Overview Of Titles II and III of the ADA


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Overview of the requirements of Titles II and III of the federal Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)

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Overview Of Titles II and III of the ADA

  1. 1. Overview of Titles II & III of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Arizona Center for Disability Law Natalie Franklin, Information & Referral Supervisor
  2. 2. Who is eligible for ADA Protections? <ul><li>“ Qualified Individual with a disability;” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity -OR- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a record of such an impairment -OR- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is regarded as having such an impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to be “qualified,” the person must meet the essential eligibility requirements for the program or service. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Title II – “Public Entities” <ul><li>42 U.S.C. Part 12131 </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Department of Justice has promulgated regulations to implement Title II of the ADA, at 28 C.F.R. Part 35. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Covered Programs and Entities <ul><li>State Courts </li></ul><ul><li>State Legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Town Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Police and Fire Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Motor Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>State Prisons and Jails </li></ul><ul><li>State offices and programs, ie: DES, CPS </li></ul><ul><li>Public Postsecondary schools, ie: ASU, UofA, Community Colleges </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview of Requirements <ul><li>May not refuse to allow a person with a disability to participate in a program, service or activity; </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide services in an integrated setting, unless separate program is necessary to ensure equal opportunity; </li></ul><ul><li>Must eliminate eligibility criteria that screen out or tends to screen out persons with disabilities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Requirements… <ul><li>Must make reasonable modifications in policies, practices and procedures to ensure equal access; </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide “effective communication,” and auxiliary aids and services when required to ensure effective communication. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples of Auxiliary Aids and Services <ul><li>Qualified Interpreters; </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Listening Devices; </li></ul><ul><li>Captioning; </li></ul><ul><li>TDD/TTY and Relay </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative formats, ie: taped text; </li></ul><ul><li>Brailled materials </li></ul>
  8. 8. Additional Requirements <ul><li>Must not impose charges on individuals with disabilities to provide modifications; </li></ul><ul><li>May provide special benefits beyond those required by regulations; </li></ul><ul><li>Shall operate programs, when viewed in their entirety, to be readily accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Essential Eligibility Requirements <ul><li>Will depend on the type of service or activity involved – in example: </li></ul><ul><li>Food Stamps , must meet financial eligibility and other criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Public postsecondary schools , must meet the academic and technical requirements for admission or participation, with or without reasonable accommodations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Program Access <ul><li>Must ensure that individuals with disabilities are not excluded from services, programs and activities because of inaccessibility. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Integrated Programs <ul><li>May not provide separate program unless necessary for effective services; </li></ul><ul><li>Even if separate program is permitted, person with a disability has the right to choose to participate in regular program; </li></ul><ul><li>May not require a person with a disability to accept a special accommodation if they choose not to. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Physical Accessibility <ul><li>“ Existing facilities” are those constructed for first occupancy prior to January 26, 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Must remove architectural barriers that are readily achievable </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide program access where barrier removal is not readily achievable </li></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of Alternative Methods <ul><li>Relocating a service to an accessible floor or facility; </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an aide or personal assistance to enable a person with a disability to obtain a service; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the service at home </li></ul>
  14. 14. New Construction and Alterations <ul><li>Those facilities designed and constructed for first occupancy after January 26, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Those facilities or portions of facilities altered after January 26, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Must ensure buildings are free of architectural barriers, using either the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or the ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). </li></ul><ul><li>*ADAAG and UFAS at: www.access-board.gov </li></ul>
  15. 15. Limits of Duty to Provide Access <ul><li>Public entities are not required to take any action that would result in an “undue financial or administrative burden,” or “fundamentally alter” the nature of the program, activity or service. </li></ul><ul><li>Must take other necessary action to ensure equal access. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Enforcement <ul><li>ADA Grievance procedures must be adopted and published by public entities that employ 50 or more persons, to provide for “prompt and equitable resolution” of complaints alleging a violation of Title II of the ADA. </li></ul><ul><li>Must designate a responsible employee to carry out these responsibilities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Enforcement… <ul><li>Administrative procedures – </li></ul><ul><li>Complaints can be filed with the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), and/or with the federal agency providing federal financial assistance. One is not required to exhaust administrative remedies. </li></ul><ul><li>DOJ provides technical assistance, investigation, mediation, settlement and litigation on behalf of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>* Complaint must be filed within 180 days of the date of the discrimination . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Enforcement… <ul><li>Lawsuits – </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals can bring lawsuits to enforce their rights under Title II. </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies include : </li></ul><ul><li>Injunctive relief; </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary damages (Ninth Circuit requires the discrimination to be intentional to obtain monetary relief); </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable attorneys fees to the prevailing Plaintiff. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Title III – “Places of Public Accommodation” <ul><li>42 U.S.C. Part 12181 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Justice’s implementing regulations, at 28 C.F.R. Part 36. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Examples of Covered Programs and Entities <ul><li>Grocery, department or other retail store; </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel, motel or other place of lodging; </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurant, bar or nightclub; </li></ul><ul><li>Movie theatre or concert venue; </li></ul><ul><li>Professional office, ie: accountant, lawyer; </li></ul><ul><li>Private Postsecondary Schools, ie: Apollo College, UTI, etc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Overview of Requirements <ul><li>Must ensure that new facilities are designed to be accessible (ADAAG); </li></ul><ul><li>Must remove barriers in existing facilities when it is “readily achievable.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Requirements… <ul><li>Must make reasonable modifications in practices, policies and procedures to ensure qualified persons with disabilities have an equal opportunity to benefit from the goods, programs and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide “effective communication” and “appropriate auxiliary aids and services.” </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide services in an integrated setting. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Limits of Duty to Provide Access <ul><li>Need not take actions that constitute a “fundamental alteration” or an undue financial or administrative burden. </li></ul><ul><li>Need not provide personal devices, such as a wheelchair or hearing aid, or services of a personal nature, ie: assistance with eating, toileting or dressing. </li></ul><ul><li>May deny access if person presents a direct threat to health or safety of others. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Essential Eligibility Requirements <ul><li>Will depend on the service or activity involved – in example: </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurant , only ‘ requirement ’ is that the person intends on purchasing food or drink; </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel , the person plans to book and pay for lodging. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Physical Accessibility and Architectural Barriers <ul><li>“ Existing Facilities,” are those constructed for first occupancy prior to January 26, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Must remove architectural barriers where it is readily achievable </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations to the buildings must be completed to ensure accessibility “to the maximum extent feasible.” </li></ul><ul><li>Both landlord and tenant have responsibility to remove barriers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. New Construction Requirements <ul><li>Those facilities designed and constructed after January 26, 1993 must be designed and constructed in compliance with the ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). </li></ul>
  27. 27. Enforcement <ul><li>File a complaint of discrimination with the Arizona Attorney General’s Office, Civil Rights Division under the state’s Arizonans With Disabilities Act (AzDA), by calling : </li></ul><ul><li>(602) 542-5263 or TDD: (602) 542-5002 </li></ul><ul><li>in Phoenix, -or- </li></ul><ul><li>(520) 628-6500 or TDD: (520) 628-6872 </li></ul><ul><li>in Tucson . </li></ul><ul><li>* Complaints must be filed within 180 days from the date of the discrimination. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Enforcement… <ul><li>File a complaint with the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) alleging violation of Title III of the ADA . </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the document, “ How to File a Title III Complaint ,” and mail it to the address specified on page 3 of that document. There is no deadline for filing this complaint, but we urge you to do so as soon as possible to preserve your rights. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Enforcement… <ul><li>File a complaint with the Arizona District of the U.S. Attorney’s Office, under Title III of the ADA, by calling (800) 800-2570. There is no deadline in which to file this complaint, but again, we urge you to do so as soon as possible to preserve your rights . </li></ul>
  30. 30. Enforcement… <ul><li>Lawsuits – </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals can bring lawsuit to enforce their rights under Title III. The deadline for filing a lawsuit may be one or two years from the date of discrimination; the law is unsettled on this point. We urge you to file within 1 year to protect your rights. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Enforcement… <ul><li>Lawsuits, Continued – </li></ul><ul><li>The remedy available for a lawsuit under Title III is an injunction, which is a measure to prevent future discrimination. For instance, the Court could order that a facility install a ramp to ensure physical access, or provide an interpreter to ensure effective communication. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Enforcement… <ul><li>In a lawsuit alleging violations of the Arizonans With Disabilities Act (AzDA), compensatory damages and reasonable attorneys’ fees may be awarded, as well as punitive damages for distress caused by the discrimination. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Links and Resources <ul><li>U.S. Department of Justice ADA Home Page: www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Access Board: www.access-board.gov </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Discrimination Complaint Form: www.hhs.gov/ocr/disform.html </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights: www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/complaintprocess.html </li></ul>
  34. 34. Links and Resources <ul><li>Arizona Attorney General’s Office, Civil Rights Division: www.azag.gov/civil_rights/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Arizonans With Disabilities Act, ARS 41-1492.02: www.azleg.state.az.us/ars/ars.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Findlaw (legal resources, citations, statutes and links): www.findlaw.com </li></ul>
  35. 35. Arizona Center for Disability Law www.azdisabilitylaw.org <ul><li>Phoenix : </li></ul><ul><li>3839 N. Third Street, Ste. 209 </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenix, Arizona 85012 </li></ul><ul><li>(602) 274-6287 (Voice, Relay or TTY) </li></ul><ul><li>(800) 927-2260 (Voice, Relay or TTY) </li></ul><ul><li>Tucson : </li></ul><ul><li>100 N. Stone Ave., Ste. 305 </li></ul><ul><li>Tucson, Arizona 85701 </li></ul><ul><li>(520) 327-9547 (Voice, Relay or TTY) </li></ul><ul><li>(800) 922-1448 (Voice, Relay or TTY) </li></ul>