The Computer Aided Design Concept in the Concurrent Engineering Context.
SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING M6401 PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ASSIGNMENT S1 2011/2012 Submitted To: A/P Chen Chun Hsien Journal Article- The Computer Aided Design Concept in the Concurrent Engineering Context. By, Eugeniu Diatcu, Ioana Armas Faculty of Electronics and Computer Science, Hyperion University Submitted By, Name : Kannathasan Nareshkumar Course : Master of Science (Precision Engineering) Matric No : G1102357G
Introduction: The article titled “The Computer Aided Design Concept in theConcurrent Engineering Context” by Eugineau Diactu, Iona Armas mainlyemphasis on the CE context for electronics in CE-CAD concept and the basicfunctional architecture of the environment in creating a total product design of themanufacturing enterprise. The development of a new product is a multidimensionalproblem that is solved based on mathematical formalized functional, structural andbehavior models. The system design and development becomes an undeterminedproblem for which number of parameters is higher than the number of mathematicalequations specific to the used model. It is solved by choosing some design parameters.The parameters are called as a input parameters and are selected in a discrete type.The modern tendencies in considering life cycle increase the degree ofindetermination of the design problem by including more parameters and lesscorresponding mathematical problems. In these situation a new context is created forthe computer design (CAD) applications, such that request must be fulfilled by CADsystems as supportively and effectively.Concurrent Engineering: “Concurrent Engineering is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrentdesign of products and their related processes, including, manufacturing and support.This approach is intended to cause the developers from the very outset to consider allelements of the product life cycle, from conception to disposal, including cost,schedule, quality and user requirements.” -Pennell and Winner
The Life-Cycle Design Concept: The life cycle design concept is related to all the aspects and processes of theelectronic system and generally of any product.Lif e cycle will be associated to eachelectronic system, by a function: f: S LC where S -Electronic Systems Set LC-Life-cycle set From the equation the function f represent a design process that must solve allthe request regarding the processes integrated by the life-cycle. By considering thelife-cycle concept two design processes have been identified. Structural and functional design-included in the system’s life cycle Life-cycle design-solve the entire life-cycle of the electronic system, including the structural and functional design process.The Concurrent Engineering (CE) Approach and its Unified Context: According to the life-cycle concept, the CE approach will be defined asintegrated design approach for developing electronic systems and their life-cycles in asimultaneous manner by solving the quality, reliability, customer satisfactionproblems. CE presents two dimensions determined by their elements as following. A. Organizational dimension that integrates: a1-multifunctional teams to understand and solve the entire life cycle. a2-teams are trained at organizational level to create work context a3-information at the enterprise level a4-human and technical communication cooperation at all enterprise levels. a5-strong orientation and concentration of all the enterprise members towards client and quality a6-team created at a1 will have sufficient power to take life-cycle design
a7-task and goals complexity definition and partition at team level a8-experiences storage and learning abilities at enterprise level B.Creative dimension that integrates: b1-life-cycle design process a conception stage will be distinguished. b2-risk and uncertainties are identified by the members created at a1 using a3, a4 and a8 b3-design process is collaborative and local design being valuated by team members in a real manner b4-design and development of electronic system determined by the enterprise level.The two dimensional of the CE approach are dependent being represented belowFigure 1.Interdependency relationships between the organizational and creative dimension of the CE approach
The Concurrent Engineering –Computer Aided Design (CE-CAD)Environment: To start the life-cycle design, the model represented below should beconsidered, the relationships between the processes of the electronic system’s life-cycle are considered, these relationships determine a integrated context. Figure 2. The complex context of the life-cycle design of an electronic system. JIT-Just in Time relationship The existing solution refer to different process of the life-cycle processes byimplementing data and model processing support in a modular structure that is able tocreate the CAI context. The general CAI architecture is obtained by considering CAOand CIM solution in application communication context.
OMC CAD CAO CAP CAQ CIM CAE CAM PPS Figure3.Computer Aided Industries (CAI) context for CE By implementing the CAI environment for the life-cycle design of anelectronic system the elements of concurrent engineering will be supported at theapplications/systems interfacing and interperability levels. A realization of the reversible design process corresponds to the serial designapproach, its reversibility being limited by the number of hardware prototypes andsolutions variants that can be considered. The CE approach integrates, as a design support condition, the softwareprototype defined as: the electronic system’s functional and structural solution imagecreated to simulate and analyze the behavior of the electronic system for everyacceptable solution. By integrating the software prototype concept, the CE approach integrates alsothe virtual world concept.Virtual World Concept for CE approach: The assembly of concepts and models regarding the electronic system, togetherwith the assembly of elements capable to be interconnected in a system by applyingthe above concepts and models, and let be a natural and/or artificial intelligenttechnique able to realize the electronic system’s image ,to communicate and tointeract with other intelligent systems about this image represents the virtual world ofthe electronic system
Research Experience & knowledge Electronic about life- Concepts, system cycle of the models, solution(s) electronic methods system Natural (human) and/or artificial intelligence Virtual world of the electronic system Analysis, Simulations Differences Dynamic requests inputs Final Solution Figure 4.The framework for the virtual world concept integration in the CE-CAD systems According to the elements presented above, the CA-CAD framework will berepresented as shown in figure above where DFX (Design for X. X is manufacturing ,reliability , use, etc) is implicitly and globally considered and solved, and theinterworking environment is realized by integrating intelligent design agents andintelligent manufacturing agents, with learning capabilities. Also, the CE-CAD context supports the reversible design context, part of thenecessary memory being distributed between the intelligent agents.
Main Characteristics of CE-CAD: It integrates heterogeneous knowledge and experience. Solution of the life-cycle must be captured in knowledge such that intelligent models of the electronic system are developed. Language used in design context is symbol oriented and integrates at three levels-geometrical, constrained-based, knowledge-based. CE-CAD context is agent-oriented. It supports creative design and able to support guide with high degree of autonomy. It is able to support the technological and service solutions and to integrate further experience and knowledge. In this environment locations of the team members are not important, the only condition being that of interworking realization.Applying Insights of CE-CAD context in “Product Design andDevelopment” perspective: According to the concurrent engineering concept and approach in related toproduct design and development, the context must be offer a simultaneous workingsupport from point of view of knowledge and constraints communication andinteraction in developing the entire life-cycle of the electronic system. This implies toconsider simultaneously electronic functions and structures, mechanical infrastructure,quality and reliability, service solutions, system’s use, recycling and/or recusingsolutions etc., such that the final life-cycle represents the optimal solution of theelectronic system. The multidimensional optimization relatively to knowledge and constraints canbe obtained in a reversible working manner for which the intermediary design statesare stated are stored such that a return in one of these previous states is possible inorder to develop parallel solutions without losing the already developed solutions, orto modify some parameters with an immediate effect on the final state.
Conclusion: The development of CE as an approach for the entire life-cycle designintroduces new problems to be solved by the computer aided design techniques. From this point of view, the necessity to implement the reversible workingmanner was highlighted together with the interworking capabilities realization byusing human and artificial/software intelligent agents. For this context, the definitionof Concurrent Engineering – Computer Aided Design (CE-CAD) context and of thevirtual world concept for electronic systems was introduced, together with thecorresponding frameworks. As a consequence of the CE-CAD framework development and implementation,the world distributed manufacturing concept was also introduced.References: The Computer Aided Design Concept in the Concurrent Engineering Context- Eugeniu Diatcu, Ioana Armas Faculty of Electronics and Computer Science, Hyperion University. Concurrent Engineering- en.wikipedia.org.Abbreviation: CE-Concurrent Engineering CAD-Computer Aided Design OMC-Organizational Manufacturing Context CAO-Computer Aided Organization CIM-Computer Integrated Manufacturing CAE-Computer Aided Engineering CAP-Computer Aided Work Planning CAM-Computer Aided Manufacturing CAQ-Computer Aided Quality PPS-Production Planning system