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Bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing
 Guided by,
Prof. Kumananda Tayung
Presented by,
Dhruba Som
Roll no. 22
3rd semester
Bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing
Bacterial chemotaxis and
quorum sensing
Guided by,
Prof. Kumananda Tayung
Presented by,
Dhruba Som
Roll no. 22
3rd semester
Chemotaxis
• Chemotaxis is the movement of organisms in specific
directions in response to chemical stimulus.
• The word chemotaxis composed of two words.
• Chemo means a chemical substance.
• Taxis menas Arrangement is the movement of
an organism.
• Chemotaxis found in both Prokaroytes and Eukaryotes.
Chemotaxis helps bacteria - i) In finding food
ii) and move it away from toxin
 The movement of bacteria can be –
 Towards attractants i.e. Chemoattractants which called positive
chemotaxis. For e.g nutrients like sugar, or dipeptides, pyrimidines etc .
 Or it may move away from the chemical i.e. Chemorepellent which is called
negative chemotaxis . For e.g Toxin like LPS , certain amino acids
Chemotaxis in bacteria
Chemotaxis behavior
Bacteria move with the help of the flagella. Bacterial flagella motion is rotatory in nature.
 The rotation of flagella can be clockwise or counter clockwise.
 When there is an attractant bacteria rotate the flagella counter clockwise, which is
forward movement (run).
 When there is repellent bacteria rotate the flagella clockwise this called tumbling the
backward movement.
Signal Transduction
 Chemotaxis in bacteria depends on a signaling pathway that
terminates at the flagellar motor . Membranes protein MotA and
MotB along with FliG creat a proton channel that drives the rotation
of the flagellum.
 Chemical gradients are sense through Multiple transmembrane
receptor called, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs),
which vary in the molecules they detect .
 These receptors may bind attractants or repellents directly or
indirectly through interaction with proteins of periplasmic space .
The signals from these receptors are transmitted across the plama
membrane into the cytosol , where che proteins are activated.
 The Che proteins alter the tumbling frequency, and alter the
receptors.
Molecular mechanism
Chemotaxis proteins
1. CheA –An adaptor protein.
2. CheW- An adaptor protein.
3. CheY – A response regulator.
4. CheZ – A phosphatase.
5. CheR – A methyltransferase
QUORUM SENSING
 Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication phenomenon that allows bacteria to
communicate using secreted signal molecules to assess their population density.
 This process enables a population of bacteria to collectively regulate gene
expression and, therefore, behavior.
 Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical
signal molecules term autoinducers whose external
concentration increases as a function of increasing cell
population density.
 The autoinducers in
• Gram positive bacteria – Oligopeptide
• Gram negative bacteria – N-acyl-L-homoserine-
lactone (AHLs)
 Quorum sensing –
• Allows specific processes to be controlled such as –
biofilm formation, symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, Ab
production, Secondary metabolites production, motility, sporulation etc.
• Communications between bacterial cells.
• Increase in population density.
• Allows specific processes to be controlled such as –
biofilm formation, symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, Ab
production, Secondary metabolites production, motility, sporulation etc.
Fig – Bioluminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri in
symbiotic relationship with a marine squid which emit
light also called living tourch.
Example of quorum sensing
Conclusion
 In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to early development (e.g.,
movement of sperm towards the egg during fertilization) and subsequent phases of
development (e.g., migration of neurons or lymphocytes) as well as in normal
function and health (e.g., migration ).
 On the other hand, Quorum sensing allows bacteria populations to communicate
and coordinate group behaviour and commonly is used by pathogens (disease-
causing organisms) in disease and infection processes.
References
Seminar dhruba som ( chemotaxis and quorum sensing)

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Seminar dhruba som ( chemotaxis and quorum sensing)

  • 1. Bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing  Guided by, Prof. Kumananda Tayung Presented by, Dhruba Som Roll no. 22 3rd semester Bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing Bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing Guided by, Prof. Kumananda Tayung Presented by, Dhruba Som Roll no. 22 3rd semester
  • 2. Chemotaxis • Chemotaxis is the movement of organisms in specific directions in response to chemical stimulus. • The word chemotaxis composed of two words. • Chemo means a chemical substance. • Taxis menas Arrangement is the movement of an organism. • Chemotaxis found in both Prokaroytes and Eukaryotes.
  • 3. Chemotaxis helps bacteria - i) In finding food ii) and move it away from toxin  The movement of bacteria can be –  Towards attractants i.e. Chemoattractants which called positive chemotaxis. For e.g nutrients like sugar, or dipeptides, pyrimidines etc .  Or it may move away from the chemical i.e. Chemorepellent which is called negative chemotaxis . For e.g Toxin like LPS , certain amino acids Chemotaxis in bacteria
  • 4. Chemotaxis behavior Bacteria move with the help of the flagella. Bacterial flagella motion is rotatory in nature.  The rotation of flagella can be clockwise or counter clockwise.  When there is an attractant bacteria rotate the flagella counter clockwise, which is forward movement (run).  When there is repellent bacteria rotate the flagella clockwise this called tumbling the backward movement.
  • 5. Signal Transduction  Chemotaxis in bacteria depends on a signaling pathway that terminates at the flagellar motor . Membranes protein MotA and MotB along with FliG creat a proton channel that drives the rotation of the flagellum.  Chemical gradients are sense through Multiple transmembrane receptor called, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), which vary in the molecules they detect .  These receptors may bind attractants or repellents directly or indirectly through interaction with proteins of periplasmic space . The signals from these receptors are transmitted across the plama membrane into the cytosol , where che proteins are activated.  The Che proteins alter the tumbling frequency, and alter the receptors.
  • 7.
  • 8. Chemotaxis proteins 1. CheA –An adaptor protein. 2. CheW- An adaptor protein. 3. CheY – A response regulator. 4. CheZ – A phosphatase. 5. CheR – A methyltransferase
  • 9.
  • 10. QUORUM SENSING  Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication phenomenon that allows bacteria to communicate using secreted signal molecules to assess their population density.  This process enables a population of bacteria to collectively regulate gene expression and, therefore, behavior.
  • 11.  Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules term autoinducers whose external concentration increases as a function of increasing cell population density.  The autoinducers in • Gram positive bacteria – Oligopeptide • Gram negative bacteria – N-acyl-L-homoserine- lactone (AHLs)
  • 12.
  • 13.  Quorum sensing – • Allows specific processes to be controlled such as – biofilm formation, symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, Ab production, Secondary metabolites production, motility, sporulation etc. • Communications between bacterial cells. • Increase in population density. • Allows specific processes to be controlled such as – biofilm formation, symbiosis, virulence, competence, conjugation, Ab production, Secondary metabolites production, motility, sporulation etc.
  • 14. Fig – Bioluminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri in symbiotic relationship with a marine squid which emit light also called living tourch. Example of quorum sensing
  • 15. Conclusion  In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to early development (e.g., movement of sperm towards the egg during fertilization) and subsequent phases of development (e.g., migration of neurons or lymphocytes) as well as in normal function and health (e.g., migration ).  On the other hand, Quorum sensing allows bacteria populations to communicate and coordinate group behaviour and commonly is used by pathogens (disease- causing organisms) in disease and infection processes.