Role of small scale farmers and biodiversity in improving agricultural productivity and food security
• 1.5 B small scale farmers + 1.5 B urban gardeners, pastoralists and livestock keepers, hunter-gatherers, fishers, forest keepers, indigenous people• 85% of farmers have 2 ha or less• Produce at least 70% of world’s food Under corporate food system, net flow of food is from areas of poverty to areas of wealth and abundance ETC (2009)
• Small farms are 2 to 4 times more energy efficient than large conventional farms. (Chapell and Lavalle, 2009)• Organic yield 2.7 times more per ha than conventional farms in developing countries; similar yields in developed countries; 1.3 times more globally (Badgley et al., 2007)• Small farms permit the development of functional diversity with diversified production and the integration of crops, trees and livestock.
Philippine Agricultural Ecosystem1,663 plant species in agricultural systems• 477 angiosperm species with food value• 355 species with feed value• 632 species with medicinal / herbal value• 201 plant species with ornamental value• 35 species are fiber crops
Genetic erosion Reduced Biodiversity (rice; associated biodiv.) Soil nutrient imbalance and depletion Pest and disease outbreaks Pesticide poisonings Poverty,malnutrition and hunger Eroded farmers’ knowledge
• Estimated 130,000 rice varieties in Asia in 1960; today IRRI bred varieties Geneticthem largely replaced erosion• 80 to 82% of ricelands in Thailand, Indonesia, Burma and the Philippines planted to HYVs• Farmers can’t go back to traditional varieties because they are no longer cultivated
MASIPAG: (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for Development) was organized in 1986 as response by farmers to the Green revolution Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through access and control of production resources (seeds, technology, land)
Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) andMasipag rice with special characteristics. Characteristic / Traditional Masipag Adaptation rice varieties riceHigh tillering capacity - 42Good ratooning ability - 24Low fertility soils 12 36Drought tolerance 8 9Saltwater tolerance 7 12Flooding tolerance 1 7Pest/disease resistance 6 17Red / Black/Violet 152 79
Rice varieties tolerant to climate change Drought tolerant – Elon-elon, San Solano, Nueva Vizcaya Vicente, Palawan, M160- 1 Salt Water tolerant– Loreto, Binulungan, M115- Calabanga, Cam Sur 1R, M45-1 Bato, Cam Sur Flood tolerant – M116-2, M115-1R, M160- 1, M45-1, PBB 401 Drought tolerantt – Drought tolerant – Batbatngon, Leyte Senador, Hubanib M6-14-1R Patnongon, Antique Alimodian, Iloilo Libagon, Southern Leyte Drought tolerant – Drought tolerant – M148-2, M394-1, M51- Red Borong, Zambales 2, M177-3, M74-1 MLD 4-1 Flood tolerant – Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur JDC 3 , JDC8, Dalagang Bukid Malng, North Cotabato Drought tolerant – M4-3-1, HinumayLegends: Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani Salt water tolerant – Farmer-bred lines Jasmine, Kanoni, Elon- Traditional rice varieties elon, Makaginga, Binulawan MASIPAG Selections
Using locally available resources for Soil Fertility Management Fermented Plant Juice, Fish Amino Acid, Indigenous microorganismsSoil Fertility Management Compost, Vermicompost Green manure
Alternative Pest Management Ecosystem balance to avoid Pests and Diseases Farm Management Practices • Soil nutrient management • Method and time of planting • Water management Crop and Varietal • Crop rotation Diversification Avoid pesticide use Insect Soil fertility Pest, Pathogens, Weed Method of planting Technology Development by Farmers
Multifunctionality: Diversified and integrated farming systemsFarm Diversification Ducks: Natural pest control Livestock: Bank in the backyard!
Better food security and resiliency through biodiversityMASIPAG farmers use 42-51 different crops >>>14-16 crops more than the conventional farmers• Tuber crops are food insurance (sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam)• Resilient crops (banana)• Sturdy crops (coconut) > non-traditional food crops• Livestock
Farmer-Developed andAdapted Technologies Pangi leaves used as botanical pest control by Doming of Zamboanga del Sur Carabao driven rotary used in rice farming by Abraham of Sultan Kudarat
Local marketing ofOrganic Certification and Marketing organic products Farmers’ Guarantee System: • Organic standards • Internal quality control • Product and market development • Processing facilities • Management capacity bldg.
Improved Productivity: Mean yield of rice (kg/ha) (n=840) Masipag Masipag Chemical Organic In Conversion FarmingLuzon 3,743ns 3,436ns 3,851nsVisayas 2,683ns 2,470ns 2,626nsMindanao 3,767ns 3,864ns 4,131ns(Maximum) (8,710) (10,400) (8,070)
Improved Income: Net agricultural income per hectare (Pesos) (n=840) Masipag Masipag In Chemical Organic Conversion FarmingLuzon 24,412** 18,991** 13,403**Visayas 22,868** 16,039** 13,728**Mindanao 23,715ns 17,362ns 19,588nsAverage 23,599*** 17,457*** 15,643***** = highly significant differences ( 5%)*** = very highly significant differences (1%)ns = no significant difference
Improved Income:Annual Balance of Income and Expenditure per Household (in Pesos) (n=840) Masipag Masipag In Chemical Organic Conversion FarmingLuzon 11,331 9,702 -1,266Visayas -1,090 287 -4,974Mindanao 5,481 -232 -7,399
Species and varietal diversity are important resources to increase farm productivity, food security and resiliency Farmers have a role to play in maintaining crop diversity in a useful and sustainable way