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Nate Cradit, MA | Michigan State University

ACPA 2015 Annual Convention
Toward a New Model of Self-Authorship
for Grievin...
2
A look at our presentation outline
Today’s Agenda
Opening
Agenda	
  &	
  outcomes
Introduction
Topic	
  &	
  presenter	
...
3
Theoretical Framework
Overview	
  of	
  current	
  theory	
  of	
  
self-­‐authorship	
  and	
  emerging	
  
adulthood
S...
4
Significance
Why	
  does	
  this	
  popula=on	
  and	
  
issue	
  maDer?
Practical Steps
Ways	
  for	
  student	
  affairs...
5
A look at our presentation outline
Today’s Agenda
New Model
Proposed	
  new	
  theore=cal	
  
model	
  and	
  visual	
  ...
INTRODUCTIONS
Who am I, and where did this topic
originate?
7
What did you value? How did you know?
Who were you at 18?
And	
  how	
  did	
  that	
  change	
  over	
  0me?	
  How	
  ...
8
An overview of the existing framework: Key terms
Self-Authorship Theory
Cognitive Development
How	
  do	
  I	
  come	
  ...
9
Internal	
  Founda<on
My	
  internal	
  belief	
  system	
  is	
  
strong	
  and	
  grounded.
Author	
  of	
  One’s	
  L...
The	
  Popula<on
Defining as 18-22, losing a parent during or before college years.
5% of U.S. undergraduate population
11
Key points from the literature
Parental Loss Research
Goals,	
  priori=es,	
  and	
  sense	
  of	
  self	
  
become	
  ...
12
“…witnessing	
  a	
  parent’s	
  death	
  
means	
  witnessing	
  the	
  death	
  of	
  a	
  
part	
  of	
  oneself.”
U...
13
2015
Con=nued,	
  cul=vated	
  connec=on	
  
to	
  the	
  deceased	
  is	
  a	
  healthy	
  
facilitator	
  of	
  posi=...
14
Summary Factors
Parental Loss is Unique
An	
  off-­‐=me	
  transi=on,	
  and	
  poten=al	
  source	
  for	
  new	
  marg...
15
Key limitations for this population
Self-Authorship Theory
1.Slow,	
  oYen	
  years-­‐long	
  process.	
  Most	
  stude...
16
Does parental loss fit?
The Crossroads Experience
A point at which external formulas
are viewed, considered, and
gradual...
Core	
  Ques<on
What happens when the anchoring reference
point in a young adult’s life is removed instantly,
rather than ...
18
An Integrative Model
Self-authorship among grieving undergraduates
Entirely externally
dependent External
Formulas
Chal...
19
Practical steps for student affairs educators
Key Recommendations
1.Recognize	
  the	
  immediacy	
  of	
  poten=al	
  ...
20
Slides	
  available	
  at	
  	
  
www.natecradit.com
craditna@msu.edu
Questions
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Toward a new model of self-authorship for grieving undergraduates

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APCA 2015 Conference Presentation

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Toward a new model of self-authorship for grieving undergraduates

  1. 1. Nate Cradit, MA | Michigan State University
 ACPA 2015 Annual Convention Toward a New Model of Self-Authorship for Grieving Undergraduates
  2. 2. 2 A look at our presentation outline Today’s Agenda Opening Agenda  &  outcomes Introduction Topic  &  presenter  context
  3. 3. 3 Theoretical Framework Overview  of  current  theory  of   self-­‐authorship  and  emerging   adulthood Student Population Discussion  of  popula=on   characteris=cs  for  grieving   undergraduates Core Question How  is  the  journey  toward   adulthood  different  for   students  in  the  popula=on? Limitations & Fit Limita=ons  of  current  theory   for  these  students
  4. 4. 4 Significance Why  does  this  popula=on  and   issue  maDer? Practical Steps Ways  for  student  affairs   educators  to  assist  students  in   the  popula=on.
  5. 5. 5 A look at our presentation outline Today’s Agenda New Model Proposed  new  theore=cal   model  and  visual   representa=on Closing Discussion  and  ques=ons
  6. 6. INTRODUCTIONS Who am I, and where did this topic originate?
  7. 7. 7 What did you value? How did you know? Who were you at 18? And  how  did  that  change  over  0me?  How  do  you   define  yourself  today?   Please  take  a  moment  to  consider  your  personal   development,  and  discuss  with  colleagues  to  the   degree  you  feel  comfortable.
  8. 8. 8 An overview of the existing framework: Key terms Self-Authorship Theory Cognitive Development How  do  I  come  to  know  what  I  know?     Are  my  beliefs  true  and  valid?   According  to  whom? Intrapersonal Development Who  am  I,  and  what  do  I  use  to  create  an   acceptable  defini=on  of  myself? Interpersonal Development What  is  my  place  in  rela=on  to  the  social  world   around  me?  What  is  the  nature  of  my   rela=onships? Following External Formulas What  authority  figures  believe  is  correct,  by  virtue  of   their  posi=on.  Rela=onships  are  for  seeking  approval,   and  my  sense  of  self  is  defined  by  those  around  me. Crossroads Experience Challenging  moment  calls  external  formulas  and   defini=on  of  self  into  ques=on.  Am  I  who  I  think  I  am?   What  do  I  believe,  and  who  am  I  becoming? Authoring One’s Life Recognizing  the  need  to  operate  more  authen=cally   on  all  three  dimensions,  individuals  begin  to  choose   their  own  beliefs,  values,  and  iden=ty.
  9. 9. 9 Internal  Founda<on My  internal  belief  system  is   strong  and  grounded. Author  of  One’s  Life I  need  to  develop   authen=city  and  choice. Crossroads External  defini=ons  for     my  life  may  not  be  best  fit Defining  myself  through   others Following  Formulas The  sample  was  diverse,  the  methods  sound,  and  the  theory   is  certainly  valuable.  It  does  not,  however,  fit  for  all  students.   An  element  is  missing  for  students  who  have  lost  a  parent. The  exis=ng  theory  was  developed  over  a   thirty-­‐plus  year  longitudinal  study,  wherein   individuals  were  interviewed  annually.30+ Theoretical Framework An overview of the existing framework: Visual model Self-Authorship Theory
  10. 10. The  Popula<on Defining as 18-22, losing a parent during or before college years. 5% of U.S. undergraduate population
  11. 11. 11 Key points from the literature Parental Loss Research Goals,  priori=es,  and  sense  of  self   become  ques=oned,  reflected  upon,   and  possibly  changed. Wheaton & Gotlib1997 A  process  of  benefit-­‐finding  can   emerge  to  compensate  for  a  lack  of   meaning  in  the  loss Neimeyer & Anderson 2002 1990s
  12. 12. 12 “…witnessing  a  parent’s  death   means  witnessing  the  death  of  a   part  of  oneself.” Umberson2003, p. 17 “…more  confronta=onal  than   other  deaths  because  children  so   strongly  iden=fy  with  parents.”   Umberson 2003, p. 17 Self-­‐authorship  can  actually  regress,   especially  when  young  adults   experience  marginalizing  events. Pizzolato2004 There  is  no  singular  path  for  this   process  to  take.  It  can  be  isola=ng   and  marginalizing  for  young  adults. Lawrence et al. 2006
  13. 13. 13 2015 Con=nued,  cul=vated  connec=on   to  the  deceased  is  a  healthy   facilitator  of  posi=ve  adjustment.   Neimeyer2008 Their  very  understanding  of  the   world  oYen  no  longer  feels  valid.   Redefining  the  rela=onship  is  key. Neimemeyer et al. 2008
  14. 14. 14 Summary Factors Parental Loss is Unique An  off-­‐=me  transi=on,  and  poten=al  source  for  new  marginality  and   spotligh=ng  or  pain.  Self  authorship  may  regress  as  a  result  (Pizzolato,   2004) Psychological Stress Goals,  priori=es,  sense  of  self  become  ques=oned  aYer  oYen   significant  reflec=on. Rapid, Jarring Cognitive Change Immediate  sense  of  “adulthood”  regardless  of  age Important Note Not  all  who  lose  a  parent  have  the  same  rela=onship.  For  some,  this   may  be  a  varied  experience.
  15. 15. 15 Key limitations for this population Self-Authorship Theory 1.Slow,  oYen  years-­‐long  process.  Most  students  do  not  reach  the   laDer  stages  during  college.   2.Focused  on  iden=fiable  change   3.No  accoun=ng  for  gender   4.Poten=al  conflict  between  posi=ve  grieving  process  and  internal   defini=ons/external  formulas  -­‐  can  the  two  processes  be  integrated?
  16. 16. 16 Does parental loss fit? The Crossroads Experience A point at which external formulas are viewed, considered, and gradually accepted or modified Baxter Magolda, 2008
  17. 17. Core  Ques<on What happens when the anchoring reference point in a young adult’s life is removed instantly, rather than slowly, voluntarily phased out? ?
  18. 18. 18 An Integrative Model Self-authorship among grieving undergraduates Entirely externally dependent External Formulas Challenge Cultivated Identity Internal Foundation Childhood Growth through young adulthood Erosion has exposed more roots. Cultivation is essential. By whom? Roots in place, a tree has formed thanks to instant fertilizer. Branches begin to take shape, representing internal voice. Roots expanded, multiple branches and full leaves (social relationships).
  19. 19. 19 Practical steps for student affairs educators Key Recommendations 1.Recognize  the  immediacy  of  poten=al  change.   2.Meaning  making  or  benefit  finding?  (Or  a  brief  distrac=on?)   3.Allow  for  unique  individual  processes  and  circumstances.   4.Consider  the  roots.  And  the  counseling  center  on  your  campus.   5.Integra=on  {grief  +  self-­‐authorship}  is  essen=al.
  20. 20. 20 Slides  available  at     www.natecradit.com craditna@msu.edu Questions

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