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ijcrb.webs.com AUGUST 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3, NO 4 The Effectiveness of scientific attitude toward Physics teaching through Inquiry Method Verses Traditional Teaching Lecture Method of female students at Secondary School Level in Pakistan Shafqat Hussain Ph.D (Scholar) Foundation University Islamabad Dr.MuhammadTayyab Alam Foundation University Islamabad Dr Muhammad Muqsud Alam Bukhari Principal Foundation University Islamabad Sarfaraz Ahmad Ph.D Scholar ls Foudation University Islamabad oo Nasir Ahmad Ph.D Scholar dT Foudation University IslamabadAbstract an erThis study was designed to find the comparative effects of scientific attitude toward Physic of ritfemales’ students of Grade 9 teaching Physics through inquiry teaching method and Wtraditional lecture method teaching. The objectives of the study was (a ) to compare the eescientific attitude toward physics Grade 9 of female students teaching Physics through Frinquiry teaching method (ITM) and traditional teaching lecture method (TTLM).one hundred ithand twenty (120) sciences females students of grade 9, from two schools served as sample of rwthe study. Students of each school were divided into two equivalent groups’ i.e control andexperimental group on the basis of pre scientific attitude toward Physics test. Experimental itogroups were taught through inquiry method and control group by traditional lecture method Edfor twenty two weeks. Post scientific attitude test were administered after treatment to assess DFthe difference in scientific attitudes toward Physics of groups. The data obtained were lPtabulated and analyzed to compute Mean, Standard deviation and t-value at level 0.05 Filthrough SPSS 16.0 software. The post scientific attitude to Physics test shows that PDexperimental group was significantly better than the control group.Keywords: Effectiveness ; scientific attitude ; Physics ; Inquiry Method ; TraditionalTeaching Lecture Method of female students at Secondary School Level in PakistanIntroduction Teaching and learning is an active, deliberate and orderly giving information ,skill,attitudes ,ideas and thoughts, it focuses on maximize learning. Teaching and learning is dueability to share and enhance knowledge but the emergence of teaching as profession is recent.In teaching of science, a main objective is to develop learners/students’ problem solvingcapacities. It is very important for our educational system and it is vital and basic subject ofcurriculum. Science gives us an opportunity of critical thinking and integrates man’sconcepts of natural environment and benefits of the environment. Physics is considereddifficult subject by students and teachers also face difficulties in its teaching. In last twodecades numbers of studies has been launch for learners/students’ teachings and thoughts anddifficulties in concept of Physics and processes. The study is to determine the to measure thescientific attitude toward Physics of females students of grade 9 after teaching Physics through inquiry teaching method and traditional lecture teaching method.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 441
ijcrb.webs.com AUGUST 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3, NO 4Attitudes Attitude describes the assessment of something or someone. Attitudes based on ourfeelings, emotions, knowledge and behaviuor and may be manipulated future behaviour. Inprospective of science subject studies learning attitudes are evaluation which may bedescribed as a power of thinking and behaviour. Attitude always has a direction and thedirection may be towards someone or something. Attitudes are highly multifaceted and haveeffects on learning.Reid & Skryabina, (2002), gave following four areas of attitude 1. Attitude of students towards study. 2. Attitude towards the subject. 3. Attitude towards applications what has been studied. 4. The scientific attitude.Attitude towards science How do pupils feel and think about science. Motivations of students, their interest and attitude toward science, their desire to become great scientists, researchers became lsinterested after the investigation of Noll 1935 the measurement of scientific attitudes oo(Shrigley, Koballa & simpson 1988). Morse and Morse stated that if students’ attitude dTtowards science is positive then their attitude towards science curriculum, science teachers anand science classroom will also be positive. Positive attitude towards science is directly erproportional to success in science courses. Attitude also has an effect on the classroom ritlearning environment (Morse and Morse 1995). W ee Fr ithAttitude towards Physics rw Eridemir stated that students consider Physics as a most difficult among the allscience subjects and very few students opt it as compared to chemistry and biology. He itofurther said that not only school students consider it difficult but the opinion of university Edstudents was same (Eridemir, 2009). Students dislike science lectures and they don’t prefer DFthe science specially Physics (Matterm and Schau 2002, Rivard and Straw 2000 Dieck 1997, lPBoylan 1996). Osborne et al stated that students opt for Physics when there is no alternate for Filthem, and then they are studying Physics compulsory. They further added that English PDstudents perceive it as an elite discipline and only suitable for gifted students (Osborne et al1998). Eridemir cited Miller 1961 that positive and negative attitudes of the students do havean effect on their achievement, interest and motivation (Eridemir, 2009). Anderson (1982) gave following five components of attitude.1. The emotional componentsIn this component the attitude includes cognitive as well as behavioral components. Emotionsare also involved in emotional component.2. The target Feeling can direct towards target or away from it. The common targets associated withattitude are schools, curricula, achieving the set objectives which link with science subject’area with in school.3. Direction Attitude can be regarded as positive when these are directed toward when their directiontoward the targets. On the other hand attitudes are regarded as negative when these aredirected away from the target. The attitude can be measured by giving adjective and oppositestatements which are related to liking or disliking , satisfied or dissatisfied and favourable orunfavorable (Anderson, 1982).COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 442
ijcrb.webs.com AUGUST 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3, NO 44. Intensity Attitudes differ in direction and intensity as well. One may experience and express his/herfeeling in more intense way and other may not do so (Anderson, 1982).5. Consistency Feelings of the same person about a particular object may vary in different in settingand situation. Consistency of attitude may be varying over the period of time.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYAll females’ students studying science in Grade 9 in district Abbottabad was population of thresearch study. The Sample of research study was one hundred and twenty (120) femalestudents studying science of Grade 9 from two schools were taken sample of research studyin district Abbottabad Pakistan. Two groups were made in each school on bases means scorespre scientific attitude toward Physics test. One group is called experimental group and iscalled control group, the experimental groups were given a treatment i.e. teaching throughinquiry method in the Physics laboratory and the control groups were treated by traditional lsteaching lecture method in Physics class rooms. The pre scientific attitudes towards test and oopost scientific attitude toward Physics test were research instruments. The contents of this dTresearch study were made up from topics from Physics book for 9 Grade Class published by th ankhyber Pukhtoon Khyawa Text Book Board Peshawar 2010 and thirty two lessons were made eron bases inquiry method and thirty two lessons traditional lecture method. The face validity ritand contents validity of Pre scientific attitude toward physics test was confirmed by Wjudgmental validation by an experts committee and pilot testing. The reliability of pre eescientific attitude toward Physics test was calculated using split-half method (odd-even). The Frreliability pre scientific attitude toward Physics test was 0.85 by Spearman Brown formula. ithThe work was carried out for the period of twenty two (22) weeks. rw itoNULL HYPOTHESES OF RESEARCH STUDY: EdThe following hypotheses were tested to achieve the objective of research study: DFH01. There is no significant difference between scientific attitude toward Physics in “Physics as subject” of female students and those taught Physics Grade 9 through lP inquiry teaching method (ITM) and male students taught by traditional lecture Fil teaching (TTLM) at secondary level. PDH02. There is no significant difference between scientific attitude toward Physics in “home work and test Physics” of female students and those taught Physics Grade 9 through inquiry teaching method (ITM) and male students taught by traditional lecture teaching (TTLM) at secondary level.H03. There is no significant difference between scientific attitude toward Physics in “way you to learn Physics” of female students and those taught Physics Grade 9 through inquiry teaching method (ITM) and male students taught by traditional lecture teaching (TTLM) at secondary level.H04. There is no significant difference between scientific attitude toward Physics’ means scores achieved of female students and those taught Physics Grade 9 through inquiry teaching method (ITM) and male students taught by traditional lecture teaching (TTLM) at secondary level.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 443
ijcrb.webs.com AUGUST 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3, NO 4RESULTSTable 1 : Comparisons of attitude towards the Physics mean scores of experimental andcontrol group girls on pre scientific attitude toward physics testItems Comparisons N Mean S. D t. valuePhysics as subject Exp girls 60 33.88 5.05 0.17 Con girls 60 33.70 6.43Home work and test in Physics Exp girls 60 23.93 3.71 0.95 Con girls 60 24.67 4.71Like to learn Physics. Exp girls 60 43.22 4.03 1.63 ls oo dT Con girls 60 41.47 7.28 an erOverall achievements Exp girls 60 33.67 6.77 0.76 rit W Con girls 60 33.2 10.10 ee FrGraphical representation for Mean, S.D and t. values of experimental girls and control girls in ithPhysics as subject, home work and test in Physics, like to learn Physics and overall attitude rwtoward Physics on basis pre attitude scientific attitude test. itoTable: 2 Comparisons of attitude towards the Physics mean scores of experimental and Edcontrol groups girls on post scientific attitude toward Physics test DFItems Comparisons N Mean S. D t. value lP FilPhysics as subject Exp girls 60 66.13 6.09 16.0 PD Con girls 60 44.47 8.53Home work and test in Physics Exp girls 60 35.08 2.47 13.38 Con girls 60 25.77 4.80Like to learn Physics. Exp girls 60 90.57 8.66 22.43 Con girls 60 49.15 11.38Overall achievements Exp girls 60 63.92 12.03 28.01 Con girls 60 39.80 16.00COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 444
ijcrb.webs.com AUGUST 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3, NO 4Graphical representation for Mean, S.D and t. values of experimental girls and control girlsin Physics as subject, home work and test in Physics, like to learn Physics and overallattitude toward Physics on basis pre attitude tes.DISCUSSION Table 1: shows that mean scores of attitude toward Physics of experimental girlsgroup in “Physics as subject” (M =33.88, S.D =5.05) ,control girls group (M = 33.70, S.D =6.43) and t = 0.17, “Home work and test in Physics” in (M =23.93, S.D =3.71) ,control girlsgroup (M = 24.67, S.D = 4.71) and t = 0.95, “Like to learn Physics” experimental girls (M=43.22, S.D =4.03),control girls group (M = 41.47, S.D = 7.28) and t = 1.6 and overallachievements the mean scores (M =32.67, S.D =6.77) ,control girls group (M = 33.2, S.D =10.10) and t = 0.76. The t-values are less than critical value at 0.05 levels (02.02), which showno significant difference between means scores in pre scientific attitude test of these groups.Hence both the group was same in scientific attitude toward Physics before the treatment. Table 2: shows that mean scores of attitude toward Physics of experimental girlsgroup in “Physics as subject” (M =66.13, S.D =6.09), control girls group (M = 44.47, S.D=8.53) and t = 16.00, “Home work and test in Physics” in (M =35.08, S.D =2.47) ,control lsgirls group (M = 25.77, S.D = 4.80) and t = 13.38, “Like to learn Physics” experimental girls oo(M =90.57, S.D =8.66), control girls group (M =49.15, S.D =11.38) and t = 22.43 and dT overall achievements the mean scores (M =63.92, S.D =12.03) ,control girls group (M = an39.80, S.D = 16.00) and t = 16.00. The t-values are greater than critical value at 0.05 levels er(02.02), which show significant difference between means scores in post scientific attitude rittest of these groups. Hence the experimental girls groups more converge toward Physics than Wcontrol boys group as a result of treatment. ee FrConclusion ithThe research study shows that female students whose taught through Inquiry teaching rwmethod develops more positive attitude towards Physics as compared to those whose taughtthrough traditional teaching lecture method in subject Physics for Grade 9. ito Ed DF lP Fil PDCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 445
ijcrb.webs.com AUGUST 2011 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3, NO 4ReferenceAnderson, R. D. (1982). Science meta-analysis project. Boulder, CO: Colorado University. ED 223475.Dieck, A. P. (1997). An Effect of a Newsletter on Childrens Interest in an Attitude Toward Science. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Arizona State University.Erdemir & Bakrici, N. &. (2009). The Change and the Development of Attitudes of Science Teacher Candidates Towards Branches . Kastamonu Ducation Journal, 17(1), 11-170.Mattern & Schau, N. (2002). Gender Difference in Attitude Achievvement Relationships Over ls Time Among White Middle School Students . Journal of Research in Science Teaching oo dT 39(4), 324-340. an erMillar, R., & Osborne, J. (Eds.). (1998). Beyond 2000: Science education for the future. rit W London: King’s College ee FrReid & Skryabina (2002). Attitude Towards Physics: Research in Science and TEchnological ith rw Education. itoRivard & Straw, L. P. (2000). The Effect of Talk and Writing on Learning Science. Science Ed DF Education, 84, 566-593. lP Fil PDCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 446