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Application of nanotechnology, Institute of Engineers ,Qatar Chapter


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Application of nanotechnology, Institute of Engineers ,Qatar Chapter

  1. 1. Nanotechnology & Its Industrial Applications Dr. Narendra Kumar Agnihotra TCE QSTP-LLC, Doha, Qatar CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  2. 2. What is Nano?  Greek word “Nano” means “Dwarf”  1 Nanometer = 10-9 meter  1 billion nanometers (nm) make one meter  Virus are typically 75 times larger than a nm  DNA molecule is roughly 1 – 2.5 nm wide  Dimension of a small molecule like methane (CH4) ~ 0.5 nm  One human hair is around 100 thousand times thicker CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  3. 3. Size Comparisons Nanometer Scale An atom's nucleus is much smaller ~ 0.00001 nm CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  4. 4. What is New in Nanotechnology ?  Nanotechnology is Engineering with molecules and atoms  Control / manipulation of materials on an atomic / molecular scale - Normally dealing with sizes of 1 to 100 nanometers - Fabrication of device / system within the nanometer length scale  New behavior at nanoscale is not necessarily predictable from what we know at macroscales Unique Properties of Nanoscale Materials • • • • • • • Physical Chemical Electrical Mechanical Optical Magnetic ----CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  5. 5. How can we achieve nanoscale ? Possibilities: - Bottom Up Approach - Top-down Approach Device size (nm) 109 - Nanotechnology: Selfassembly, Growth, Precision engineering 100 - Time CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  6. 6. Nanoscale ≈ High Surface Area For example, 5 cubic centimeters ~1.7 cm per side of material divided 24 times will produce 1 nanometer cubes and spread in a single layer could cover a football field CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  7. 7. Size Dependence of Properties • Delocalization of valence electrons can be extensive. The extent of delocalization can vary with the size of the system • Structure also changes with size • The above two changes can lead to different physical and chemical properties, depending on size • Optical properties • Bandgap (for semiconductors such as ZnO, CdS, and Si, bandgap changes with size) • Surface reactivity • Specific heat Nanocrystalline materials are higher than their bulk counterparts Pd: 48%  from 25 to 37 J/mol.K at 250 K for 6 nm crystalline Cu: 8.3%  from 24 to 26 J/mol.K at 250 K for 8 nm Ru: 22%  from 23 to 28 J/mol.K at 250 K for 6 nm • Melting point CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  8. 8. Gold Particles at Nano Scale Well! . . . . strange things happen at the small scale – If you keep cutting until the gold pieces are in the nanoscale range, they don‟t look gold anymore… They look RED! Smaller Size of Gold Particle Melting point of Bulk gold 1064oC. But, at nanoscale gold melts at 300oC !!! CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  9. 9. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)  CNTs are a tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1 nm Extraordinary properties:  Electrical conductivity higher than copper  Very high current carrying capacity (107 - 109 A/cm2)  Young‟s modulus over 1 T Pa  As  stiff as diamond Tensile strength ~ 200 GPa Double wall CNT Single wall CNT CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  10. 10. Unexplained Properties  Silver / gold nanoparticles are less effective as disinfectants in their bulk form  Development of antibacterial, water purifiers, food / drink packaging materials etc.  “Swarna Bhasma” (gold ash) nourishes the body and cures psychic disorders, apasmaram (epilepsy)  Some scientist defined these effects as an oligodynamic effect but, some mechanisms are not appropriate to define the cause of antiviral and antibacterial effects Gold ash CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Silver nanoparticles with water
  11. 11. Influence of Nanotechnology „Surface science‟ is a mature science. But the application of nanotechnology provides it with new directions and dimensions CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  12. 12. Evolution of Nanotechnology?  1959…"There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom"  1974… Norio Taniguchi uses term “Nano-technology”  1977… Prof. Eric Drexler originates Molecular Nanotechnology concepts and later wrote a book “Engines of Creation” in 1986  1981… Invention of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Dr. Gerd Binnig & Dr. Heinrich at Dr. Richard Feynman IBM Zurich Research Lab First breakthrough experiment by IBM researcher Dr. Don Eigler STM CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  13. 13. More Milestones……….. 1985 Discovery of Fullerene, C60 Prof. Richard Smalley, Dr. Robert Curl & Dr. Harold Kroto at Rice University 1986 Invention for Atomic Force Microscope by Dr. Gerd Binnig Fullerene, C60 1991 Discovery of Carbon Nanotubes Japanese physicist Prof. Sumio Iijima AFM 2005 Graphene, one-atom-thick planar sheets Prof. Andre Geim and Dr. Konstantin Novoselov Graphene CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  14. 14. Is Nanotechnology New ?  Maya Blue (Maya civilization) AD 500 hybrid organic and inorganic pigment, to decorate pots, sculpture, codices and panels.  Combination of ingredientsIndigo plant and Palygorskite ore - circa150 - 200oC  Chinese Porcelain known as famille rose contains gold particles 20-60 nm size Mural at Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico  Gold salt with Tin Chloride Porcelain Plates Purple of Cassius The Lycurgus Cup in British Museum The Lycurgus cup is dichroic; - an opaque greenish-yellow tone, - Light shines turns it into a ruby colour CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  15. 15. Wonders in Iron & Steel Damascan knife / blade Rustless Wonder Smelted iron with tiny amount of foreign matter (V, Cr, Mg, Co, Ni & some rare elements) Gupta era Iron Pillar (400-420 AD) 7 metres tall made of 98% pure wrought iron Characteristic wavy pattern known as damask Extraordinary mechanical properties Exceptionally sharp cutting edge CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  16. 16. Applications of Nanotechnology CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  17. 17. Energy Industry We need revolutionary breakthroughs in energy science & technology Conventional Energy Coal & Gas Based Power Plants • Light weighted materials for turbine • Ceramic and intermetallic nanocoatings • Metallic components from corrosion • Increase life of components • Increasing the output • Reducing the energy consumption Energy distribution High voltage transmission • Nanofillers for electrical isolation systems • Soft magnetic nano-materials for efficient current transform • CNT power lines ;Superconducting cables CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  18. 18. Alternative Energy  Photovoltaic Solar Cells/Solar Thermal Energy Nanomaterials, thin films, DSC, Concentrating solar cells  Wind Energy Nano-composite based Light weighted blades  Geothermal Nano coatings /composites for wear and resistant drilling  Biomass Energy Nano catalysts/ sensors for optimum yield  Hydrogen Generation Nanocatalyst and new process Electrolysis, Photo-catalytic, Biophotonic  Fuel cells/Storage Batteries Nano-optimized membranes/electrode, Nano-porous,nanolayered structures CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  19. 19. Oil & Gas Industry  Better Equipment  Nanomaterials : Lighter, stronger, and more corrosion-resistant structural materials in platforms for offshore drilling  Graphene: Nano structured filters, Nano membranes; remove volatile organic compounds from oil vapor and mercury from soil and water  Smart Fluids/Nano fluids  Properties can be changed by applying an electric field / magnetic field  Improve properties of crude oil in the reservoir- density, surface tension, reduce interfacial tension, viscosity etc  Improved oil recovery (IOR)/EOR  New Sensors for Improving Exploration  Reliable/economical sensors from optical fibers for measuring temperature, pressure, oil-flow rate and acoustic waves in oil wells Explore more oil reserves CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  20. 20. Electronics & Communication Industry  CNT quantum wire interconnects  Diodes and transistors for computing  Data Storage (Hard Disk, Flash drive etc)  Capacitors  Sensors  Flat panel displays  Wireless Technology CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  21. 21. Glass Industry  TiO2 is used in nanoparticles form to coat glazing for sterilizing and anti-fouling  Fire-protective glass, Smooth Rubbing, Anti-scratch , Anti-Fingerprint  Thermochromic technologies block light and heat coming in through windows prevent UV rays  Thin film coatings, to prevent visibility in night in building  Electrochromic coatings, tungsten oxide; becoming more opaque when applied voltage CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  22. 22. Building & Construction Industry  Ceramic Coating (stainz-free/anti-microbial - water savings & hygienic)  Humidity, high temp, dust damages the surface and paints, wall putty, coating  Cement at nano scale reinforcement of concrete in batter way  Nano Paints can protect the building for long period of time  Water Proof Paints, Self-cleaning Building  Anti-graffiti Paints CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Anti-graffiti Paints
  23. 23. Transport Industry  Nanotechnology will make transportation safer, faster and cheaper  Anti fog Glasses for Aircraft, Ships & Cars  Eco-friendly fuels (GTL)  Less fuel consumption (fuel additives like CeO2)  Nanographite, Nanosilica for rubber gasket /sealants  Nano ceramic breaks are used for SUV vehicle  Carbon black nanoparticles used as a filler to reinforce car tyres CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  24. 24. Natural Nano Products Nature takes brittle materials, forms them together to make very strong and beautiful products CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  25. 25. Textile Industry Lotus Effect  Stain-resistance fabrics  Anti-bacterial fabrics No body odor No need to wash socks daily  Heat resistive Cool in summer and warm in winter  Wrinkle free textile No need to iron CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Lotus leaf
  26. 26. Agriculture & Food Industry  Genetically modified seeds  Rapid disease detection  Molecular treatment of diseases  Improving nutrients /fertilizers for high yield  Taste of peanut butter/mayonize is affected by particle size  Extremely fine amorphous silica is added to control the ketchup flow  Portable instruments for checking fat, Na, Allergic substance in food  Smart packaging of food  Nanocapsules food for Astronomers CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  27. 27. Sports Industry  Thin, flexible and fracture-resistant and durable sports utilities  Montreal Sports Oy developed new composite stick  60 -70% better impact resistant than the traditional composite stick Wilson Nano Tennis Racquet - Made With Nanotechnology CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  28. 28. Cosmetic Industry  Application of various personal care and cosmetics products, such as sunscreens, anti-aging creams, toothpastes, hair care and perfumes  Nano sized TiO2 and SiO2 have strong absorption of ultra violet rays CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  29. 29. Defense & Security Industry  Highly sophisticated cameras/sensors/radar system technology to capture abnormal activities at the border  Fire resistant cloths, high quality bullet proof jackets  Strong and Light weighted military vehicles  Light weight sophisticated weapons, anti-missiles  Lighter metals/composites artifacts to carry in the war zone CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  30. 30. Soft Lithography Non-photolithographic strategy based on self-assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication Technique : Replica molding , Embossing, Microcontact printing: transfers pattern from the stamp at contact regions with the surface Nanoimprint CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED
  31. 31. Biomedical Industry  Drug delivery - Targeted delivery, controlled release (either timed or in response to an external signal)  BioSenser - Incorporating sensors would allow release of drugs  Nano robot for Brain surgery - for brain surgery  Cancer Therapy - Fe2O3 nanoparticles used for cancer treatment Nano Robot s CONSULTING ENGINEERS LIMITED Cancer Cells