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Apa Guide

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Apa Guide

  1. 1. Referencing Guide Questions & Answers The APA StyleAmerican Psychological Association Produced by
  2. 2. Information Services ContentsSection One - Aspects of Referencing1 What is referencing? p. 52 Why reference? p. 53 What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography? p. 64 How do I present referred material in my essay? p. 65 How do I cite authors in my essay? p. 76 What rules apply if there is more than one author? p. 87 What will my reference list look like? p. 98 Where do I find the exact information that I need for my references list? p. 109 Is an editor cited in the same way as an author? p. 1110 What do I do if I can’t find a named person as the author/editor? p. 1111 What do I do if I want to refer to a part or chapter of a book? p. 1212 What do I do if I want to cite an author that someone else has cited? p.1313 How do I use quotations p.1314 How do I distinguish between two items by the same author in the same year? p.1415 What do I do if publication details are not given? p.15Section Two - Formats for Printed Material2.1 Books p.162.2 Journal article p.162.3 Corporate author p.172.4 Government Publications p.172.5 Conference proceedings p.172.6 Newspapers p.182.7 Legislation p.192.8 Theses p.192.9 Patents p.192.10 Unpublished material p.20Section Three - Formats for Electronic and other Material Types3.1 Videotape p.213.2 Film p.213.3 Internet p.213.3.1 World Wide Web p.213.3.2 Electronic Journal (WWW) p.223.3.3 Full Text Journal from Electronic Database p.233.3.4 Mailbase/Listserv e-mail lists p.233.3.5 Broadcast Media – TV Programmes p.23 2
  3. 3. 3.3.6 Personal Communications – e-mails, conversations, interviews or telephone calls p.23Section Four - Points to Remember!Points to remember! p.24Section Five – Plagiarism and University Policy on ReferencingStatement on Plagiarism (from University Student Code 1999) p.25University Policy on referencing p.25Section Six - ReferencesReferences p.26 3
  4. 4. Referencing - Questions & AnswersThe aim of this document is to offer an introduction to the practice ofreferencing published material to anyone who is starting to writeessays/reports for academic purposes. The ‘question & answer’ format isused so that the reader can easily check areas of specific concern to them.After reading these ‘questions & answers’ you should be able to: • understand the need for, and how to use, reference systems (specifically the APA STYLE) • indicate others writers’ ideas in your own work using accepted citation style • format appropriate references correctly from these citations • deal with a range of common and less common bibliographic and electronically formatted materialLook out for this Nb. sign: -Nb.- this indicates important notes which highlight specific aspects of APA styleor referencing practice. 4
  5. 5. Q. What is referencing?A.Academic writing normally involves using the material you have read andstudied to justify and support the answer to your essay or question. Whenpreparing a piece of written work you will refer to this information (ideas,theories, statistics or data) in an agreed way or format (the APA Style).Making reference to other people’s work is called ‘citing’, and the list of theseauthors’ works are given at the end of a piece of written work in the form of a‘reference list’.The process of citing authors (and the associated reference list) can be donein a number of styles. This guide describes the APA Style as outlined in thePublication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).Washington, DC: American Psychological AssociationWhichever system is adopted, one golden rule applies: *** be consistent in everything you do! ***This consistency applies to format, layout, type-face and punctuation.Q. Why reference?A.It is the normal academic convention to reference material you have read fromthe existing scholarly body of knowledge that exists in your subject area. Towrite in an ‘academic’ way you must refer to this information to show where ithas come from and use it to construct your answer to the question posed bythe essay or other piece of academic work. An essay without references in thetext and a full reference list at the end would not normally be considered‘academic’. So in the broadest sense you reference for a number of reasons: • To support an argument, to make a claim or to provide ‘evidence’ • To acknowledge other peoples’ ideas or work correctly • To show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading • To avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and use them as your own), (see page 25) 5
  6. 6. • To allow the reader of your work to locate the cited references easily, and so evaluate your interpretation of those ideas • To avoid losing marks!Q. What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?A.At the end of your essay under the heading ‘reference list’ you list all the itemsyou have made direct reference to in your essay (by the authors’ name andyear of publication). This list of books, journals, newspaper articles (orwhatever) is organised ALPHABETICALLY by the names of the authors (ororiginators) of the work. (This list can be subdivided by year and letter ifnecessary - see page 14.) This is your reference list.Also, during the course of your preparatory reading you may use material thathas been helpful for reading around the subject, but from which you do notmake specific reference to in your essay. This is called a bibliography.Nb.A bibliography is not relevant or appropriate for Psychology students’ workthat is submitted for assessment.Q. How do I present referred material in my essay?A.You present material in two main ways: • Paraphrasing or summarizing text that you have read – this is the most common way to use material. Putting the ideas into your own words (in the context of answering the question) and then stating where that information came from. Paraphrasing and summarizing is a skill that needs to be practiced and developed. • Quoting material directly from its source – word for word as it was in its original form (see page 14). It is less usual to do this. Your essay should not be a ‘cut and paste’ exercise using other peoples’ words. Use quotations only when you have to use the text in its original form or for presenting a longer quote which 6
  7. 7. you use to highlight and expand on ideas or issues in your essay.Q. How do I cite authors in my essay?A.The APA Style uses the NAME of the author of the work you wish to cite andthe DATE in which the work was published. These are incorporated into thetext of your work each time you make reference to that person’s ideas. • This principle applies to any item that you need to reference regardless of what it is or where it comes from – you need to find the author and date of publication.The author (or originator) is the person or organization responsible forproducing that information and should be found in the source document.Author/originators can be individuals or ‘corporate’ (see page 16). The authorand date then become part of the text of your essay. Surname(s) only areused; initials are not included. Names can be used as part of the sentence orplaced in brackets with the year following.Eg.Names and dates will appear in your text like this:...Rogers (1994) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem...Only put the date in brackets if the name of author appears as part of thenarrative. Otherwise place both the name and year in brackets (separated bya comma).Eg....in a recent study of reaction times (Rogers, 1994), the methods employed…If both year and author are part of they textual discussion, do not addbracketed information.Eg.In 1994, Rogers compared two different theories…Nb.Within a paragraph, it is not necessary to include the year in subsequentreferences to the work as long as the work cannot be confused with otherworks cited in the article. 7
  8. 8. Eg.In a recent study of reaction times, Rogers (1994) described the method …Rogers also found…Nb.If a work appears to have no name attached to it then [ANON] can be used asthe author instead of a name. • Some works are the result of co-operation between lots of individuals none of whom can claim authorship e.g. dictionaries, encyclopaedias and films or videos. Titles can then be used in the place of the author name e.g. Gone with the wind. • If no date can be found then [n.d.] can be used (see page 15)Q. What rules apply if there is more than one author?A.If there are TWO authors the names of both should be given in the text and inthe reference list.Eg.Wasserstein and Zappulla (1999) found that ...or… the findings suggest … (Wasserstein & Zapulla, 1999).Nb.Note that ‘and’ is replaced by the ampersand sign (‘&’) when the authors aregiven in brackets.If there are three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time thereference occurs; in subsequent citations include only the surname of the firstauthor, followed by et al. and the year if it is the first citation of the referencewithin a paragraph.Eg.Wasserstein, Zapulla, Rosen and Rock (1999) found that …Wasserstein et al. (1999) found that … (subsequent first citation perparagraph thereafter)Wasserstein et al. found that … (omit year from subsequent citations after firstcitation within a paragraph).If there are two similar references in the same year shorten to the same formand cite the surnames of the first authors. 8
  9. 9. Eg.Wasserstein, Zapulla, Rosen and Rock (1999) and Wasserstein, Rosen et al.(1999)If there are six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first authorfollowed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.Eg.Adam et al. (1990) suggested that the left side of the brain …To cite more than one work at the same time, include all cited authors inbrackets in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname. Separate thecitations with semicolons.Eg.Several studies…(Adam et al., 1990; Cook, 1985; Wasserstein & Zapulla,1999).Q. What will my reference list look like?A.Everything you cite in your essay will be listed once alphabetically by author(or originator) and subdivided by year and letter, if necessary - (see page 14).Eg.Anderson, J. E. & Valentine, W. L. (1944). The preparation of articles for publication in the journals of the American Psychological Association. Psychological Bulletin, 41, 345-376.Gross, R. (2001). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Hogg, M. A., & Vaughan, G. M. (2002). Social psychology. Harlow: Prentice HallNb.It is acceptable for the book title/journal title and volume number to beunderlined rather than in italics, though this is more appropriate formanuscripts rather than published or assessed work.The APA style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference tobe indented. 9
  10. 10. The punctuation, layout and spacing are the same for each type of item in thelist – remember the golden rule:– BE CONSISTENT.See section two ‘formats’ for conventions that apply to all the different types ofmedia e.g. books, journals, newspapers, conferences etc…Q. Where do I find the exact information that I need for my list of references?A.Usually from the book title page (or reverse title page) of the book ordocument you are citing. For journal articles (PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES)this information is on the contents pages, front page or individual article page.Remember though:- • The order of authors’ names should be retained • Cite the first named place of publication for books • Edition dates in books are not reprint dates (new editions will have new text and must be cited as such). The copyright sign will often indicate the date of publication • Web pages may not appear to offer the information you need – see if there is a ‘home page’ or an ‘about us/contact us’ link or something similar as these may include ‘publication’ detailsIf your material has not originated from a commercial publisher and lacksobvious title page data, then the appropriate information should be gleanedfrom any part of the printed publication, if you can say with some certainty thatit fulfils the required criteria for your reference list.Nb.Remember to keep the full reference details for written notes you take frombooks and to also note the reference details of any items you have usedwhich you have borrowed from the library or photocopied.Q. Is an editor cited in the same way as an author?A. 10
  11. 11. Yes. But make sure that it is the editor you are citing as the originator of thetext, not one of the chapter writers (see page 12).In the reference list you should indicate editorship by using one of thefollowing abbreviations:Eg.Smith, L. (Ed.). (1987). Statistics for psychologists. London: Helman.Or:Smith, L. & Pearson, D. T. (Eds.). (1994). Solving problems with algebra. Aberdeen: Falmer.Q. What do I do if I can’t find a named person as the author or editor?A.Sometimes it is impossible to find a named individual as an author. What hasusually happened is that there has been a shared or ‘corporate’ responsibilityfor the production of the material. Therefore the ‘corporate name’ becomesthe author (often called the ‘corporate author’).Corporate authors can be:Government bodiesCompaniesProfessional bodiesClubs or societiesInternational organizationsEg.American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.The ‘corporate author’ appears in the text in the usual way, with the year ofpublication.Nb.When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as thename of the publisher.If the edition is greater than the first edition, give the edition details inbrackets. 11
  12. 12. For US publishers, include the place and abbreviated state.If there is no distinguishable corporate author, move the title to the authorposition, before the date of publication.Eg.Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.Nb.For journal articles without authors the journal title becomes both author andcited journal title.Q. What do I do if I want to refer to a part or chapter of a book? (edited)A.An edited book will often have a number of authors for different chapters (ondifferent topics). To refer to a specific author’s ideas (from a chapter) cite orquote them (the chapter writer) in the text - not the editors. Then in yourreference list indicate the chapter details/title and the book details from whichit was published.Eg.Piaget, J. (1970). The stages of the intellectual development of the child. In P.H. Mussen, J.J. Congor & J. Kagan (Eds.), Readings in child development and personality (pp. 291-302). New York: Harper & Row.Nb.Note the use of ‘in’ to link the chapter to the book and the use of pagenumbers. Piaget would appear as the author in the text, and in the referencelist. The year of publication is given once.Q. What do I do if I want to cite an author that someone else has cited?A.A journal article or book someone else cites that you have not seen is called a‘primary source’. You should: 12
  13. 13. • try and find this source for yourself and cite it in the normal way. It is important if you are criticising ideas that you do it ‘first hand’ • if you cannot locate the primary source, you may cite it in your essay using the reference that is provided in your ‘secondary source’ i.e. the book/article you have read.In your text and you must link these two items with the term ‘cited in’. Theformat is:Eg.... a change in family circumstances can affect a child’s emotional stability(Pollock, 1995, as cited in Jones, 1996, p.10.)In your reference list, only give details of the source that you did refer to.Eg.Jones, P. (1996). A family affair. London: Butterworth.Q. How do I use quotations?Most referencing involves putting the information you have read into your ownwords within the context of your answer. Quotes are sometimes used butshould, in most instances, be kept to a minimum. There are two ways topresent both SHORT and LONG quotations.A.To direct your reader to a short quotation (no more than one line) from yoursource material it is normal to quote the page number within the text (after theauthor and year) and to include quotation marks:Eg.... whilst it is possible that “poor parenting has little effect on primaryeducational development it more profoundly affects secondary or highereducational achievement” (Healey, 1993, p.22)Nb.It is not necessary to indicate the page number in the reference list.Quotes should only really be used when the specific wording used is ofinterest, e.g. a definition.Longer quotes (of 40 or more words) should be: • preceded by a colon 13
  14. 14. • indented from your main text (half an inch, 1.3cm or 5 spaces) • double spaced • not have quotation marks • cite author, year and page numberEg.It was just a fragment, no more than 30 seconds: The Euston Road, hansoms, horse drawn trams, passers-by glancing at the camera but hurrying by without the fascination or recognition that came later. It looked like a still photograph, and had the superb picture quality found in expert work of the period, but this photograph moved! Walkley (1995, p.83).Nb.Page numbers on web pages do not normally appear. If you are quoting froma web page it is helpful to include an indication of where the quote can befound (equivalent to the page number in the text) so use the paragraphnumber, if available preceded by the ¶ symbol or the abbreviation para. Ifneither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and thenumber of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of thematerial.Eg.Smith, 2004, ¶ 7orJones, 2003, Conclusion section, para 2.Q. How do I distinguish between two items by the same author in the same year?A.Occasionally authors publish two or more book or journal articles in any givenyear. This would make the text citation identical for both. To distinguishbetween different articles, letters (a,b,c etc.) are used with the date in the text:Eg....Johnson (1991a) has progressed both experimental and practical aspects ofsoftware technology to the point where they provide a serious challenge toPacific Belt dominance (Johnson, 1991b)…Within the reference list the articles are presented alphabetically by the title(excluding A or The) that follow the date. 14
  15. 15. Eg.Johnson, C. (1991b) Changing global markets in IT ...Johnson, C. (1991a) Software: the way ahead....Nb.If the references with the same authors published in the same year areidentified as articles in a series (e.g., Part 1 and Part 2), order the referencesin the series order, not alphabetically by title.Also note earliest publications by same author(s) come before laterpublications.Q. What do I do if publication details are not given?A.Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basic publicationdetails. In these cases it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these arenot available. A series of abbreviations can be used and are generallyaccepted for this purpose: • author/corporate author not given use [Anonymous] • no date use [n.d.] • no place (sine loco) use [s.l.] • no publisher (sine nomine) use [s.n.] • not known use [n.k.]For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page you arereferencing (see page 21) to the ‘Home Page’ for the whole site or at a linklike ‘About Us’ from that home page. Dates are often given at the bottom ofweb pages.Section Two - Formats for Printed MaterialThere are many different types of material that you may use that will needreferencing. Each different material format has an accepted ‘style’ forpresentation within the reference list.The following examples give the format style and are followed by an example.They are broadly separated into ‘printed’ and ‘electronic’ material. 15
  16. 16. Remember to: • use the correct source information for all your references e.g. book title page • use the same punctuation consistently in each kind of formatNb.Note the consistency and use of italics for titles. Italics is the preferred formatbut it is acceptable to underline.2. Printed Material2.1 BooksAuthor/editor surname, initials. (Year). Title. (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.Eg.Passer, M. W. (2004). Psychology: The science and mind of behavior (2nd ed.). London: McGraw-Hill.Nb.The title is in italicsThe date is the year of publication not printing.The edition is only mentioned if other than the first.The place of publication is the City not the Country (normally the first stated).Use capitals for proper nouns and after a colon.2.2 Journal articleAuthor surname, initials. (Year). Title of article. Journal Name. Volumenumber, (issue or part number if needed), first and last page numbers.Eg.Clarke, L. (1998). Schizophrenia: All in the mind or locked in the brain? Journal of Advanced Nursing. 21, 9-18.Nb.Journal name and volume number are italicised, not the article title. 16
  17. 17. Issue/part number is only given if each issue begins at page 1, otherwise it’snot required.2.3 Corporate AuthorFormat is the same as for a book, but uses the ‘corporate’ (company,business, organisation) author in place of a named author.Eg.Royal College of Nursing. (1983). Guidance on the handling of patients in the hospital and community. London: Author.Nb.Royal College of Nursing (1993) would be used in the text of your essay asthe citation.Note the full stop after the corporate author.2.4 Government PublicationsAvailable data may vary for these, but where possible include the following:Government Department/Institute. (Year). Title of document. (Number ofdocument, if given) Place of publication: Publisher.Eg.Department of Health and Social Services. (1980). Inequalities in health: report of a research working group. London: Author.2.5 Conference proceedingsConference papers are often published in book form or as a special issue of ajournal. It is necessary to include the name, place and date of theconference.Author, Initial. (Year). Title of conference paper. In Initial, Author/Editor ofconference paper, conference proceedings title (pp. xx – xx). Place ofpublication: Publisher.Eg.Webb, N. L. (1993). Mathematics education reform in California. In R. Clark (Ed.), Science and Mathematics Education in the United States: Eight innovations: Proceedings of a conference, (pp. 29-40). Paris: OECD. 17
  18. 18. Nb.Use capitals for the name of the conference.For unpublished conference proceedings, use the following:Eg.Lanktree, C. & Briere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.Nb.Give the month of the conference.2.6 NewspapersJournalist name, initial. (Year, Date). Title of news item. Name of newspaper,Page number(s).Nb.Name of newspaper is italicised.Eg.Peters, R. (1992, June 23). Picking up Maxwell’s bills. Independent, p. 28.Nb.If it is a news article and does not attribute an author, use first couple ofsignificant title words in the text.Eg.‘Lottery’ for breast cancer help. (1995, March 21). The Guardian, p. 10.2.7 LegislationLaw ReportsName v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).Use the abbreviated name of law report and give the page number on whichreport starts. 18
  19. 19. Eg.Holgate v. Duke, 2 All ER 660 (1984).StatutesThe usual method of citing an Act of Parliament is to cite its title and the yearin your text and in the reference list, include the source and section number ofthe statute, and in parentheses give the publication date of the statutorycompilation, which may be different from the year in the name of the act. Theformat is therefore:Title of statute, Volume Source § xxx (Year).Eg.Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9401 (1988).For a comprehensive guide to citing legal sources, refer to the:American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.2.8 ThesesAuthor, initials. (Year).Thesis title. Level of thesis. Awarding Institution.Eg.Kirkland, J. (1988). Lay pressure groups in the local education system: a study of two English boroughs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brunel University, London.2.9 PatentsIn text, give the patent number and the issue date (not application date) of thepatent. In the reference list, include the inventor(s) to whom the patent isissued, and the official source from which the patent information can beretrieved.Name of author/inventor (Year). Patent number. Source.Eg.Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 19
  20. 20. 2.10 Unpublished MaterialSome printed materials are not produced by recognisable publishers, andmay not be widely available. The format is:Author, Initials. (Year). Title. Unpublished manuscript.Eg.Lawler, C. (1987). Childhood vaccinations. Unpublished manuscript.Nb.If the manuscript is undertaken at a University, give the source information.Eg.Lawler, C. (1987). Childhood vaccinations. Unpublished manuscript, Brunel University, London.Section Three - Formats for Electronic and otherMaterial Types3.1 VideotapeFor off-air (recorded from television programmes) recordings use: 20
  21. 21. Name (function of the originator(s), e.g. director or producer). (Year anddate). Title [Television broadcast]. Country of origin: Movie studio/distributor.Eg.Smith, L. (Executive Producer). (1992, June 10). J’accuse: Sigmund Freud [Television broadcast]. London: Channel Four.3.2 FilmName (function of the originator(s), e.g. director or producer). (Year). Title[Motion picture]. Country of origin: Movie studio/distributor.Eg.Wilder, B. (Director). (1960). The apartment [Motion picture]. United States: United Artists.In the text of your essay refer to (Wilder, 1960).3.3 Internet3.3.1 World Wide WebThe principles for citing web pages are the same as for other types of media -use author name and date of publication in your text and the following formatfor the reference list. The nature of web publication can often mean thoughthat author names are missing and dates are vague or unavailable. Thesolution to this problem is to decide who is responsible for producing the webpage (the originator), they will then become the ‘author’. It is often easier tofind this information (and a date) if you look at the Home Page link for the siteyou are in or at the ‘About Us’ or ‘Contact Us’ type of links associated withthat page. The web page reference list format is:Author/editor, initials. (Year). Title. Retrieved date, from URLEg.Beckleheimer, J. (1994). How to cite URLs in a bibliography? Retrieved December 13, 1995, from http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.htmlDo not worry about omitting ‘place and publisher’ if they are not available.Eg.The “Accessed date” is the date on which you viewed or downloaded thedocument. It may be subject to changes or updating and this allows for this 21
  22. 22. possibility. Keeping a record of the document as you used it (if permissible) isrecommended.Often organisations put information on the Internet without citing a specificauthor. If the author of the document is not identified, begin the referencewith the title of the document.Eg.Educating America for the 21st century: Developing a strategic plan for educational leadership for Columbia University, 1993-2000 (Initial workshop draft). (1994). Retreived May 16, 1995, from http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/CONF/EdPlan.html3.3.2 Electronic Journal (WWW)To reference, online journal articles based on a print source, use the followingformat:Author, initials. (Year). Title. [Electronic version] Journal title [online], volume(issue), page(s).Eg.VandenBos, G. Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.If you believe that an online article may differ from the printed version, includethe date retrieved and the URL.Eg.VandenBos, G. Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org.articles.html3.3.3 Full Text Journal from Electronic DatabaseWhen referencing material obtained from a full text database, such asPsycARTICLES, include the date of retrieval and the proper name of thedatabase.Eg.Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D. & White, L. A. (1993). Role of supervisory experience in supervisor performance. 22
  23. 23. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.Nb.An item or accession number may also be provided but is not required. If youinclude this number, put in parentheses at the end of the retrieval statement.3.3.4 Mailbase/Listserve e-mail listsAuthor, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Subject line of message. Messageposted to name of electronic mailing list, archived at URLEg.Bates, E. (2005, August 15). Changes to NLH. Message posted to Lis-Nursing list, archived at http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/lis-nursing.html3.3.5 Broadcast Media – TV ProgrammesTo reference a television series use the following:Name, Initial. (Producer or Director). (Year). Title [Television series]. Place ofpublication: Publisher.Eg.Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New York: WNET.3.3.6 Personal Communications; e-mails,conversations, interviews or telephone callsPersonal communications may be letters, memos, some electroniccommunications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussiongroups or electronic bulletin boards), personal interviews, telephoneconversations etc. Personal communications are not cited in the referencelist as they do not provide recoverable data. They are only cited in the textin the following format:Initials, surname of the communicator (personal communication, date).Eg.A. T. Smith (personal communication, April 15, 2004). 23
  24. 24. Section Four - Points to Remember!4.1 Above all - be consistent in whatever method of referencing you use.4.2 The main title of the document should be distinguishable - italics or underlined4.3 The title should have only the first word starting with upper case (except after a colon e.g. the sub-title or for proper nouns)4.4 The date is the year of publication not printing.4.5 For a book the edition is only mentioned if other than the first.4.6 The place of publication is the city not the country.4.7 Journal titles should be given in full.4.8 Volume and page numbers are written as: part numbers can be: 25, 33-39.Section Five – Plagiarism and University Policy onReferencingPlagiarismStatement on Plagiarism (from University Student Code 1999)The University unequivocally condemns plagiarism, which it considers to becomparable to falsifying data and cheating in an examination, and warns 24
  25. 25. students that the Senate looks gravely upon incidents of plagiarism. Suchincidents are classed as Academic Misconduct and are subject to theprocedures further set out in the Student Code.DefinitionThe University considers plagiarism involves an intention to deceive andentails the submission for assessment of work which purports to be that of thestudent but is in fact wholly or substantially the work of another. Since it isdifficult to establish such an intention to deceive except through practice theUniversity defines plagiarism in the following way.The University defines plagiarism as the incorporation by a student in work forassessment of material which is not their own in the sense that all orsubstantial part of the work has been copied without an attempt at attributionor has been incorporated as if it were the students own when in fact it iswholly or substantially the work of another person.University Policy on ReferencingThe University considers that referencing is an essential component ofacademic activity. It is a sound discipline for students, which requires them todemonstrate the provenance of their material and the sources of theirargument. It should indicate their understanding of scholarship and enablethem to recognise their place as learners in an academic discipline.Acknowledgement of the academic work of others emphasises the integrity ofboth the Universitys undergraduate and postgraduate study within the wideracademic community.Referencing is also vital in reinforcing the Universitys policy on plagiarism andin enabling students to understand the relevance and importance of thatpolicy.In promoting good practice in relation to referencing, the University considersit is more important that students understand why they should be referencingthan that they are simply concerned with how to reference.As a result, the University thinks it is important to relate the practice ofreferencing to the academic requirements and expectations of a particulardiscipline rather than requiring slavish adherence to a uniform model.The University therefore does not require adherence to a single standard formof reference. However, the University recognises the problems and concernsthat referencing can occasion for students and therefore it considers that inorder to simplify the problem of referencing for students there should be alimited number of models in operation in the University.The University therefore issued the University Referencing Guide which itwould expect course teams to use, unless they can justify that it is 25
  26. 26. inappropriate in relation to accepted external academic or professionalpractices in their area. Minor variations of practice are discouraged.Section Six - ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Curtin University of Technology, Library and Information Service. (n.d.) APA referencing. Retrieved January 14, 2003, from http://lisweb.curtin.edu.au/guides/handouts/apap.htmlReferencing guide. (n.d.) Retrieved February 17, 2005, from http://nli.northampton.ac.uk/ass/psych/Divisional/Skills/New %20referencing%20guide%20%28revised%29.htmThis guide is also available electronically via the Library Web pages at: http://library.northampton.ac.uk/pages/arg September 2005 26

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