Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Natalie Novick,
University of
California San Diego
P R E P A R E D F O R T H E
2 0 1 7 W I N T E R R E G I O N A L S T U D...
As technology affords a
growing number of digital
companies the opportunity to
start up anywhere, why do
entrepreneurs cho...
What are the meanings of
these places, and what makes
locations attractive for
Europe's digital
entrepreneurs?
WHY STUDY EUROPEAN STARTUP CITIES? 
Free movement within the EU allows the opportunity to examine the strategic
choices of...
CONNECTION BETWEEN
PLACE AND
ENTREPRENEURSHIP 
Place as a market
Place for trust: Individuals' outcomes a function
of not ...
Measuring the components of the
startup city is challenging due the
its changing landscape.
Ethnographic design allows the...
Digital entrepreneurs and
their teams are defined by: 
Entrepreneurial identity: Risk seeking, mission
driven. Economic ou...
“It should be said again and
again: in every country,
Entrepreneurs usually don’t
fit in the box.” 
Nicolas Colin, French ...
STARTUP CITIES AS VENUE
FOR IDENTITY FORMATION
AND SOCIAL CAPITAL
BENEFIT
Geographically discrete transnational social spa...
“We’re trusting our friends to help us.
We do know that by better uniting and
activating our local community we can
only a...
Yet, the relationship between entrepreneur and their
community remains under theorized (Lyons et al 2012). 
There is evide...
Entrepreneurs describe themselves
as part of a community. We
can examine the cost of community
formation and number of act...
SOCIAL CAPITAL OF PLACE
Magnitude different based on the cost of community formation, number of actors
Events, constituenc...
"My advice? start attending sector-specific events.
That’s where you find thought leaders, experts,
doers, investors from ...
VENUES FOR TECH AND
ENTREPRENEURSHIP MEETUPS AND
EVENTS, BERLIN OCTOBER 2016 -2017
MORE ACTORS, GREATER
DIVERSITY, FEWER
INDIVIDUAL COSTS
Large startup cities like Berlin afford
startuppers multiple opport...
"Berlin’s tech community (and commitment to diversity
in that community) is a true group effort. It’s impossible
to pinpoi...
VENUES FOR TECH AND
ENTREPRENEURSHIP MEETUPS AND
EVENTS, ATHENS OCTOBER 2016 -2017
FEWER ACTORS INCREASE
COSTS FOR EACH
INDIVIDUAL, BUT CAN
ACCRUE TIGHTER BONDS
Athens, a small startup city suffers from fe...
“We always enjoy meeting new interesting people,
exchanging ideas and despite our limited time we also
want to give back a...
Our social media channels show
the greatest performance in terms
of engagement and lead
generation as compared to other
ad...
Places have meaning for digital
entrepreneurs as venues for
identity formation, exchange and
accruing social capital
CONCLUSIONS
Large startup cities afford greater levels of social capital for startuppers, and
all members have the chance ...
CONCLUSIONS
Small startup cities have fewer opportunities for entrepreneurs to act locally.
In places with limited social ...
Thank you
nnovick@ucsd.edu
www.startupcity.co
www.startupheatmap.eu
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Startup City -- The Meaning of Place in Europe's Digital Economy

239 views

Published on

Some initial findings from a year in the field of some of Europe's startup cities. Digital entrepreneurship is an engagement with community-- thus it is important for communities to foster these spaces to ensure they can grow.
Technological change and the development of the digital economy have drastically reshaped our
connection to our work, our cities and to one another. As technology companies and startup firms
have begun to comprise a larger proportion of the global economy, entrepreneurs trading in products
and services that exist entirely online are less constrained by geography than ever before. While the
constraints to geography slip away for these entrepreneurs, locality takes upon a new meaning.
Increasingly, aspiring tech entrepreneurs are choosing startup cities-- transnational social
spaces existing on top of, and not entirely within the confines of the modern city. The Startup City exemplifies today's urban superdiversity (Vertovec 2007), new forms that are
uniquely comprised of
people, institutions, practices, and values, making them distinct from other types of transnational
communities grounded in shared ethnicity or religion (Faist 1998). Wholly engaged in
entrepreneurship and the technologies that have faci
take on a global dimension while inhabiting the modern geography of the city. Many times, these
spaces and the people that populate them exist outside the confines of local policy, utilizing privilege
and human capital to maneuver around bureaucracy and visa policy. As governments increasingly aim
to increase competitiveness by supporting the digital economy and the entrepreneurs that sustain
it, we investigate the spaces they inhabit. This piece introduces the features and development of
Startup Cities, and outlines the challenges and opportunities they present.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Startup City -- The Meaning of Place in Europe's Digital Economy

  1. 1. Natalie Novick, University of California San Diego P R E P A R E D F O R T H E 2 0 1 7 W I N T E R R E G I O N A L S T U D I E S A S S O C I A T I O N C O N F E R E N C E , L O N D O N , U K The Startup City: The meaning of place in Europe's Digital Economy
  2. 2. As technology affords a growing number of digital companies the opportunity to start up anywhere, why do entrepreneurs choose to locate where they do?  
  3. 3. What are the meanings of these places, and what makes locations attractive for Europe's digital entrepreneurs?
  4. 4. WHY STUDY EUROPEAN STARTUP CITIES?  Free movement within the EU allows the opportunity to examine the strategic choices of startupper locations Much of the literature on entrepreneurship, the digital economy and knowledgeworkers is informed by the US or limited to country case studies Venture capital funding landscape in Europe alters opportunities for European founders. Constrained funding environment in Europe changes access, size and participants in this space. Funding data below (Venturebeat 2017).
  5. 5. CONNECTION BETWEEN PLACE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP  Place as a market Place for trust: Individuals' outcomes a function of not just their network contacts, but larger societal environment (Granovetter 1973, 1992; Burt 1992) Place for financing: Venture capitalists rely on their social connections to assess the credibility of entrepreneurs and the promise of their ideas (Sorenson and Stuart 2001). Place for shaping  an ‘ideal entrepreneurial self’ (Gill and Larson 2013)  Place as venue for social capital (Kwon, Heflin and Ruef 2013)
  6. 6. Measuring the components of the startup city is challenging due the its changing landscape. Ethnographic design allows the researcher to investigate the process and mechanisms of these spaces
  7. 7. Digital entrepreneurs and their teams are defined by:  Entrepreneurial identity: Risk seeking, mission driven. Economic outcomes are not primary motivators Embrace diversity, meritocracy, "born global" mindset High uncertainty, markets new and untested Practiceofentrepreneurshipinvolves  community:learning,sharing,teaching Community built both online and offline
  8. 8. “It should be said again and again: in every country, Entrepreneurs usually don’t fit in the box.”  Nicolas Colin, French tech entrepreneur, VC and impact investor. Co- Founder & Partner of The Family (London, Berlin, Paris)
  9. 9. STARTUP CITIES AS VENUE FOR IDENTITY FORMATION AND SOCIAL CAPITAL BENEFIT Geographically discrete transnational social spaces let group members trade on shared values and expertise Community membership defined by similar outlook, values and approach rather than shared nationality Allows entrepreneurs to bridge structural holes in their networks, bestowing legitimacy Startup cities allow startuppers to engage in identity formation practices of learning, sharing, teaching
  10. 10. “We’re trusting our friends to help us. We do know that by better uniting and activating our local community we can only achieve bigger and better things together”  Travis Todd, US entrepreneur, co-Founder Silicon Allee, Berlin
  11. 11. Yet, the relationship between entrepreneur and their community remains under theorized (Lyons et al 2012).  There is evidence that community participation plays a considerable role in entrepreneurship, by shaping ventures and creating worth  (McKeever, Jack and Anderson 2015).  Embeddedness enables understanding of how membership of social groups influences and shapes actions (Portes and Sensenbrenner 1993)
  12. 12. Entrepreneurs describe themselves as part of a community. We can examine the cost of community formation and number of actors involved to estimate some of the public good available to each location. Events and membership size can further be used to visualize a startup city's social capital. 
  13. 13. SOCIAL CAPITAL OF PLACE Magnitude different based on the cost of community formation, number of actors Events, constituency and membership size are ways to visualize a startup city's social capital.
  14. 14. "My advice? start attending sector-specific events. That’s where you find thought leaders, experts, doers, investors from your specific industry. Sometimes speaking for 5 minutes to an experienced individual could save a lot of time for you or could also ruin your hopes of building something.. Be willing to listen to others. Sometimes you never know who the person sitting next to you will turn out to be?" Kiran Maverick, Brussels  based tech entrepreneur, community builder. Founder of I am Tomorrow
  15. 15. VENUES FOR TECH AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP MEETUPS AND EVENTS, BERLIN OCTOBER 2016 -2017
  16. 16. MORE ACTORS, GREATER DIVERSITY, FEWER INDIVIDUAL COSTS Large startup cities like Berlin afford startuppers multiple opportunities to engage in  community practice of entrepreneurship: learn, share and teach Organizations that sponsor events and make space available lower the individual costs for startuppers to build a community themselves Cities with large population and high density make it easy to harness the power of online tools such as meetup.com to build momentum
  17. 17. "Berlin’s tech community (and commitment to diversity in that community) is a true group effort. It’s impossible to pinpoint exactly what makes Berlin the inclusive and supportive environment that it is…One thing that’s for certain: you can’t simply put the structure in place and walk away. The Berlin tech community cares about the Berlin tech community, plain and simple. It’s a daily effort, and one that comes quite easily when you want your community to succeed.” Alexa Schoen, American entrepreneur and business consultant, former expat to Berlin
  18. 18. VENUES FOR TECH AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP MEETUPS AND EVENTS, ATHENS OCTOBER 2016 -2017
  19. 19. FEWER ACTORS INCREASE COSTS FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL, BUT CAN ACCRUE TIGHTER BONDS Athens, a small startup city suffers from few physical spaces for startuppers to congregate Available venues are costly and sponsorships are low Less involvement by local corporates and public entities means startup scene is entirely community driven Smaller constellation of events and activities means participants connect more regularly and form stronger connections between one another
  20. 20. “We always enjoy meeting new interesting people, exchanging ideas and despite our limited time we also want to give back and offer our help. This is why we decided to hold office hours in order to have the chance for a brief sit-down of 20–30 min with people interested in startups and who might not be actively fundraising or have not even started their own company. The idea here is our visitors to set the agenda, sit down and pick each other’s brains.” Apostolos Apostolakis, Greek founder of e-shop.gr, co-founder DoctorAnytime, currently VC parter at Venture Friends
  21. 21. Our social media channels show the greatest performance in terms of engagement and lead generation as compared to other advertising and promotional channels. Role of community social capital
  22. 22. Places have meaning for digital entrepreneurs as venues for identity formation, exchange and accruing social capital
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS Large startup cities afford greater levels of social capital for startuppers, and all members have the chance to benefit from these community resources. Organizations such as business schools, corporate entities, shared workspaces and VC/development firms that continually host events lower costs for individual stakeholders. Large startup cities help entrepreneurs avoid the "dark side" of entrepreneurship, and allow better balance of distinctiveness of entrepreneurship with community belonging. Smaller cities can accrue the social capital benefits of larger startup cities through hosting large scale events, sponsoring startup activities, or creating a culture more open to the culture of digital entrepreneurship (eg. Estonia).
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS Small startup cities have fewer opportunities for entrepreneurs to act locally. In places with limited social capital, startuppers will be encouraged to participate in community online and at tech events away from home. The less choice in the local environment puts more pressure on individual participants to support the community. In small startup cities the outside influence of specific actors or firms can constrain debate. The smaller scale of the community makes bonds stronger, but can limit feelings of solidarity. Further examinations of the landscape of digital economy should include the role of how social capital can be a public good and how cities support entrepreneurial identity formation. 
  25. 25. Thank you nnovick@ucsd.edu www.startupcity.co www.startupheatmap.eu

×