Objectives• To discuss about the definition of Unfair Labor Practice• To identify the elements of Unfair Labor Practice• To identify and discuss about the Unfair Labor Practices of Employers and Labor Organizations• To identify and discuss about Union Security Clauses
Book 5 Labor RelationsTitle 1 Policy and DefinitionsChapter 2 DefinitionsArticle.212. (k)Unfair Labor Practice – Means any unfairlabor practice as expressly defined by the code
TITLE VIUNFAIR LABOR PRACTICESCHAPTER 1 – CONCEPTARTICLE 247UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES VIOLATE THE CONSITUTIONALRIGHTS OF WORKERS AND EMPLOYEES TO SELF-ORGANIZATION, ARE INIMICAL TO THE LEGITIMATE INTERESTSOF LABOR AND MANAGEMENTINCLUDING THEIR RIGHT TO BARGAINCOLLECTIVELY AND OTHERWISE DEAL WITH EACHOTHER IN AN ATMOSPHEREOF FREEDOM ANDMUTUAL RESPECT, DISRUPT INDUSTRIAL PEACE ANDHINDER THE PROMOTION OF HEALTHY AND STABLELABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS.
CONSEQUENTLY, UNFAIR LABORPRACTICES ARE NOT ONLYVIOLATIONS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTSOF LABOR AND MANAGEMENTBUT ARE ALSO CRIMINAL OFFENSESAGAINST THE STATE WHICH SHALL BESUBJECT TO PROSECUTION ANDPUNISHMENT AS HEREIN PROVIDED.
PRESIDENT OR SECRETARY OF LABOR ANDEMPLOYMENT – SUBJECT TO EXERCISE POWERSVESTED IN THEM BY ARTICLES 263 AND 264 OF THISCODE, THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF ALL CASES INVOLVINGULP, (LIKE CLAIMS FOR ACTUAL, MORAL, EXEMPLARYAND OTHER FORMS OF DAMAGES).LABOR ARBITERS – GIVES UTMOST PRIORITY TOTHE HEARING AND RESOLUTION OF ALL CASESINVOLVING UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES. THEYSHALL RESOLVE SUCH CASE WITHIN 30 CALENDARDAYS FROM THE TIME THEY ARE SUBMITTED FORDECISION.
NO CRIMINAL PROSECUTION UNDER THIS TITLE MAY BEINSTITUTED WITHOUT A FINAL JUDGEMENT, FINDING THATAN UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE WAS COMMITTED. DURING THE PENDENCY OF SUCH ADMINISTRATIVEPROCEEDING, THE RUNNING OF THE PERIOD OFPRESCRIPTION OF THE CRIMINAL OFFENSE HEREINPENALIZED SHALL BE CONSIDERED INTERRUPTED:PROVIDED HOWEVER, THAT THE FINAL JUDGEMENTIN THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS SHALL NOTBE BINDING IN THE CRIMINAL CASE NOR BECONSIDERED AS EVIDENCE OF GUILT BUT MERELY ASPROOF OF COMPLIANCE OF THE REQUIREMENTSTHEREIN SET FORTH.
ELEMENTS OFUNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES1. EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP EXISTS BETWEENTHE OFFENDER AND THE OFFENDED – NO ORGANIZATIONALRIGHT CAN POSSIBLY BE NEGATED IF EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEERELATIONSHIP IS ABSENT IN THE FIRST PLACE.2. THE ACT DONE IS EXPRESSLY DEFINED IN THECODE AS UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE – THE ACTDONE IS PROHIBITED BY THE CODE, SPECIFICALLYIN ART. 248 FOR AN EMPLOYER AND ART. 249 FORLABOR ORGANIZATION.
It shall beunlawful for an employerto commit any of the followingunfair labor practice:
• To interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization;• To require as a condition of employment that a person or an employee shall not join a labor organization or shall withdraw from one to which he belongs;• To contract out services or functions being performed by union members when such will interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their rights to self-organization;
• To initiate, dominate, assist or otherwise interfere with the formation or administration of any labor organization, including the giving of financial or other support to it or its organizers or supporters;
• To discriminate in regard to wages, hours of work and other terms and conditions of employment in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization. Nothing in this Code or in any other law shall stop the parties from requiring membership in a recognized collective bargaining agent as a condition for employment, except those employees who are already members of another union at the time of the signing of the collective bargaining agreement. Employees of an appropriate bargaining unit who are not members of the recognized collective bargaining agent may be assessed a reasonable fee equivalent to the dues and other fees paid by members of the recognized collective bargaining agent, if such non-union members accept the benefits under the collective bargaining agreement: Provided, that the individual authorization required under Article 242, paragraph (o) of this Code shall not apply to the non- members of the recognized collective bargaining agent;
• To dismiss, discharge or otherwise prejudice or discriminate against an employee for having given or being about to give testimony under this Code;• To violate the duty to bargain collectively as prescribed by this Code;• To pay negotiation or attorney’s fees to the union or its officers or agents as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute; or
• To violate a collective bargaining agreement. The provisions of the preceding paragraph notwithstanding, only the officers and agents of corporations, associations or partnerships who have actually participated in, authorized or ratified unfair labor practices shall be held criminally liable. (As amended by Batas Pambansa Bilang 130, August 21, 1981)
CHAPTER IIIUNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES OF LABORORGANIZATIONS
• To restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization. However, a labor organization shall have the right to prescribe its own rules with respect to the acquisition or retention of membership;• To cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against an employee, including discrimination against an employee with respect to whom membership in such organization has been denied or to terminate an employee on any ground other than the usual terms and conditions under which membership or continuation of membership is made available to other members;
• To violate the duty, or refuse to bargain collectively with the employer, provided it is the representative of the employees;• To cause or attempt to cause an employer to pay or deliver or agree to pay or deliver any money or other things of value, in the nature of an exaction, for services which are not performed or not to be performed, including the demand for fee for union negotiations;• To ask for or accept negotiation or attorney’s fees from employers as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute; or
• To violate a collective bargaining agreement.The provisions of the preceding paragraph notwithstanding, only the officers, members of governing boards, representatives or agents or members of labor associations or organizations who have actually participated in, authorized or ratified unfair labor practices shall be held criminally liable. (As amended by Batas Pambansa Bilang 130, August 21, 1981)
Union Security Clausesis any form of agreement which imposes uponemployees the obligation to acquire or retain unionmembership as a condition affecting employment.
Purpose• The union security clause is intended to strengthen the contracting union and to protect it from the fickleness or perfidy of its own members. Without such safeguard, group solidarity becomes uncertain; the union becomes gradually weakened and increasingly vulnerable to company machinations. In this clause lies the strength of the union during the enforcement of the CBA. It provides substantial power in collective bargaining.
• Closed shop—The employer agrees to hire only union members. An employee who resigns from the union must be fired.• Union shop—The employer may hire anyone regardless of their union membership status, but the employee must join the union within a set time period (such as 30 days). An employee who resigns from the union must be fired.• Agency shop—The employer may hire anyone regardless of their union membership status, and the employee need not join the union. However, all non-union employees must pay a fee (known as the "agency fee") to the union to cover the costs of collective bargaining (and, in some countries, other fees as well). An employee who resigns from the union may not be fired but must pay the agency fee.
• Fair share provision—The employer may hire anyone regardless of their union membership status, and the employee need not join the union. However, all non-union employees must pay a fee (known as the "fair share fee") to the union to cover the costs of collective bargaining. An employee who resigns from the union may not be fired but must pay the fair share fee. In public sector collective bargaining, where the agency shop is often outlawed, the fair share provision (almost identical to the agency fee) may be negotiated instead.
• Dues checkoff—A contract between the employer and union where the employer agrees to collect the dues, fees, assessments, and other monies from union members and/or non- members directly from each workers paycheck and transmit those funds to the union on a regular basis• “Yellow Dog” Contract – A promise exacted from workers or prospective employees that they will not belong to, or form, a union during their employment.
• Subcontracting – Contracting work out by an employer is an unfair labor practice when it is motivated by a desire to prevent his employees from organizing and selecting collective bargaining representative.• Run-Away Shop - Defined as an industrial plant moved by its owners from one location to another to escape union labor regulations, or state laws.
• Featherbedding – Name given to employee practices which create or spread employment by unnecessarily maintaining or increasing the number of employees used, or the amount of time consumed, to work on a particular job.• “Sweetheart” Contract - This article considers it ULP for a labor organization to ask for or accept negotiation or attorney’s fees from the employer in settling a bargaining issue or a dispute.
• BATAS PAMBANSA BLG. 70 AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT OF WORKERS TO SELF-ORGANIZATION AND FREE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND TO PENALIZE UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES, FURTHER AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE ARTICLES 244, 247, 248, 249, 250 AND 289 (BOOK V) OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NUMBERED FOUR HUNDRED FORTY-TWO, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES• Section 1. Articles 244 and 247 of Presidential Decree Numbered Four hundred forty-two, as amended, otherwise known as the Labor Code of the Philippines, are hereby further amended to read as follows:
• "Article 244. Coverage and employees right to self-organization. - All persons employed in commercial, industrial and agricultural enterprises and in religious, charitable, medical or educational institutions whether operating for profit or not, shall have the right to self-organization and to form, join, or assist labor organizations of their own choosing for purposes of collective Bargaining. Ambulant, intermittent and itinerant workers, self-employed people, rural workers and those without any definite employers may form labor organizations for the purpose of enhancing and defending their interests and for their mutual aid and protection.• "Article 247. Non-abridgment of right to self-organization. - It shall be unlawful for any person to restrain, coerce, discriminate against or unduly interfere with employees and workers in their exercise of the right to self-organization. Such right shall include the right to form, join, or assist labor organizations for the purpose of collective bargaining through representatives of their own choosing and to engage in lawful concerted activities for the same purpose or for their mutual aid and protection, subject to the provisions of Article 264 of this Code."
• Republic Act No. 6715 March 2, 1989• AN ACT TO EXTEND PROTECTION TO LABOR, STRENGTHEN THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS OF WORKERS TO SELF-ORGANIZATION, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND PEACEFUL CONCERTED ACTIVITIES, FOSTER INDUSTRIAL PEACE AND HARMONY, PROMOTE THE PREFERENTIAL USE OF VOLUNTARY MODES OF SETTLING LABOR DISPUTES, AND REORGANIZE THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION, AMENDING FOR THESE PURPOSES CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 442, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE LABOR CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFORE AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES