDE• Preliminary results show this could be useful• Can vary Capacitor geometry...
20 April 2005   Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001     Ministry of Defence
20 April 2005   Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001     Ministry of Defence
20 April 2005   Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001     Ministry of Defence
Dielectric Constants               Material         Dielectric constantHelium                                  0.2Air     ...
Dielectric – preliminary results• Air             Stable lift: 0.25mA & 19.2KV• Nitrogen        Stable lift: 0.31mA & 18KV...
Results – Voltage               40               35                                                             IW 4 , f o...
Results – Current               1 .2                 1                                                              IW 4 ,...
Results – Power            40            35            30                                                                 ...
Results – Mass v Power              7 .0 E-0 3              6 .0 E-0 3                                                    ...
Mass v wire height, foil height and             current                                                                   ...
Weight measured on Balance             12             10              8                                                   ...
Results - Summary• As capacitor plate spacing increases, V increases but  current density decrease … therefore power requi...
Observations• The greatest force on capacitor is when small electrode is  positive.• The effect occurs in a dielectric med...
Observations (2)• Mechanism generally considered in terms of ionic  motion   – However, has been shown that effect is inde...
Unconventional Science                Conclusions• Unconventional science is by its very nature difficult to verify   – If...
Any questions …?   20 April 2005   Dstl is part of the   © Dstl 2001     Ministry of Defence
Experimental Video Clips20 April 2005              Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001                Ministry of Defence
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LIFTER evaluation by the dstl MOD (UK Ministry of Defence)

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He an evaluation by the UK DSTL MOD (Ministry Of Defence) about breakthrough technologies (i.e. Lifter...)

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LIFTER evaluation by the dstl MOD (UK Ministry of Defence)

  1. 1. Unconventional ScienceRL Jones
  2. 2. Horizon Scanning• For MOD to maintain its technical excellence and retain its position of superiority a keen awareness of new technologies is essential.• 90% of the technology developments are outside the Mod funded arena.• Developments of current technologies are emerging constantly, and these form a significant part of the defence superiority retention.• However, in order to identify disruptive technologies it is prudent to “look outside the box”, and it is only here that the high-risk high-gain developments will be found. 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  3. 3. Some Examples of Unconventional Science• Cold Fusion (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)• Bio-communication• Water Memory• Casmir Force• Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanofibres• Podkletnov’s Gravity Shielding• Asymmetric Capacitors 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  4. 4. Cold Fusion (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)• Original concept by Fleishman and Pons in 1988 entailed fusion of deuterium nuclei in a palladium lattice by electrolysis of heavy water – claimed the heat produced was in excess of that generated by energy input. – Ability to harness energy at room temperature would have major implications. – US DOE study – Work criticised as poor science, experimental errors 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  5. 5. Transmutation Y Iwamura et al• Iwamura LENR transmutation experiment in 2002 less ambiguous using XPS.• Cs transmutated to Pr an increase in A.W of 4 protons and 4 neutrons following gaseous deuterium diffusion• Ref Iwamura et al 10th Int Conf on Cold Fusion 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  6. 6. Intercellular Communication• Communication between biological systems is traditionally considered in terms of chemical signalling, however:- – Japanese work claiming assisted aid growth of neighbouring culture under non growth conditions attributed to sonic waves – Russian work claiming sympathetic death of a separated culture via UV signalling• Suggest possibility of physical signalling• Ref Distant Intercellular Interactions in a system of two tissue cultures Psychoenergitic Systems 1(3) p141 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  7. 7. Water Memory• Originated from J Beveniste claim of persistent activity Billion fold dilution of allergen.• 1988 paper submitted to Nature.• More recent work claimed the ability to transfer activity to pure water by EM/RF effects.• Proposed that Memory of water is electromagnetic in origin and that electromagnetic signals are basis of molecular communication.• Ref www.digibio.com 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  8. 8. Casimir Force• The force was postulated in 1948 by H a Casimir when working for Phillips Labs on colloidal dispersions. L2• In essence the field is a result of A suppression of EM fields within a cavity.• Perfect vacuum at absolute zero has L1 fluctuating field of mean energy of half energy of a photon.• Plates 1cm^2 separated by 1micron have Casimir force of 10-7 N π 2 h c F = 4 A• ie weight of small water droplet 240 a 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  9. 9. Hydrogen Storage in carbon nanofibres• New Scientist Dec 1996“Hydrogen-Powered cars could travel up to 8000 kilometres on a single tank of gas thanks to a graphite storage material developed by researchers at North- Eastern University in Boston.”• US Patent Rodriguez et al. – Storage of Hydrogen In Layered Nanostructures. – Claims 50 - 70% hydrogen absorption at room temperature, 40 - 120 bar. 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  10. 10. QinetiQ graphite nanostacks20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  11. 11. Gravity Shielding• In 1992 Podkletnov published results of weight loss above a superconducting disc, which was magnetically levitated and rotated at several thousand rpm in presence of magnetic field.• Showed weight loss of less than 0.5% to 2% as spin increased.• Further paper accepted by J Physica D in 1996 but withdrawn• NASA / Ning Li attempted to replicate between 1996 and 2002• Ref www.holoscience.com/mws/antigravity 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  12. 12. P o d k le tn o v G ra vity Im p u ls e G e n e ra to r 2 -L a ye r D is ch a rg e In n e r C oil Y B C O E m itte r, 4 C u rre n t ~ 1 0 A u s e d to crea te D ia = 8 0 - 1 2 0 m m L e ng th 0 .1 5 - 0 .4 m T y p e II T hic k = 7 - 15 m m M a g n e tic V o rte x (C a tho d e) M e ta l S tru c tu re T a rge t P e n d ulu m (A n o de ) C o n du c tin g T u be c o n tainin g liq uid g a s (N 2 ~ 9 0 ºK o r H 2 ~ 4 0 ºK ) G ra vity Im p u ls e to m a in tain Beam s u p erc o nd u c tivity D a n ge r 1 m Zone R E P U L S IO N S e v e ral µ s 2 MV Bob v a riou s pump H ig h V oltag e P ulsem a te rials fro m M a rx G e n e ra to r m e ta l O u te r C oil C h a rg e tim e = 1 2 0 s Q u a rtz G la s s g la s s 1 s p ulse D is c ha rge = 2 m s C ylin d er,c e ra m ic o n dis ch a rg e Vacuum wood (0 .9 T ) UHF o r g a s fille d ru bb e r F a rad a y p la s tic A b s o rbe r Cage 1 .5 m S c re e n 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  13. 13. Boeings Van de Graaff generator proposed for the Podkletnov experiments [15].• Device could be used as a ballistic missile shield.• Reported in Jane’s Defence weekly in June 2002 that BOEING Phantom works had a project entitled GRASP to replicate claims.• No further reports 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  14. 14. Asymmetric Capacitors• Originates from the Biefield-Brown effect – When a high voltage ~30KV is applied to electrodes of an asymmetric capacitor a net force is observed• Brown was a lab technician and Biefield a Prof at Denison Uni Ohio• Work dates back to 1920’s when Brown was experimenting with a Coolidge tube.• Patents issued in 1927, 1957, 1960 by Biefield –Brown• And more recently by NASA in Jan 2002 and June 2002 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  15. 15. Background Basic Lifter DesignSlightly more complex ... Huge …!! 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  16. 16. Why are MOD interested?• Potentially a disruptive technology• Possible applications include – Propulsion – Drag Reduction – Stealth • A full silent flight and no moving parts (no mobile surfaces reflecting radar waves) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  17. 17. Current Dstl project Dimensions Materials • Foil• Wire height • Wire• Foil height • Dielectric• Length• (Weight) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  18. 18. Current Project Aims• Attempt to fully understand the physics• Investigate how voltage/current & thrust are effected by: – Capacitor size/shape • Scaling effects • electrostatic field is a function of electrode geometry … • geometry – torroidial (doughnut) … concentric rings separated by shields to prevent ionic cross-over 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  19. 19. Current Dstl Lifter project 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  20. 20. Lifter Size Length = 200 mm Length = 50 mm 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  21. 21. Wire height• Lifter IW3 d = 15mmd = 30mm d = 25mm 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  22. 22. Foil height• Lifter IW4 Foil height = 36 mm Foil height = 21 mm 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  23. 23. Modeling Electrostatic Field• Using MatLab PDE• Preliminary results show this could be useful• Can vary Capacitor geometry as it uses FE• Also vary input voltage• However, this is a static solution and as such limited 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  24. 24. 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  25. 25. 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  26. 26. 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  27. 27. Dielectric Constants Material Dielectric constantHelium 0.2Air 1Nitrogen 1.1Carbon Dioxide 1.8Polystyrene 2.6Paper 3Glass 8Water 78Barium Titanate 1,000 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  28. 28. Dielectric – preliminary results• Air Stable lift: 0.25mA & 19.2KV• Nitrogen Stable lift: 0.31mA & 18KV …(similar to air)• Helium No lift … at 4.20mA & 12.8KV• Steam• CO2 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  29. 29. Results – Voltage 40 35 IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 4 0 m m , 2 .8 0 g IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 6 m m , 2 .6 9 g 30 IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 2 m m , 2 .5 6 g IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 2 8 m m , 2 .4 5 g 25 IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 2 1 m m , 2 .2 9 gVoltage (KV) IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 3 .1 6 g 20 IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 3 .6 6 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 4 .2 2 g 15 IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 4 .7 2 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 5 .1 6 g 10 IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 5 .6 6 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 6 .1 6 g 5 IW 3 , f o il h e ig h t= 2 5 m m , 1 .3 5 g 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 W ir e H e ig h t (m m ) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  30. 30. Results – Current 1 .2 1 IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 4 0 m m , 2 .8 0 g IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 6 m m , 2 .6 9 g IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 2 m m , 2 .5 6 g 0 .8 IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 2 8 m m , 2 .4 5 gCurrent (mA) IW 4 , f o il h e ig h t= 2 1 m m , 2 .2 9 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 3 .1 6 g 0 .6 IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 3 .6 6 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 4 .2 2 g 0 .4 IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 4 .7 2 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 5 .1 6 g IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 5 .6 6 g 0 .2 IW 8 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 8 m m , 6 .1 6 g IW 3 , f o il h e ig h t= 3 5 m m , 1 .3 5 g 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 W ir e H e ig h t ( m m ) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  31. 31. Results – Power 40 35 30 IW 4, foil height=40mm, 2.80g IW 4, foil height=36mm, 2.69g 25 IW 4, foil height=32mm, 2.56g IW 4, foil height=28mm, 2.45gPower (W) IW 4, foil height=21mm, 2.29g 20 IW 8, foil height=38mm, 3.16g IW 8, foil height=38mm, 3.66g IW 8, foil height=38mm, 4.22g 15 IW 8, foil height=38mm, 4.72g IW 8, foil height=38mm, 5.16g IW 8, foil height=38mm, 5.66g 10 IW 8, foil height=38mm, 6.16g IW 3 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 W ire Height (mm) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  32. 32. Results – Mass v Power 7 .0 E-0 3 6 .0 E-0 3 IW 4 , L = 4 0 m m 5 .0 E-0 3 IW 4 , L = 3 5 m m IW 4 , L = 3 0 m mWeight (Kg) 4 .0 E-0 3 IW 4 , L = 2 5 m m IW 8 , L = 4 4 m m 3 .0 E-0 3 IW 8 , L = 4 0 m m IW 8 , L = 3 5 m m 2 .0 E-0 3 IW 8 , L = 3 0 m m IW 3 , L = 2 0 m m 1 .0 E-0 3 IW 3 , L = 2 5 m m IW 3 , L = 3 0 m m 0 .0 E+ 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 P o w e r (W ) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  33. 33. Mass v wire height, foil height and current M ass v L *I*fo il heig ht 7.00E -03 6.00E -03 IW 8, L= 44 IW 8, L= 40 5.00E -03 IW 8, L= 35 IW 8, L= 30Lifter weight (Kg) 4.00E -03 IW 4, L= 40 IW 4, L= 35 IW 4, L= 30 3.00E -03 IW 4, L= 25 IW 3, L= 20 IW 3, L= 25 2.00E -03 IW 3, L= 30 1.00E -03 0.00E + 00 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 W ire h eig h t [L ] * fo il h eig h t * cu rren t (m m m m m A) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  34. 34. Weight measured on Balance 12 10 8 IW 8 + 6 .7 g , M in w e ig h tWeight (g) IW 8 + 6 .7 g , M a x w e ig h t 6 IW 8 , M in w e ig h t IW 8 , M a x w e ig h t 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Vo lta g e (K V) 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  35. 35. Results - Summary• As capacitor plate spacing increases, V increases but current density decrease … therefore power required is less variable.• Asymmetry of capacitor plates less significant than the capacitor plate spacing• The scale effect is not fully characterised as yet , there is an indication that a critical capacitor spacing is necessary.• Mass is a function of product of current capacitor spacing and collector plate height 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  36. 36. Observations• The greatest force on capacitor is when small electrode is positive.• The effect occurs in a dielectric medium (air)• The effect is associated with onset of corona discharge• The force is independent of spatial orientation• The details of the physics of the effect is not understood 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  37. 37. Observations (2)• Mechanism generally considered in terms of ionic motion – However, has been shown that effect is independent of voltage polarity – Also calculations suggest that mass lifted by ionic thrust is more than an order of magnitude less than that observed. – Also weight loss observed prior to lifting 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  38. 38. Unconventional Science Conclusions• Unconventional science is by its very nature difficult to verify – If you do not understand the underlying science it is difficult to know what are the important boundary conditions.• A large proportion of the claims made may be down to poor science/ experimental procedure, a sub conscious willingness, nevertheless if any are true then the consequences could be far reaching.• The initial benefit proposed may not be the major benefit – i.e. cold fusion limitless energy perhaps now radioactive waste disposal 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  39. 39. Any questions …? 20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the © Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence
  40. 40. Experimental Video Clips20 April 2005 Dstl is part of the© Dstl 2001 Ministry of Defence

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