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The future of everything: How quantum computing enables the impossible

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NRFtech 2019 presentation
Dr. Michael Haydock, IBM Fellow; VP and Chief Scientist, IBM Corporation

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The future of everything: How quantum computing enables the impossible

  1. 1. Dr. Michael Haydock, IBM Fellow; VP and Chief Scientist IBM Corporation The future of everything: How quantum computing enables the impossible
  2. 2. Quantum Computing and IBM Q: You don’t get to new places by following established tracks — Dr. Michael P. Haydock IBM Fellow – VP & Chief Scientist IBM Global Business Services National Retail Federation: May 21, 2019
  3. 3. How to Understand Quantum Computing (I am sure I did it the hard way!) Quantum Computing is Useful Today (Depends a bit on what you are doing!) © 2019 IBM Corporation 3 Take away #1: “I learned something about Quantum” Take away #2: Some applications are useful today Take away #3: “My enterprise should take this seriously”
  4. 4. © 2019 IBM Corporation 4
  5. 5. © 2019 IBM Corporation 5 104 Years of Relativity
  6. 6. © 2019 IBM Corporation 6
  7. 7. 7 © 2017 IBM Corporation © 2019 IBM Corporation 7 A new model of computation that changes the game Developing quantum applications is about working with two principles based in quantum mechanics Allows for computations on many values all at once Knowing something about the “system” Superposition Entanglement
  8. 8. 8 © 2017 IBM Corporation © 2019 IBM Corporation 8 |1> |0> |0> |1> Duck “Up”Duck “Down” Basis State Superposition Entanglement Mallard East IndiesBlue Pond Red Pond Prob(Mallard|BluePond) Prob(East Indies|RedPond) Bloch Sphere
  9. 9. Exponential growth 1 1 qubit – 2 basis states a |0> + b |1> where a and b are complex numbers 9© 2019 IBM Corporation
  10. 10. Exponential growth 2 1 qubit – 2 basis states a |0> + b |1> 2 qubits – 4 basis states a |00> + b |01> + c |10> + d |11> where a, b, c, d are complex numbers 10© 2019 IBM Corporation Combinatorial Explosion
  11. 11. # of basis states in prototype IBM Q system with 50 qubits 11 50 2 11© 2019 IBM Corporation
  12. 12. The power of quantum computing Quantum Computers The potential power of a quantum computer doubles every time you add one additional qubit. Classical Computers The potential power of a classical computer doubles every time you double the number of transistors. IBM Q 16 Qubit DeviceIBM Power 9 24-Core 12© 2019 IBM Corporation
  13. 13. Simulating Quantum Systems Research towards the first use cases with quantum advantage… • Quantum chemistry • Material science • High energy physics Optimization / Monte CarloArtificial Intelligence 13© 2019 IBM Corporation
  14. 14. Quantum chemistry Where we are Today Impacts Path to Quantum Advantage Challenges 14© 2019 IBM Corporation Molecule Chemical formula Classical bits Qubits Water H2O 104 14 Ethanol C2H6O 1012 42 Acetaminophen C8H9NO2 1036 120 Caffeine C8H10N3O2 1048 160 Sucrose C12H22O11 1082 274 Penicillin C16H18N2NaO4S 1086 286 New Materials Coherence 2019
  15. 15. Simulating Quantum Systems Research towards the first use cases with quantum advantage… • Quantum chemistry • Material science • High energy physics • Better model training  Support Vector Machine • Pattern recognition  Consumer Behavior  Risk Behavior • Quantum Cryptography  Defense Against Hacks Optimization / Monte CarloArtificial Intelligence 15© 2019 IBM Corporation
  16. 16. Maximize the margin Support vectors Construct hyperplane Binary Classification: classify a set of 𝑑-dimensional data points with unobserved labels from 𝐶 = {−1, +1} Classification with support vector machines Feature Maps: Non-linearly separable datasets may become linearly separable by increasing dimensionality • Consumer Behavioral Science • Risk Classification • Developing Efficient Asset Classes • Separable Market Pricing 16© 2019 IBM Corporation
  17. 17. Cryptography Today Current popular algorithms rely on one of three hard mathematical problems: • the integer factorization problem, • the discrete logarithm problem • the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem Quantum Lattice Based Defense © 2019 IBM Corporation 17
  18. 18. Simulating Quantum Systems Research towards the first use cases with quantum advantage… • Quantum chemistry • Material science • High energy physics • Better model training  Support Vector Machine • Pattern recognition  Consumer Behavior  Risk Behavior • Quantum Cryptography  Defense Against Hacks • Combinatorial optimization • Logistics • Promotional treatments • Monte Carlo-like applications (Pricing) Optimization / Monte CarloArtificial Intelligence 18© 2019 IBM Corporation
  19. 19. New York Times TheTraveling Salesman Problem has a runtime that grows exponentially with input size 19© 2019 IBM Corporation
  20. 20. Market How will the market environment be impacted by quantum computing? Industry How will your industry be disrupted by quantum computing? Customers How will your customer relationships be changed by quantum computing? Competition What happens if your competitors adopt quantum computing first? Business Value* What strategic opportunities are enabled through quantum computing? Operations How will stakeholders be empowered to drive quantum computing forward? Technology What infrastructure is required to enable quantum computing exploration? People What is your talent strategy to enable a quantum computing organization? * generate revenue, reduce costs, improve working capital, reduce operating risks, etc. We leverage the IBM Q Quantum Strategy Model © 2019 IBM Corporation 2024 May 2019
  21. 21. I'm not happy with all the analyses that go with just the classical theory, because nature isn’t classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you’d better make it quantum mechanical … International Journal of Theoretical Physics, VoL 21, Nos. 6/7, 1982 Simulating Physics with Computers Richard P. Feynman Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California © 2019 IBM Corporation 21
  22. 22. … and IBM is building the quantum computation centers of the future 22© 2019 IBM Corporation You don’t get to new places by following established tracks Q Thank mhaydock@us.ibm.com linkedin.com/in/drmikehaydock

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