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Environmental management intro


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Environment Introduction & Management

Published in: Education

Environmental management intro

  1. 1. Environmental Management
  2. 2. Objective of this course... To understand the effects of the impacts of the modern human society upon the environment we live in Issues that effect the managers involving  Networking or Politics  Business itself, the projects, or the programs  Resources like natural resources, facilities, money etc To explore ways to reduce our environmental footprint in day to day activities
  3. 3. What is Environmental Management It is the management of  All the components of biological, physical and chemical in both biotic (living) and abiotic (non- living)  The interaction of social, cultural, and economic environment with the bio-physical environment.
  4. 4. Why do we need to study thiscourse? We have just one planet which can sustain life and not 9 The resources are limited  Space on earth  Non-renewable energy  Natural resources The environment is depreciating in life sustaining capabilities at an ever increasing pace. At this rate, the day is not far when we reach a point of no return and face the wrath of global climatic change We need to understand our responsibility towards the environment and adopt an environment friendly system of working
  5. 5. Hot, Flat and Crowded
  6. 6. Crowded World population in  Year 1800 – 1 billion  Year 1922 – 2 billion  Year 2000 – 6 billion  Year 2050 – 9 billion (estimated) The population has & will increase due to  Health care  Disease Eradication  Economic development World population today is around 6.7 billion and will increase by 2.5 billion in 43 years – UN Population report dated 13 May 2007
  7. 7. Crowded The maximum growth will happen in the lesser developed countries as their economies grow from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050 Developed countries population will remain more or less stable and shall hover around 1.2 billion Some facts  Year 1800 – London was the largest city with pop. 1 million  Year 1900 – 111 cities with pop. 1 million  Year 1995 – 300 cities with pop. 1 million  5 cities with pop. over 10 million in 1975  14 cities with pop. over 10 million in 1995  26 cities with pop. over 10 million in 2015 (estimated) – UN pop. Fund statistics  Mumbai has a pop. of over 19 million
  8. 8. What are the effects of Crowding Loss of arable land Over fishing Water shortage Air & water pollution Stress on cities infrastructure Per capita decrease in facilities like health care By 2030 number of cities dwellers expected to rise to 5 billion – Associated Press 27/06/2007 These increases will happen more in smaller cities than in the larger ones around 45% growth in pop. Terrorism will no longer be a problem, demographics will
  9. 9. Population Growth
  10. 10. A Beach in China
  11. 11. Aamchi Mumbai...
  12. 12. Flat Personal computer invented in around 1975. By 1977 PC were being mass produced PC enabled users to become authors of their own content Then came the Internet, WWW & Web browser Software and transmission protocols started flattening the world by enabling outsourcing Geopolitical flatteners are the fall of Berlin Wall on Oct 03, 1990 & collapse of communist Soviet Union These factors made the world seamless making the world entirely flat.
  13. 13. Flat 200 million people improved their economic conditions in 1980’s and 1990’s in China and India, raising them from poverty 10 of millions added to the middle class This created more demand for products like cell phones, computers, gas stoves, refrigerators etc These products created demand for raw materials and led to increase of green houses gases (GHG) either during production, usage or upon discarding
  14. 14. Light Bulb Example In the next 12 years we shall have another 1 billion people Now, if we give each of these people a 60 W incandescent light bulb The weight of individual light bulb is negligible, but 1 billion light bulbs will weigh around 20000 metric tonnes If we were to turn these light bulbs ON, all at one time for 4 hours a day, we would need 10000 MW of electricity which would need 20, 500 MW power plants. If these power plants are coal fired, imagine the amount of GHG emitted
  15. 15. Hot The global average temperatures have increased by 0.8C vis-à-vis 1750s It all started with the industrial revolution in late 1700s when we went from manual or horse power to machine power, from agricultural to manufacturing societies Industrial revolution was the revolution of energy Steam engine –converted the chemical energy of coal/wood to mechanical energy of industrial machinery Eventually coal was started being preferred for wood as it generated twice as much energy as the same weight of food. This slowed down deforestation
  16. 16. Earth has a fever and needshelp!
  17. 17. Hot Coal was used for  Industrial process  Metallurgy  Heating building  Power steam engines Crude oil was commercially exploited in 1800s where is first replaced whale oil used for lighting lamps and then for heating, manufacturing and fuel for engines. In short, man needed these sources of energy for  Light  Heat  Motive power, or  Electricity
  18. 18. The Industrial Revolution
  19. 19. Transportation Revolution Early 20th century saw a “Transportation Revolution” - from the internal combustion engine The first gasoline powered automobile was made in 1885 First mass produced automobile was the Old’s Mobile in 1902 by Ransom E. Olds. It was Henry Ford in 1896 who started working on an assembly line. The Ford’s T-Mobile which first rolled out in 1908 and by 1927 when it stopped production 18 millions cars had rolled out of the assembly line
  20. 20. Hot These cars, produced a lot of CO2 and required a lot of crude, iron steel & rubber which further emitted more GHG during their production. This triggered industrialisation and which resulted in urbanisation and suburbanisation We had now been sucked into a vicious cycle of energy dependency which produced lot of emissions and caused a lot of harm to the environment “We build an inefficient system with great efficiency” Soon the entire world copied America and Europe and followed the path of self destruction
  21. 21. Fuels Fuels from Hell  Coal  Oil  Natural gas Fuels from Heaven  Wind  Hydro  Solar  Tidal  Biomass
  22. 22. The Green House Effect
  23. 23. The Green House Effect Without GHG the earth’s average temperature is estimated to be 15C cooler. A 5-6 C drop in temperature brings in an Ice-age Composition of Earth’s atmosphere has remained more or less constant for over 20 million years But in the last 100-200 years, things have changed Concentration of CO2 for 10000 years have been 280 ppm as evident from polar ice core samples Since, 1950’s this has increased 2007 CO2 concentration was 384ppm and climbing 2 ppm per year Average global temperatures have increased 0.8 C
  24. 24. Concentration of GHGs
  25. 25. Green House Gases
  26. 26. Green House Gases Global green house gases emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial time, with an increase of 70% between 1970 & 2004
  27. 27. CO2 & CH4 CO2 sources  Fossil fuels, deforestation, forest fires, agriculture, large scale cattle grazing CH4 sources  Solid waste land fills, animal defecation, coal minng, rice farming, cattle belching CH4 is 21 times more potent in trapping heat than CO2
  28. 28. When Hot meets Flat and Crowded Convergence of Global Warming, Over population and Global Flattening
  29. 29. s
  30. 30. Convergence of Hot, Flat andCrowded Energy demand and supply Petro-dictatorship Climate change Energy poverty Biodiversity loss
  31. 31. Energy Demand and Supply Fuels from Hell are expensive, dirty, and not really abundant The demand for fossil fuels grew by 5% per year between 1951-1970 in the developed nations Developing nations, the demand is growing almost close to their rate of economic growth Global consumption of energy will double between now and 2050 In 2004 – the first demand let energy shortage occurred, causing price hikes Price increase in 1973, 1980 & 1990 were mainly due to the wars and revolution in the east But by 2004, with countries like China & India creating surplus demands for oil, ahead of supply, pushed demand to 3 million barrels per day from the estimated 1.5 million barrels per day
  32. 32. Petro-Dictatorship
  33. 33. Petro-dictatorship “As price of oil goes up, pace of freedom goes down” Hence, you will observe cash rich/oil rich countries mostly have dictators ruling In 2006, Russian President (now Prime Minister) Vladimir Putin, turned off gas supply to Ukraine, because the newly elected Ukrainian President was pro-western Petro-dictatorship is best seen in the Middle- East, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
  34. 34. Climate Change Anthropogenic GHG like CO2 are long lived and stay in the atmosphere for over 1000 years Average global temperatures have risen by 0.8C than in 1750s 11 of the last 12 warmest years (1995-2006) since 1850s A 2C rise in temperature may kill 10 million people 5C rise in temperature may kill 100 million people Frequent hurricanes in the US like Katrina, floods in Bihar, droughts in sub-Saharan Africa are few examples
  35. 35. Energy Poverty The lack of the access to the basic energy, like electricity, requirements in certain parts of the world especially in the less developed nations Between 2003 and 2007 South Africa’s grid started to deteriorate and the early 2007 saw frequent blackouts SA imported 44590 generators in 2007 vis-`a-vis 790 in 2003 Businesses suffered Energy poverty is one of the main factors of over- crowding of urban areas in LDCs
  36. 36. Global Energy Poverty
  37. 37. Global Energy Poverty
  38. 38. Biodiversity Loss Disrupting ecosystems Half of the world’s tropical & temperate forests are gone Rate of deforestation is about an acre/second in tropics Half of wetlands are gone 1/3rd of Mangroves are gone 90% of predator fish are gone 20% of coral are gone & 20% are threatened Species are disappearing 1000 times faster than before In 2006, we lost a close relative, the Yangtze River freshwater dolphin It is not the loss of a species but the loss of a genus
  39. 39. “We are running an uncontrolledexperiment on the only home wehave”All these problems were increasing till we reached atipping point after the year 2000
  40. 40. Thank
  41. 41. The Kyoto Protocol International agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Binding targets for 37 industrialised nations and EU for reducing GHGs Protocol has 3 mechanisms  Emissions trading  Clean development mechanism  Joint Implementation