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  1. 1. Sociolinguistics Language choice in multilingual communities Chapter 2 Instructor : Dr. M. Shabani Prepared by: Eftekhari, Nasrin 1394
  2. 2. Goals of Chapter 2  Choosing varieties or codes  Diglossia  Code-switching or code-making
  3. 3. Example1:What is Kalala’s linguistics repertoire? Lives in Bukavu Multilingual city Multicultural city
  4. 4. Kalala speakes: • “Shi” Home wedding Market place funeral Informal Formal
  5. 5. Kalala speakes: • “Swahili ” •Communicate with people from different tribal •Swahili is a lingua franca
  6. 6. Kalala speakes: • “standard Zairean Swahili ” •At school •One of the national language •Official transaction
  7. 7. Kalala speakes: • “kingwana ” It is his own distinct linguistic features. He uses this language to children & adults he meets in the street, market place.
  8. 8. Kalala speakes: • “Indoubil” •It is a special variety or code. •It is used by young people in Bukavua regardless of their tribal background.
  9. 9. • Kinds of social factors : social distance, status , formality and functional • Characteristics of the users or participants. • Kalala’s own linguistic repertoire. • Repertoire of the person he is talking to. The factors that lead Kalala to choose one code rather than another are :
  10. 10. Any variety or code could carry the affective message. Note:
  11. 11. The important factors in language and code choice in a large speech communities: Certain social factors Who are talking to Typical interaction Topic Function Social context of the talk
  12. 12. Domains of language use: A domain involves ; • Typical interaction between • Typical participants in • Typical settings.
  13. 13. Typical participants : family members Setting: home Typical topic: family activities e.g.’ typical’ family interaction ‘Typical’ interaction :
  14. 14. Table 2.2 Domains of language use Domain Addresses Setting Topic Variety/ code Family Parent Home family party …….. Friendship Friend Beach Play beach tennis …….. Religion Priest Church Sunday liturgy ……. Education Teacher School Math problem ……….. Employment Employer Workplace Apply for a job ……..
  15. 15. Example4:modeling variety or code choice Maria Lives in London She is Portuguese
  16. 16. Domains Varieties / codes Home / family Portuguese Church / religion Portuguese Work / employment English School / education English Maria’s four domains and varieties or code appropriate to each :
  17. 17. Figure 2.1 Appropriate code choice in different domains among the Portuguese community in London
  18. 18. Useful to a new comer Describe which code or codes are selected Domains & varieties The figure 2.1 illustrate : Pattern of language Not an account of go through in selecting code Add other domain Comparing pattern of code choice Comparing the varieties in similar domains
  19. 19. • Social distance • Status • Formality • Function Now : remember the social factors affecting code choice:
  20. 20. Diglossia is the pattern of code or variety choice. Diglossia
  21. 21. Denoting state or attribute “ speaking two languages”. Diglossia
  22. 22. Refers to a situation in which two languages or dialect are used by a single language community. Diglossia
  23. 23. DiglossiaNarrow or classic diglossia Braod diglassia
  24. 24. • H & L varieties • H & L varieties complete each other • No one use H variety in everyday conversation Three feature of diglassia in narrow sense :
  25. 25. L H Contrastive H & L varieties Area: distinct function + + distinct varieties for same language + + everyday conversation + - different pronunciation + + different vocabulary + + different grammar + + writing Odd common
  26. 26. Attitudes to H vs L in a diglossia situation: Complicated
  27. 27. H varieties Admired Respectful Prestige Standardized Normal means
  28. 28. L variety Local Very low rate Ambivalent Express feelings
  29. 29. Diglassia is ; • Characteristics of speech communities • not characteristics of individuals Note:
  30. 30. Relationship between diglossia & bilingualism DIGLOSSIA BILINGUALISM 1. Both diglossia & bilingualims + 2. Bilingualism without diglossia - 3. Diglossia without bilingualism - 4.Neither diglossia nor bilingualism
  31. 31. Diglassia use as broader sense ( H) L is not crucial Diglassia Has complementary functions of L & H H has prestige Diglassia is Generalized to cover any situation of L&H H is learned at school Diglassia is used for different functions L is learned in the home Diglassia is used as classic or narrow sense L is used in oral literature H is standard & codified grammar Diglossia in bilingual communities:
  32. 32. Polyglossia : The term polyglossia has been used for situation where a community regularly use more than two languages . e.g. Kalala’s linguistics repertoire
  33. 33. Changes in a diglossia situation: L & H varieties exist side by side gradually displace the other e.g. England was diglossic in the broad sense: English French English Language of the peasant … High society language English displaced French Ox Boeuf Beef
  34. 34. Note: Diglossia or polyglossia use to describe complementary code use in all communities. In all speech communities people use different varieties or code in formal as opposed to informal situation. In multilingual situation the code selected are generally distinct language.
  35. 35. Code-switching or Code-Mixing: In linguistics code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages or language varieties in the context of a single conversation.
  36. 36. Code-switching features: Occurs within a domain or social situation Relates to particular participant Signal speaker’s ethnic identity & solidarity with the addresses Might be used as an interjection or linguistic tag
  37. 37. Code-switching features: It is motivated by the identity & relationship between participant Reflects a change in social factors Expresses affective rather than refrrential meaning Express disapproval
  38. 38. Code-switching features: It is not possible to predict when it will occur Means of conveying approval or disagreement about previous messages Occurs in utterances People often unaware of the fact that they code switch
  39. 39. Kinds of code-switching :
  40. 40. Role-switch Topic-switch Metaphorical-switch Fused lect-switching Lexical borrowing-switching Emblematic or tag-switching Intra-sentential-switching Inter-sentential-switching
  41. 41. Thank you for Listening and Participating