Peter Drucker (2005) presents a self analysis approach to learning about leadership skills and traits. His core message in “Managing Oneself” is that you must first know your self.
Stephen Hackett (2001) presents an analysis of Competency and Reflection. His review of critical reflection is vital in underpinning Drucker’s Managing Oneself philosophy to remind us to keep our reflections grounded and realistic to gain true value of this self analysis approach to emerge as a better manager…
Reflection is not inherently critical, it can lead to an awareness of the connections, influences and contradictions which exist between the learning context and the wider world. Reflection becomes critical when it has two distinctive purposes: 1. To understand how considerations of power undergrid, frame, and distort educational processes and interactions. 2. To question the assumptions and practices that seem to make our... lives easier but actually work against our own best long-term interests (Brookfield 1995, P8).
Copy in here the TABLE 1: From Sessions 6 page 6.
This is an area that few of us look into and truly understand. There isn’t a course that you take to understand How you perform? To most of us, this can be an even more important questions than What are my strengths as people will achieve results by working in ways that they best perform.
In Competency based learning, these elements are not taken into account. It is more about what attributes underlie successful performance (Pithers, 1998, p.47). Rylatt and Lohan (1995, p.47) state that “Competencies are a description of the essential skills, knowledge and attitudes required for effective performance in a work situation.” What most learning facilities forget, is that everyone has a different learning style, not one being the right or wrong way. How does your learning style affect you?
Any number of tests will rate you in regards how well you work with people, to determine your position in your working relationships.
Team Work: Your primary weakness as a team member is what limits your overall team working ability and, in turn, limits your team. Knowing your greatest weakness allows you to consider and actively improve your skill in that area - therefore increasing your teamwork results. Utilizing your strongest teamwork skill allows you to best help achieve your team's goals. Emphasizing your strength enables your team to gel quicker and more effectively, and allows others to overlook any potential flaws.
I asked the question of a number of people around me to see where I truly fit – do I make it as a No. 1 Decision Maker or am I only a No. 2 Advisor. For me, most people came back with the answer that I am the advisor, and I am good in this role. I was challenged by another student to reflect on the true capacity of this role – the advisor – and to see it as a true position of influence where you can spend your time learning, discovering and contributing. The number 1 position seems to be someone who is less involved with the team and is making decisions, ultimately, on their own. I understand with my position in family business, that one day I will be in that decision making capacity, and I believe I will do well as I have the capacity to take on the responsibility of the business and its direction and course. I am a number 1 in waiting.
What is ethical behavior in one kind of organization or situation is ethical behavior in another. But ethics is only part of a value system -- especially of an organization's value system. To work in an organization whose value system is unacceptable or incompatible with one's own condemns a person both to frustration and to nonperformance, (Drucker 2005)
A small number of people know very early where they belong. Mathematicians, musicians, and cooks, for instance, are usually mathematicians, musicians, and cooks by the time they are four or five years old. Physicians usually decide on their careers in their teens, if not earlier. But most people, especially highly gifted people, do not really know where they belong until they are well past their mid-twenties.
Throughout history, the great majority of people never had to ask the question, What should I contribute? They were told what to contribute, and their tasks were dictated either by the work itself -as it was for the peasant or artisan -- or by a master or a mistress -- as it was for domestic servants. Results should be visible and, if at all possible, measurable. From this will come a course of action: what to do, where and how to start, and what goals and deadlines to set.
Most people work with others and are effective with other people. That is true whether they are members of an organization or independently
Critical reflection begins to occur when “people question information, ideas, or behavior.” (Merriam and Brockett, 1997, p.284) as cited in Hackett. S. 2001)
Hackett explains that in so doing, critical reflection urges the creation of conditions in which each person is respected, valued, and heard.
Drucker believes that few answer yes. And yet, acting on this knowledge is the key to performance; or rather, not acting on this knowledge condemns one to nonperformance.
In effect, managing oneself demands that each knowledge worker think and behave like a chief executive officer. Further, the shift from manual workers who do as they are told to knowledge workers who have to manage themselves profoundly challenges social structure.
Managing Oneself And Reflective Practise Drucker Hackett
Managing Oneself and Reflection Practice What all effective leaders know
Know Your Self First <ul><li>“ Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves – their strengths, their values, and how they best perform.” (Drucker. P 2005) </li></ul>
The Reflective Person Use critical reflection as your lens for self-analysis <ul><li>The reflective person is one who completes less of the task, but is more careful not to make mistakes in what he or she does complete. The individual usually does not make a conscious choice: He or she does what feels natural. (Hackett 2001) </li></ul>
Self Challenge <ul><li>I invite you to take this journey and to use critical reflection to do an honest evaluation of your current situation, not your desired one. This self assessment will help you map the path between now and your desired future far better than setting a few goals and having a “mission”. </li></ul>
What Are My Strengths? <ul><li>It is more important in recent times to understand your strengths in order to know where you belong. The only way to discover your strengths is through feedback analysis. While doing this evaluation, keep in mind Boyatzis’ Management Competency Model describing the 19 generic competencies leading to superior managerial performance. </li></ul><ul><li>These self assessments identifies your personality style’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dubrin Model </li></ul><ul><li>Myers-Briggs </li></ul>
Simple Self Assessment Activity <ul><li>Self Reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>My believed strengths are: (Using ratings exercise: Personality, motivational and cognitive traits (Dubrin, 2003) </li></ul>Your Own Reflection : Dubrin’s Traits: Myers Briggs Profile : Go to https://www.mbticomplete.com/en/index.aspx to check out your profile. Personality Traits Motivational Traits Cognitive Traits
How Do I Perform? <ul><li>There are performance measures and indicators of strengths and weaknesses, but the question here is HOW do you perform? </li></ul><ul><li>How you perform is difficult to MEASURE, however, through reflection, you can gain a better understanding of oneself. A modification to Andresen et al. (2000, pp 232-3) theory helps us to understand HOW we can better understand our performance through reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for experiential events: using Drucker's feedback analysis, What is your intent in HOW you believe you will perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection during an experiential activity: What results are you achieving. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection after the event: Attend to how you felt when you went through the event and re-evaluate HOW you actually performed. </li></ul>
Am I a reader or a listener? <ul><li>This would seem to be a fairly innocuous question at first, however, not knowing the answer to this question can have an impact on managing others. </li></ul><ul><li>Few listeners can be made, or can make themselves, into competent readers -- and vice versa. To try will likely result in being unable to perform or achieve. (Drucker. P. 2005) </li></ul>
Four – Stage Learning Style <ul><li>Hackett sees learning as a four-stage learning cycle, one ability of which is “reflective observation”. While the emphasis here is on observing, the descriptor of this ability states that: “The learner observes and reflects on the experience from different perspectives” (Hackett. S. p 104) </li></ul>
Simple Self Assessment Activity <ul><li>My score was: (out of 20) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Aural: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>The three highest scores, Visual (seeing), Aural (hearing) and Kinesthetic (doing) mean that I can choose and adapt to the learning style being presented. </li></ul>My Self Reflection: The VARK Learning test is an online questionnaire that points you in the right direction of understanding your learning style. I took this questionnaire and found that I was like 60% of the population, a Multimodel, meaning I learn in different ways. Your Own Reflection: What style of learning do you think you fit? Take this quick and easy assessment and find out! http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=questionnaire
Working With People <ul><li>Drucker </li></ul><ul><li>Some people work best as: </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Team members </li></ul><ul><li>Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors </li></ul>Hackett CBT engages people throughout the training process by communicating “the why, what, how and when” of the process, and by involving individuals in determining “what their competencies are at present, identifying what they need to learn”, and making self-assessments throughout the process to the extent that “they should know they can demonstrate competence before they are formally assessed”. Through this method people are able to determine how they work best with people.
Assessment <ul><li>Self Reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>The 15 teamwork skills are defined as 1. Trust, 2. Patience, 3. Respect, 4. Cooperation, 5. Organization, 6. Tension, 7. Interaction, 8. Control, 9. Persuasion, 10. Disposition, 11. Responsibility, 12. Perseverance, 13. Determination, 14. Understanding, 15. Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Taking the assessment highlights my own strength and weakness as; </li></ul><ul><li>Weakest Teamwork Skill is: Tension </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest Teamwork Skill is: Cooperation </li></ul>Your Own Reflection: What do you think your strength and weakness would be? Go on give it a try! This self assessment identifies your preferred style when working with people http://www.testcafe.com/team/?affil =
Decision Maker Or Advisor? <ul><li>Your Own Reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself, do I produce results as a decision maker or as an adviser? When you self answer, seek out others for real feedback, then assess again….you may be quite surprised! </li></ul>Drucker states that a great many people perform best as advisers but cannot take the burden and pressure of making the decision. A good many other people, by contrast, need an adviser to force themselves to think; then they can make decisions and act on them with speed, self-confidence, and courage. A Reflection: Decision Maker or Advisor? This question is the ultimate for some people. Our desired answer, as MBA students, is “Decision Maker “ all the way. However do you know your real strength or only your perceived strength?
What Are My Values? <ul><li>To be able to manage yourself, you finally have to ask, What are my values? </li></ul><ul><li>This is not a question of ethics. With respect to ethics, the rules are the same for everybody, and the test is a simple one. It’s the "mirror test.” Ask yourself “ What kind of person do I want to see in the mirror in the morning”? </li></ul>As I always say the rules are the same for everyone
The Question Of Belonging <ul><li>Ask yourself these three questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are my strengths? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I perform? and, </li></ul><ul><li>What are my values? </li></ul><ul><li>And then you can and should decide where you belong. Or rather, decide where you do not belong. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Person who has learned that he or she does not perform well in a big organisation should have learned to say no to a position in one. He or she who has learned that he or she is not a decision maker should have learned to say no to a decision-making assignment.” (Drucker, 2005) </li></ul>
What should my contribution be? <ul><li>To answer it, you must address three distinct elements: </li></ul><ul><li>What does the situation require? Given my strengths, my way of performing, and my values, </li></ul><ul><li>How can I make the greatest contribution to what needs to be done? and finally, </li></ul><ul><li>What results have to be achieved to make a difference? </li></ul>
Responsibility for Relationships <ul><li>Very few people work by themselves and achieve results by themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing yourself requires taking responsibility for relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>This has two parts. </li></ul><ul><li>The first is to accept the fact that other people are as much individuals as you yourself are. </li></ul><ul><li>The second part of relationship responsibility is taking responsibility for communication. </li></ul>
Drucker wants you to: Know These Elements <ul><li>Work on improving your strengths. “ Analysis will rapidly show where you need to improve skills or acquire new ones. It will also show the gaps in your knowledge -- and those can usually be filled.” </li></ul><ul><li>Find out where your intellectual arrogance is disabling your outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and remedy your bad habits. </li></ul><ul><li>And don’t forget your manners! “Manners are the lubricating oil of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing your expectations with your results also indicates what not to do. </li></ul>
Critical Reflection <ul><li>Hackett suggests that critical reflection begins to occur when people question information, ideas, or behaviour as it leads to the recognition of the range of subtleties that influence an educational situation – the physical, psychological, social, relational, and personal characteristics of those who are involved in the teaching and learning process </li></ul>
The 6 Reasons of Why <ul><li>Hackett offers six reasons why critical reflection is important. These are: </li></ul><ul><li>it helps practitioners to take informed actions, </li></ul><ul><li>to develop a rationale for practice, </li></ul><ul><li>to avoid self-blaming, </li></ul><ul><li>it grounds practitioners emotionally, </li></ul><ul><li>it enlivens the learning environment, </li></ul><ul><li>and it increases democratic trust. </li></ul>
The most important question is: <ul><li>Do you act on this new self knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you going to do! Will you be true to yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be a “competent” manager who attains the accepted specific and generic skills in the practice of your professions or; </li></ul><ul><li>Will you utilise critical reflection to grow your real professional skills? </li></ul>
The Messages <ul><li>“ Do not try to change yourself -- you are unlikely to succeed. But work hard to improve the way you perform. And try not to take on work you cannot perform or you will only perform poorly.” (Drucker. P 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflection is important as it helps you to take informed actions, to develop a rationale, for practice, to avoid self-blaming, it grounds practitioners emotionally, it enlivens the learning environment, and it increases democratic trust. </li></ul><ul><li>(Hackett presenting Brookfield (1995, pp. 22-6) </li></ul>
The Challenge <ul><li>The challenges of managing oneself may seem obvious, if not elementary. And the answers may seem self-evident to the point of appearing naïve. But managing oneself requires new and unprecedented things from the individual, and especially from the knowledge worker. </li></ul><ul><li>In taking this journey of Self we hope that it has you seeing with clarity your strengths and weakness which will aid you in becoming the effective leader that you inspire to be. </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Drucker, P.F. (2005) Managing oneself . Harvard Business Review, 83 (1) pp.100–109. </li></ul><ul><li>Hackett, S. (2001) Educating for competency and reflective practice: fostering a conjoint approach in education and training . Journal of Workplace Learning, 13 (3) pp. 103–112. </li></ul>