Language variation2003


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Language variation2003

  1. 2. <ul><li>Internal variation : refers to the property of languages of having different ways of expressing the same meaning </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: lorry- truck </li></ul><ul><li>underground-subway </li></ul><ul><li>flat-apartment. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Language variety : is used among linguists to refer to many different types of language variation. </li></ul><ul><li>French- Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Appalachian English </li></ul><ul><li>Single person </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>A dialect is any variety of language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences from other varieties of the same language in terms of structural or lexical features. </li></ul><ul><li>Every person speaks a dialect of his or her native language.(dialectology). </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect: vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>an idiolect is a variety of a language unique to an individual. It is manifested by patterns of vocabulary or idiom selection (the individual's lexicon), grammar, or pronunciations that are unique to the individual. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>mutual intelligibility is recognized as a relationship between languages in which speakers of different but related languages can readily understand each other without intentional study or extraordinary effort. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. A person from New York speaking with a person from Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. In china Mandarin vs. Cantonese(they are considered different dialects of the same language). </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>A dialect continuum means a large geographical area, where the spoken language differs only slightly from village to village, but over a longer distance the differences become that huge, that mutual intelligibility is not possible. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Dutch vs. German </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Standard vs. Nonstandard varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistically speaking, no one dialect or language is better , more correct, or more logical than any other. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>In actuality, there is no one standard dialect but instead many different varieties of what people consider to be standard.(prestige) </li></ul><ul><li>Used by political leaders, the media and speakers from higher economical classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the language of the power. </li></ul><ul><li>Good=proper </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Associated with the language of the lower socioeconomic classes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not substandard or inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad=improper. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Bidialectal </li></ul><ul><li>Overt prestige: how people should speak in order to gain status in the wider community(standard dialects). </li></ul><ul><li>Covert prestige: how people should speak in order to be considered member of a particular community(nonstandard dialects) </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Language varieties that are defined in terms of geographical boundaries are called regional dialects. </li></ul><ul><li>The study of the regional dialects is called dialectology . </li></ul><ul><li>The boundaries of a particular linguistic area are called isoglosses . </li></ul><ul><li>Many isoglosses= a bundle of isoglosses which indicates that the speech of that particular group is different in a number of ways from other groups around it. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 田中 : こんにちは。 木村 : こんにちは。 田中 : 木村さん、こちらは私の友達です。 山田ひろ子さんです。