Dr. M.Nasar Sayeed Khan
Associate Professor of Psychiatry & Head
Department of Psychiatry
SIMS & Services Hospital, Lahore
phone: 5883382-7847696, 7845521
Questions: What in your opinion are
mental disorders, diseases, illnesses??
Questions: Do you think only mad
people go to see psychiatrists and
Are “mental” diseases brain diseases?
Where in the brain might mental
What in the brain might be at fault?
When might such abnormalities begin?
Why do the brain dysfunction(s) occur?
Anatomy of the mind
Cognition ( Perception and
Affect ( feeling and
Conation (Thinking and
Prefrontal cortex and
A unified model of mental
e.g. altered association
Behind every crooked thought must be a
crooked neural circuit.
Questions: What is the nature and
nurture in your opinion???
Signaling aggression is safer than acting it out.
Physiological reactions are interpreted, producing
Interpretation and physiological reactions occur in
The amygdala plays an important role in
AmygdaledectomyAmygdaledectomy reduces violence in
humans, but it also comes with some
side effects (e.g., blunt emotions).
The functions of brain
Parallel those of Psych. They can be defined
The mind considered as a subjectively perceived,
functional entity, based ultimately upon physical process
but with complex processes of its own.
It governs the total organism and its interaction with the
Working with metacognitive beliefs
Generating possibilities for intrusions
intrusion from low level processing units
(cognitive, body state, emotional or external information)
interpretation of intrusion
faulty self & social knowledge
(procedural and declarative beliefs)
cognitive and behavioural responses mood & physiology
(including safety behaviours, selective
attention and thought control strategies)
1. EMOTIONAL BLOCKS
Guilt, depression, anger.
Comfort with status quo.
Excess energy: “my mind is too busy.”
Intolerance of ambiguity.
Fear of success. Fear of failure.
Need for perfection.
Excessive zeal, ego involvement.
Not invented here.
2. SOCIAL BLOCKS
Fear of rejection.
Need to please others (friends, social
Unwillingness to collaborate
Fear of confrontation.
Lack of confidence in personal
creativity – “others are more
3. PERSONAL PERCEPTIONS
Leader/victim. (Do you have control?)
Confidence & Trust. (How you see the world.)
Talent/Contribution. (Do you have impact on world
Strength of Expectations. (Must everything turn
out exactly as you expect?)
Personal value. (Do you feel you have to constantly
earn esteem of others?)
Skills and Specialization. (Sometimes you “know
Envision yourself feeling differently.
Use that vision to become bigger than
the blocking emotions.
Encourage your feelings to emerge.
Nurture positive thoughts – give
yourself positive encouragement.
Feel good about themselves
Feel comfortable with other people
Control tension and anxiety
Able to meet the demands of life
Curb hate and guilt
Maintain a positive outlook
Enrich lives of others
Cherish the things that make them happy
Question: Do you think, the behavior
abnormalities, the emotional
disturbance, anxiety and depression are
illnesses and to be treated like an
MOMENTS IN LIFE
There are moments in life when you miss someone
so much that you just want to pick them from
your dreams and hug them for real!
When the door of happiness closes, another opens;
But often times we look so long at the
Closed door that we don't see the one,
Which has been opened for us
Don't go for looks; they can deceive.
Don't go for wealth; even that fades away.
Go for someone who makes you smile,
Because it takes only a smile to
Make a dark day seem bright.
Find the one that makes your heart smile.
Dream what you want to dream;
Go where you want to go;
Be what you want to be,
Because you have only one life
And one chance to do all the things
You want to do.
May you have enough happiness to make you sweet
Enough trials to make you strong,
Enough sorrow to keep you human and
Enough hope to make you happy.
The happiest of people don't necessarily
Have the best of everything;
They just make the most of
Everything that comes along their way.
The brightest future will always
Be based on a forgotten past;
You can't go forward in life until
You let go of your past failures and heartaches.
When you were born, you were crying
And everyone around you was smiling.
Live your life so at the end,
You’re the one who is smiling and everyone
Around you is crying.
Please give this message to those people
Who mean something to you (I JUST DID);
To those who have touched your life in one way or another;
To those who make you smile when you really need it;
To those who make you see the
Brighter side of things when you are really down;
To those whose friendship you appreciate;
To those who are so meaningful in your life.