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Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults at
Baseline of the
I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study

Lynette Robertson, ...
Physical Activity Levels at Baseline of the I’DGO TOO
‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study
1. Background
•
•

I’DGO
I’DGO ‘DIY ...
Background
I’DGO
• Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors
– Access outdoors & older people’s QoL

• Research consortium project
– Univ...
I’DGO TOO
• Second phase of I’DGO, focusing
on specific aspects of
placemaking which had not been
tested for age-friendlin...
Shared Spaces: Home Zones and ‘DIY Streets’
• Home Zone (from Netherlands,
‘woonerf’) – residential streets
where pedestri...
I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Streets’ Study: Research Questions
Do shared space projects such
as Home Zones or ‘DIY Streets’
result in e...
‘DIY Streets’ Study Design
• Longitudinal environmental
intervention study
– Baseline monitoring 2008-2009
– Post-interven...
Data Collection
• Structured interviews
– Health (EQ-5D), QoL (CASP-19)
– Perceptions of the physical environment
– Freque...
Data Collection: Physical Activity
• Actigraph
Accelerometers
(GT1M)
• Activity diary
• Recorded over 1
week, during
summe...
Physical Activity Levels at Baseline of the
I’DGO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study
Physical Activity Levels at Baseline of the I’DGO ‘DIY Street’
Intervention Study
Research Questions
1. How many participa...
Data Analysis
1. Hourly analysis: average activity per time of day for total
sample (n = 304) - mean total minutes of acti...
Results
Population Sample at Baseline (n = 50)
• Wore accelerometer +
completed an activity
diary
• Gender
– 28 Female (56%)
– 22 ...
Total Accelerometer and Dairy Days (n = 304)
• Typical monitoring period
7 days (68%)
• Gender:
– 61% Female
– 39% Male

•...
Average (mean) activity per time of day (n = 304)
Daily Mean Activity Intensity (counts/min)
n = 304
Min = 30.5
Max = 942.4
Mean = 233.6
Median = 201.1
SD = 142.2
Gender: s...
Average (mean) activity per time of day (n = 304)
Activity Diary Data
Bouts of MVPA (>1952 cpm) occur shortly after participant leaves the house
& shortly before returning,...
Activity Diary Data
• Average frequency of going outdoors = once every 2 days
• Most frequent activities:
1. Going for a w...
Physical Activity Guidelines

How many individuals were
achieving the government
recommendation of “at least
150 minutes (...
Physical Activity Guidelines
How many individuals were achieving the government
recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2...
Total minutes of Medium-Vigorous Physical Activity
(MVPA) over 1 week*
n = 42
*Includes those with
< 7 days monitoring but...
Physical Activity Guidelines
How many individuals were achieving the government
recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2...
Physical Activity Guidelines
How many individuals were achieving the government
recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2...
Summary
• Average daily activity:
– Most activity took place between 10am and 1pm
– Walking was the most frequent type of ...
Conclusions
• A significant number of older adults living in deprived
communities in the UK are probably not achieving the...
I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Streets’ PA Levels: Further Work
1. Average activity levels for
different types of activity
2. Differences ...
Thank you for your attention

www.idgo.ac.uk
lynette.robertson@ed.ac.uk
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Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults at Baseline of the I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study - Robertson, Zuin and Ward Thompson (2012)

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Presentation on physical activity levels of older adults recorded at baseline of the I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study, presented at the World Congress on Active Ageing (WCAA, Glasgow, Scotland), August 2012.

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Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults at Baseline of the I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study - Robertson, Zuin and Ward Thompson (2012)

  1. 1. Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults at Baseline of the I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study Lynette Robertson, Affonso Zuin, Catharine Ward Thompson
  2. 2. Physical Activity Levels at Baseline of the I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study 1. Background • • I’DGO I’DGO ‘DIY Streets’ Project 2. PA Levels at Baseline • • • • • • Research questions Analysis Results Summary Conclusions Further work
  3. 3. Background
  4. 4. I’DGO • Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors – Access outdoors & older people’s QoL • Research consortium project – Universities of Warwick (WISE), Salford (SURFACE), and OPENspace Research Centre – Led by Prof Catharine Ward Thompson and managed by OPENspace • Funded by • KT EQUAL Knowledge Exchange
  5. 5. I’DGO TOO • Second phase of I’DGO, focusing on specific aspects of placemaking which had not been tested for age-friendliness • Projects: – Tactile paving design, siting and laying (Salford) – Residential outdoor space – do gardens matter? (Warwick) – Pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods – Home Zones and ‘DIY Streets’ (OPENspace)
  6. 6. Shared Spaces: Home Zones and ‘DIY Streets’ • Home Zone (from Netherlands, ‘woonerf’) – residential streets where pedestrians and vehicles share on equal terms • Slower traffic speeds – quality of life takes precedence over ease of traffic movement • Residents are encouraged to use streets in different ways e.g. social activities, play
  7. 7. I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Streets’ Study: Research Questions Do shared space projects such as Home Zones or ‘DIY Streets’ result in environments where older people: • Go outside more often? • Spend more time outside in the local environment? • Are more active? • Have better social networks? • Have a better quality of life?
  8. 8. ‘DIY Streets’ Study Design • Longitudinal environmental intervention study – Baseline monitoring 2008-2009 – Post-intervention monitoring 2010-2011 • 9 sites in the UK (8 Sustrans ‘DIY Streets’ and 1 (Edinburgh) Home Zone), with 9 matching/control sites • Deprived communities • Participants: UK residents 65 years +
  9. 9. Data Collection • Structured interviews – Health (EQ-5D), QoL (CASP-19) – Perceptions of the physical environment – Frequency of going outdoors • Behavioural observations – Systematically observe activity patterns in streets • Street audits – Used to map out the physical features of streets
  10. 10. Data Collection: Physical Activity • Actigraph Accelerometers (GT1M) • Activity diary • Recorded over 1 week, during summer (May – Sept)
  11. 11. Physical Activity Levels at Baseline of the I’DGO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study
  12. 12. Physical Activity Levels at Baseline of the I’DGO ‘DIY Street’ Intervention Study Research Questions 1. How many participants were achieving the recommended physical activity levels for older adults? (At least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10 minutes or more over 1 week) 2. What types of activities were associated with the highest levels of physical activity and when did these activities take place? 3. Did activity levels vary by age and gender?
  13. 13. Data Analysis 1. Hourly analysis: average activity per time of day for total sample (n = 304) - mean total minutes of activity for four activity categories (i) sedentary (0-99 cpm) (ii) low-light (100 – 1040 cpm) (iii) high-light (1041- 1951 cpm) (iv) moderate to vigorous (>=1952 cpm) (after Freedson et al, 1998; Buhman et al, 2010; Copland & Eslinger, 2009) 2. Individual participant analysis (n = 50): how many were achieving government recommendations?
  14. 14. Results
  15. 15. Population Sample at Baseline (n = 50) • Wore accelerometer + completed an activity diary • Gender – 28 Female (56%) – 22 Male (44%) • Age – Range : 64 – 94 years – Mean: 74.2 (SD = 7.4)
  16. 16. Total Accelerometer and Dairy Days (n = 304) • Typical monitoring period 7 days (68%) • Gender: – 61% Female – 39% Male • Age: – mean = 74.2
  17. 17. Average (mean) activity per time of day (n = 304)
  18. 18. Daily Mean Activity Intensity (counts/min) n = 304 Min = 30.5 Max = 942.4 Mean = 233.6 Median = 201.1 SD = 142.2 Gender: sig. diff. (Mann-Whitney U p < 0.000); Men 45% > Women Age: rs = -.423, p < 0.000
  19. 19. Average (mean) activity per time of day (n = 304)
  20. 20. Activity Diary Data Bouts of MVPA (>1952 cpm) occur shortly after participant leaves the house & shortly before returning, coinciding with walking to and from a bus stop 2500 4 1 1 5 1 1 5 4 2000 Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). 1500 Numbers are consective min MVPA 1000 500 0 09:00 09:22 09:44 10:06 10:28 10:50 11:12 11:34 11:56 12:18 12:40 13:02 13:24 13:46 14:08 14:30 14:52 15:14 15:36 15:58 16:20 16:42 17:04 17:26 17:48 18:10 18:32 18:54 19:16 19:38 20:00 20:22 20:44 21:06 21:28 21:50 22:12 22:34 22:56 23:18 23:40 Activity (counts per minute) 3000 Leaves house at 10:00. Goes to post office by walking and by bus, and then to the Guild by bus. Returns home 16:10 Leaves house at 18:05. Goes dancing. Gets there by walking and by bus. Returns home 21:15
  21. 21. Activity Diary Data • Average frequency of going outdoors = once every 2 days • Most frequent activities: 1. Going for a walk 2. Going to the shops 3. Sitting outdoors • On average only walking on about 40% of days
  22. 22. Physical Activity Guidelines How many individuals were achieving the government recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10 minutes or more” over 1 week?
  23. 23. Physical Activity Guidelines How many individuals were achieving the government recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10 minutes or more” over 1 week? • Total MVPA (>1952 cpm) of 150 mins more over a week: – 69% if include participants with < 7 days monitoring but still achieving >150min (n = 42) • Bouts of 10 min: – only 6 participants (14% of sub sample) achieved a bout of MVPA of 10 mins or more – none achieved the weekly recommendation - for any individual the maximum total MVPA, counting bouts > 10 min only, was 29 mins.
  24. 24. Total minutes of Medium-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) over 1 week* n = 42 *Includes those with < 7 days monitoring but reached >150 mins MVPA (24 Female, 18 Male) Min = 21 Max = 905 Mean = 286 Median = 212 SD = 227 Gender: n.s. Age: rs = -.524, p < 0.00
  25. 25. Physical Activity Guidelines How many individuals were achieving the government recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10 minutes or more” over 1 week? • Total MVPA (>1952 cpm) of 150 mins more over a week: – 69% if include participants with < 7 days monitoring but still achieving >150min (n = 42) • Bouts of 10 min: – only 6 participants (14% of sub-sample) achieved a bout of MVPA of 10 mins – none achieved the weekly recommendation - for any individual the maximum total accumulated MVPA in bouts > 10 min was 29 mins
  26. 26. Physical Activity Guidelines How many individuals were achieving the government recommendation of “at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10 minutes or more” over 1 week? • Total MVPA (>1952 cpm) of 150 mins more over a week: – 69% if include participants with < 7 days monitoring but still achieving >150min (n = 42) • Bouts of 10 min: – only 6 participants (14% of sub-sample) achieved a bout of MVPA of 10 mins or more – none achieved the weekly recommendation - for any individual the maximum total accumulated MVPA in bouts > 10 min was 29 mins
  27. 27. Summary • Average daily activity: – Most activity took place between 10am and 1pm – Walking was the most frequent type of activity, followed by going to the shops – Getting out of the house is important – longest bouts of more vigorous activity (MVPA) • Government recommendations: – Participants were not achieving the recommended levels of PA for older adults at baseline of the I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Streets’ environment intervention study
  28. 28. Conclusions • A significant number of older adults living in deprived communities in the UK are probably not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity • Further studies should seek to identify which types of activities should be targeted in an individual and/or community intervention, but simply promoting getting out of the house (for whatever reason) could be key to increasing older people’s activity levels
  29. 29. I’DGO TOO ‘DIY Streets’ PA Levels: Further Work 1. Average activity levels for different types of activity 2. Differences across sites? 3. Effect of the environment intervention on PA levels • Post-intervention accelerometer + diary n = 22 • Matched cohort n = 17
  30. 30. Thank you for your attention www.idgo.ac.uk lynette.robertson@ed.ac.uk

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