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Environmental management intro

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Environment Introduction & Management

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Environmental management intro

  1. 1. Environmental Management Introductionnareshsukhani@gmail.com
  2. 2. Objective of this course... To understand the effects of the impacts of the modern human society upon the environment we live in Issues that effect the managers involving  Networking or Politics  Business itself, the projects, or the programs  Resources like natural resources, facilities, money etc To explore ways to reduce our environmental footprint in day to day activities
  3. 3. What is Environmental Management It is the management of  All the components of biological, physical and chemical in both biotic (living) and abiotic (non- living)  The interaction of social, cultural, and economic environment with the bio-physical environment.
  4. 4. Why do we need to study thiscourse? We have just one planet which can sustain life and not 9 The resources are limited  Space on earth  Non-renewable energy  Natural resources The environment is depreciating in life sustaining capabilities at an ever increasing pace. At this rate, the day is not far when we reach a point of no return and face the wrath of global climatic change We need to understand our responsibility towards the environment and adopt an environment friendly system of working
  5. 5. Hot, Flat and Crowded
  6. 6. Crowded World population in  Year 1800 – 1 billion  Year 1922 – 2 billion  Year 2000 – 6 billion  Year 2050 – 9 billion (estimated) The population has & will increase due to  Health care  Disease Eradication  Economic development World population today is around 6.7 billion and will increase by 2.5 billion in 43 years – UN Population report dated 13 May 2007
  7. 7. Crowded The maximum growth will happen in the lesser developed countries as their economies grow from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050 Developed countries population will remain more or less stable and shall hover around 1.2 billion Some facts  Year 1800 – London was the largest city with pop. 1 million  Year 1900 – 111 cities with pop. 1 million  Year 1995 – 300 cities with pop. 1 million  5 cities with pop. over 10 million in 1975  14 cities with pop. over 10 million in 1995  26 cities with pop. over 10 million in 2015 (estimated) – UN pop. Fund statistics  Mumbai has a pop. of over 19 million
  8. 8. What are the effects of Crowding Loss of arable land Over fishing Water shortage Air & water pollution Stress on cities infrastructure Per capita decrease in facilities like health care By 2030 number of cities dwellers expected to rise to 5 billion – Associated Press 27/06/2007 These increases will happen more in smaller cities than in the larger ones around 45% growth in pop. Terrorism will no longer be a problem, demographics will
  9. 9. Population Growth
  10. 10. A Beach in China
  11. 11. Aamchi Mumbai...
  12. 12. Flat Personal computer invented in around 1975. By 1977 PC were being mass produced PC enabled users to become authors of their own content Then came the Internet, WWW & Web browser Software and transmission protocols started flattening the world by enabling outsourcing Geopolitical flatteners are the fall of Berlin Wall on Oct 03, 1990 & collapse of communist Soviet Union These factors made the world seamless making the world entirely flat.
  13. 13. Flat 200 million people improved their economic conditions in 1980’s and 1990’s in China and India, raising them from poverty 10 of millions added to the middle class This created more demand for products like cell phones, computers, gas stoves, refrigerators etc These products created demand for raw materials and led to increase of green houses gases (GHG) either during production, usage or upon discarding
  14. 14. Light Bulb Example In the next 12 years we shall have another 1 billion people Now, if we give each of these people a 60 W incandescent light bulb The weight of individual light bulb is negligible, but 1 billion light bulbs will weigh around 20000 metric tonnes If we were to turn these light bulbs ON, all at one time for 4 hours a day, we would need 10000 MW of electricity which would need 20, 500 MW power plants. If these power plants are coal fired, imagine the amount of GHG emitted
  15. 15. Hot The global average temperatures have increased by 0.8C vis-à-vis 1750s It all started with the industrial revolution in late 1700s when we went from manual or horse power to machine power, from agricultural to manufacturing societies Industrial revolution was the revolution of energy Steam engine –converted the chemical energy of coal/wood to mechanical energy of industrial machinery Eventually coal was started being preferred for wood as it generated twice as much energy as the same weight of food. This slowed down deforestation
  16. 16. Earth has a fever and needshelp!
  17. 17. Hot Coal was used for  Industrial process  Metallurgy  Heating building  Power steam engines Crude oil was commercially exploited in 1800s where is first replaced whale oil used for lighting lamps and then for heating, manufacturing and fuel for engines. In short, man needed these sources of energy for  Light  Heat  Motive power, or  Electricity
  18. 18. The Industrial Revolution
  19. 19. Transportation Revolution Early 20th century saw a “Transportation Revolution” - from the internal combustion engine The first gasoline powered automobile was made in 1885 First mass produced automobile was the Old’s Mobile in 1902 by Ransom E. Olds. It was Henry Ford in 1896 who started working on an assembly line. The Ford’s T-Mobile which first rolled out in 1908 and by 1927 when it stopped production 18 millions cars had rolled out of the assembly line
  20. 20. Hot These cars, produced a lot of CO2 and required a lot of crude, iron steel & rubber which further emitted more GHG during their production. This triggered industrialisation and which resulted in urbanisation and suburbanisation We had now been sucked into a vicious cycle of energy dependency which produced lot of emissions and caused a lot of harm to the environment “We build an inefficient system with great efficiency” Soon the entire world copied America and Europe and followed the path of self destruction
  21. 21. Fuels Fuels from Hell  Coal  Oil  Natural gas Fuels from Heaven  Wind  Hydro  Solar  Tidal  Biomass
  22. 22. The Green House Effect
  23. 23. The Green House Effect Without GHG the earth’s average temperature is estimated to be 15C cooler. A 5-6 C drop in temperature brings in an Ice-age Composition of Earth’s atmosphere has remained more or less constant for over 20 million years But in the last 100-200 years, things have changed Concentration of CO2 for 10000 years have been 280 ppm as evident from polar ice core samples Since, 1950’s this has increased 2007 CO2 concentration was 384ppm and climbing 2 ppm per year Average global temperatures have increased 0.8 C
  24. 24. Concentration of GHGs
  25. 25. Green House Gases
  26. 26. Green House Gases Global green house gases emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial time, with an increase of 70% between 1970 & 2004
  27. 27. CO2 & CH4 CO2 sources  Fossil fuels, deforestation, forest fires, agriculture, large scale cattle grazing CH4 sources  Solid waste land fills, animal defecation, coal minng, rice farming, cattle belching CH4 is 21 times more potent in trapping heat than CO2
  28. 28. When Hot meets Flat and Crowded Convergence of Global Warming, Over population and Global Flattening
  29. 29. s
  30. 30. Convergence of Hot, Flat andCrowded Energy demand and supply Petro-dictatorship Climate change Energy poverty Biodiversity loss
  31. 31. Energy Demand and Supply Fuels from Hell are expensive, dirty, and not really abundant The demand for fossil fuels grew by 5% per year between 1951-1970 in the developed nations Developing nations, the demand is growing almost close to their rate of economic growth Global consumption of energy will double between now and 2050 In 2004 – the first demand let energy shortage occurred, causing price hikes Price increase in 1973, 1980 & 1990 were mainly due to the wars and revolution in the east But by 2004, with countries like China & India creating surplus demands for oil, ahead of supply, pushed demand to 3 million barrels per day from the estimated 1.5 million barrels per day
  32. 32. Petro-Dictatorship
  33. 33. Petro-dictatorship “As price of oil goes up, pace of freedom goes down” Hence, you will observe cash rich/oil rich countries mostly have dictators ruling In 2006, Russian President (now Prime Minister) Vladimir Putin, turned off gas supply to Ukraine, because the newly elected Ukrainian President was pro-western Petro-dictatorship is best seen in the Middle- East, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
  34. 34. Climate Change Anthropogenic GHG like CO2 are long lived and stay in the atmosphere for over 1000 years Average global temperatures have risen by 0.8C than in 1750s 11 of the last 12 warmest years (1995-2006) since 1850s A 2C rise in temperature may kill 10 million people 5C rise in temperature may kill 100 million people Frequent hurricanes in the US like Katrina, floods in Bihar, droughts in sub-Saharan Africa are few examples
  35. 35. Energy Poverty The lack of the access to the basic energy, like electricity, requirements in certain parts of the world especially in the less developed nations Between 2003 and 2007 South Africa’s grid started to deteriorate and the early 2007 saw frequent blackouts SA imported 44590 generators in 2007 vis-`a-vis 790 in 2003 Businesses suffered Energy poverty is one of the main factors of over- crowding of urban areas in LDCs
  36. 36. Global Energy Poverty
  37. 37. Global Energy Poverty
  38. 38. Biodiversity Loss Disrupting ecosystems Half of the world’s tropical & temperate forests are gone Rate of deforestation is about an acre/second in tropics Half of wetlands are gone 1/3rd of Mangroves are gone 90% of predator fish are gone 20% of coral are gone & 20% are threatened Species are disappearing 1000 times faster than before In 2006, we lost a close relative, the Yangtze River freshwater dolphin It is not the loss of a species but the loss of a genus
  39. 39. “We are running an uncontrolledexperiment on the only home wehave”All these problems were increasing till we reached atipping point after the year 2000
  40. 40. Thank Younareshsukhani@gmail.com
  41. 41. The Kyoto Protocol International agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Binding targets for 37 industrialised nations and EU for reducing GHGs Protocol has 3 mechanisms  Emissions trading  Clean development mechanism  Joint Implementation

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