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Imc lecture 1.2


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Imc lecture 1.2

  1. 1. IC 364 Integrated Marketing Communication ! for Tourism" Lecture 1.2: Tourism Sector! By Dr. Paradee Yasothornsrikul!
  2. 2. Tourism Sector! !   Transportation! !   Accommodations! !   Destinations/Attractions! !   Food and Beverage Services! !   Travel Distributors! !   Tourism Promotors! !   Land Managing Agencies!
  3. 3. 1. Transportation!
  4. 4. 1.1 Transport as a component of the tourist product! !   The means to reach the destination;! !   A necessary means of movement at the destination;! !   In a minority of instances it is the actual tourism attraction or activity.!
  5. 5. 1.2 Components of the Transportation System! 1. The Way;! 2. The Terminal;! 3. The Vehicle; and! 4. Motive power.!
  6. 6. 1.2.1 The Way! The way is the medium of travel over which the vehicle operates. It may be purely artificial such as roads or railways, or natural, such as air or water.!
  7. 7. 1.2.2 The Terminal! Public transport terminals give the passenger access to the vehicle, or act as an interchange between different modes of transport. Not all modes need to have sophisticated terminals; buses and coaches for instance can and do operate from roadside locations although town and city centre terminals are often more substantive. Perhaps the most complex terminal is an airport and the dramatic growth in the air transport worldwide has witnessed the development of many new airports in recent years. The design of terminals and the amenities they offer depend heavily upon the type of journey and mode of transportation involved, as does the length of time spent at the terminal. !
  8. 8. 1.2.3 The Vehicle! The carrying unit is the actual transportation media: the vehicle that facilitates the movement. The nature of vehicles has been influenced by numerous factors, which include travel demand and technological developments, as well as the other elements of the mode, particularly motive power. !
  9. 9. 1.2.4 Motive Power! Motive power is the key element in transportation development. The recent history of transport for tourism is characterised by changes in technology with the emphasise on environmental issues!
  10. 10. 1.3 Competitor analysis! •  Road transport! •  Railway transport! •  Sea transport! •  Air transport!
  11. 11. 1.3.1 Road transport! The car dominates road transport, which is almost the perfect tool for tourist use offering the following attractions:! ! - the control of the route and the stops en route;! - the control of departure times;! - door - to - door flexibility! - the ideal capacity for families;! - the ability to carry baggage and equipment easily;! - the ability to use the vehicle for accommodation in the case of recreational vehicles and caravans;! - privacy;! - the freedom to use the vehicle once the destination is reached; and! - the low perceived cost. !
  12. 12. 1.3.2 Railway transport! For rail, the main competition between modes is often based upon the time and distance comparison, city centre to city centre, compared with air. Beyond a certain distance, some visitors see rail as being too cumbersome and tiring and it is then that notions of adventure and sightseeing take over as the attractions of the rail mode.Trains are a relatively ‘green’ form of travel, both in terms of fuel efficiency and also in terms of emissions.! ! The most important reasons for travelling by train are:! ! - safety;! - the ability to look out of the train and see en route;! - the ability to move around the coach;! - arriving at the destination rested and relaxed;! - personal comfort;! - centrally located termini; and! - environmentally - friendly form of transport!
  13. 13. 1.3.3 Sea transport! We can divide water-borne transport into short sea ferry transport and ocean-going cruises. Cruising should also be thought of as a holiday product as much as a mode of transport. Ferry services, which include or exclude vehicles, can provide lifeline services to islands as well as a focus for visitors who normally are packaged holiday makers, independent or same-day visitors. ! ! As far as the transportation of vehicles and merchandise is required on short sea crossing, ferries offer inexpensive, reliable and safe services. Fery transportation is the only possibility in the case of remote and small islands which have no airport. !
  14. 14. 1.3.4 Air transport! Travelling by air is probably the most important transportation innovation of the twentieth century. It has enabled the transportation of passengers in the shortest time and it has boosted the demand for long-haul trips. ! ! Scheduled airlines offer a safe, convenient,reliable, frequent and relatively consumer- orientated product. Airlines attract business travellers, who appreciate the speed and flexibility between the various flights, especially on popular routes, as well as the leisure passengers who enjoy the ability to arrive at the destination quickly, and without spending time and money en route. !
  15. 15. 2. Accommodation!
  16. 16. In the context of tourism sector in general, accommodation rarely has a place or rationale in its own right. It is rare for a tourist to select to stay in a hotel or other form of accommodation for its own sake. Rather, the choice is made because of the accommodation provides a support service for the wider motivation that has brought the visitor to the destination, whether for business or leisure purposes. ! ! Accommodation is a necessary component in the development of tourism within any destination that seeks to serve visitors other than day-trippers. The quality and range of accommodation available will both reflect and influence the range of visitors to a location. In addition to this, it has been found that accommodation plays such an important role in the overall economic contribution which tourism makes at a local and national level. !
  17. 17. Accommodation is, according to Cooper et al. (19998), the largest and most ubiquitous sub-sector within the tourism economy. Not only do most, if not all, tourists require overnight accommodation during their journey through, or stay in, a destination, but also spending on accommodation usually represents the most significant element of total tourist expenditure. ! ! 1. The accommodation sector of the tourism industry is enormously fragmented and diverse. In terms of size, style, location, ownership and the type, variety and level of services provided - a multitude of other types of accommodation are available. ! ! 2. Tourism accommodation is a sub-sector of the international hospitality industry. Hospitality, according to Jones (1996), is made up of two distinct services - the provision of overnight accommodation for people staying away from home, and the provision of sustenance for people eating away from home. ! ! 3. Accommodation is not only a constituent element of the tourism product but also of the tourism experience. That is, accommodation provision represents more than the tangible elements of a room, a bed, a meal and so on. It is also concerned with meeting guests’ needs and expectations. !
  18. 18. Hotels! Hotels are undoubtedly the most significant and visible sub-sector within accommodation or lodging. In addition to this, hotels are the tourism sub-sector that provides the greatest total employment in global terms and probably accounts for the highest level of receipts. !
  19. 19. Questions:" when most people think about hotel , what do they think about???!
  20. 20. The tradition view of a hotel was an establishment providing accommodation as well as food and beverage services to short-stay guests on a paying basis. !
  21. 21. The hotel industry" According to Chambers English Dictionary:! ! A hotel is a ‘usually large house run for the purposes of giving travellers food, lodging, etc’. ! ! However....! ! The dictionary definition includes some of the characteristics of modern hotels, but fails to do justice to the complexity and variety of hotel services.!
  22. 22. Because...! Hotels today are in the business of providing space to the customers in which they can eat, drink, sleep, wash, bathe, play, confer, relax, do business and a whole range of other human common activities.!
  23. 23. Hence...! ! Hotel can be defined as: ‘an operation that provides accommodation and ancillary services to people away from home’ - all people who spend time away from home for whatever reason and so it includes the traditional concept of a ‘hotel’, as well as motels, holiday camps, condominiums, hostels, hospitals and prisons.!
  24. 24. How can we classify the hotels? What means can we use?! !   Price! !   Size! !   Location! !   Type of guest served (Business or leisure travel)! !   Ownership !
  25. 25. 1. Price!
  26. 26. 2. Hotel Organisational Structures (size)! •  Small hotel! •  Large hotel! •  Mega hotel!
  27. 27. Manager Bookkeeper/Accountant Executive Housekeeper and Staff Front Office Manager and Staff Maintenance Chief and Staff Figure 2: Organisation Chart for small, Limited-service Hotel
  28. 28. 3. Location!
  29. 29. 4. Structure of the accommodation sector - operations (service provided)! Accommodation sector can be grouped into: - Commercial sector - Non-Commercial Sector Also, the accommodation sector comprises widely differing forms of sleeping and hospitality facilities which can be conveniently categorised as either serviced or self- catering.
  30. 30. COMMERCIAL SECTOR SERVICED SELF-CATERING Hotels, licensed Hotels, unlicensed Motels Private hotels Guesthouses Farmhouse Caravan and campsites Villas apartments, Chalets Hired motor-homes Holiday centres, villages, camps Cruise ships Hired yachts Figure 2: The structure of tourist accommodation I Source: Adapted from Holloway, J.C. (2002)
  31. 31. QUASI/NON COMMERCIAL SECTOR SERVICED SELF-CATERING Youth hostels YMCAs Private caravans Private camping Private moto-homes Private yachts Home exchanges Time-share Second homes VFR Educational Institutions Figure 3: The structure of tourist accommodation II Source: Adapted from Holloway, J.C. (2002)
  32. 32. Destination Resorts Full-Service Hotels Limited-Service Hotel Sleeping Rooms Figure 3: Range of Lodging Property Alternatives Source: Hayes, D.K. and Ninemeier (2005)
  33. 33. 5. Hotel Ownership and Management! •  Single-Unit Property Not Affiliated with Any Brand - these properties capture a small market share. Private/own properties. •  Single-Unit Properties Affiliated with a Brand - properties that are part of a hotel chain and able to receive financing support from business affiliating with a brand
  34. 34. •  Multiunit Properties Affiliated with the Same Brand - owners own several hotels and affiliate all of them with the same brand.! •  Multiunit Properties Affiliated with Different Brands - some owners elect to choose several brands. They sometimes own more than one hotel in a market area. They may have some limited- service and some full-service hotels. Same brand name would not represent both these types of properties.! •  Multiunit Properties Operated by the Brand or Others - some brands will offer management services to hotel owners. Some companies neither own the hotels but simply provide, for a fee, management services to the hotel’s owners. These companies are known as management companies. ! •  Multiunit Properties Owned by the Brand - some brands do own some of their own hotels.!
  35. 35. Traditional Holiday Accommodation"
  36. 36. Bed and Breakfast (B&B)" •  B&B allows overseas visitors to meet the people and enjoy a more intimate relationship with the culture of the country they are visiting.! •  B&B is generally family run, catering to business tourists in the towns and to leisure tourists in country towns, rural areas and the seaside. !
  37. 37. Farmhouse holiday accommodation" •  Farmhouse holiday have enjoyed considerable success in most European countries with strong agricultural traditions, such as Britain and Denmark. !
  38. 38. Holiday centres" •  Holiday camps are very much a British innovation introduced on a major scale in the 1930s by three noted entrepreneurs, Billy Butlin, Fred Pontin and Harry Warner. ! •  The aim of holiday camps is to provide all-in entertainment at a low price in chalet-style accommodation which would be largely unaffected by inclement weather.!
  39. 39. The new holiday villages" •  Holiday villages offer a new concept in resort marketing. ! •  It offers a very different kind of holiday experience to the traditional holiday centre. ! •  The up-market holiday village such as Club Mediterranean. !
  40. 40. Second-home and time-share ownership" •  Where an outright purchase is beyond people s means, the concept of time-share offers an alternative means of taking a holiday in one s second home. ! •  Time-share is a scheme whereby an apartment or villa is sold to several co- owners, each of whom purchases the right to use the accommodation for a given period of the year, which may range from one week to several weeks. ! •  The initial cost of the accommodation will vary not only according to the length of time fo which it is purchased, but also depending on the period of the year, so that a week in July or August, for example, may be three or four times the cost of the same accommodation in winter. !
  41. 41. Educational accommodation" •  Universities and other institutions of higher education, seeking to increase contributions to their revenue through the rental of student accommodation during the academic holidays, have marketed this accommodation for budget holidays to tour operators and others. !
  42. 42. .... and recently" Themes based accommodation Theme hotels and themed hotel rooms have popped up all over the world in recent years in order to accommodate niche groups of travellers with a passion for certain sports, musicians, places and general interests. Some of these are situated near the world s best theme parks and are devoted to creating a fun atmosphere for all ages. Others are five-star luxury hotels that use subtle decor to hint at the theme that they are trying to project. And still others are truly out-there niche hotels themed around oddities like physics and even death! Take a look at seven of the best theme hotels out there. Hoteliers develop themes based on the properties their hotel occupy. Old magistrates courts, police and railway stations, even a former boatman s brothel, have all been converted into tourist accommodation and have retained many of their original characteristic features to offer unique appeal to the customers.
  43. 43. The Glasglow Mal: A renovation of an old church into a hotel The Belfast Mal: An old seed warehouse that has been turned into the slinkiest boutique hotel in Belfast. The Birmingham Mal: A gloriously converted Royal Mail Sorting Office
  44. 44. Le Meridien Cambridge [MA, United States] This hotel, better known as the Hotel@MIT, is a technology and physics themed hotel designed around the major fields of study at the nearby tech school. Pictures of famous physicists in the bedrooms, bedspreads designed with mathematical equations and robots serving as sculptural art in the lobby are all symbols that lend themselves well to the overall theme of the hotel. The Oxford Mal (Oxford, England): The core of Oxford Castle is nearly 1,000 years old but most of its structures (old and new) were converted into a prison in the 1800s. Today, the Malmaison Hotel complex has overnight rooms, apartments, restaurants and bars. Much of the prison infrastructure is still legible to visitors and overnight guests though everything has been upgraded, remodeled and refurbished for guests.
  45. 45. Santa Isabel @ Europa Park [Germany] Europa Park is one of the world’s largest theme parks so it’s fitting that there are a series of theme hotels associated with the location. While many people choose to go to the more established theme hotels (like the ancient Roman hotel called Colosseo), the most interesting of the hotels is the new Santa Isabel hotel. Themed around the concept of a Portuguese monastery, it has all of the amenities of a four star hotel but still hints at the simple historic charm of the homes made by monks. Hard Days Night Hotel [Liverpool, England] There are millions of people who love The Beatles and a large percentage of them would be thrilled to stay in a hotel devoted entirely to the legendary band. If you’re one of those folks then you need to take yourself to this hotel which began development in 2004 and finally opened earlier this year. If you want to go all out, you should book into one of the two penthouse suites suitably called The Lennon Suite and McCartney Suite, of course. And if you think John and Yoko are the couple to live up to then you can get married in the wedding chapel at this luxury theme hotel!
  46. 46. Hotel Pelirocco [Brighton Beach, England] This hotel starts off as a theme hotel devoted to rock ‘n roll but it takes things a step further and extends the theme to include all pop subculture. The nineteen art rooms in the hotel are all based on different aspects of the pop star or rock star’s way of life. There’s an Asbolut vodka room for the rocker who likes to drink. There’s a pin-up parlor for the star who loves the ladies. There’s a tropical room for the star that needs to get away. And there’s a Jamie Reed room named and decorated after the punk rock visionary. Argonaut Hotel [CA, United States] San Francisco is a city nearly surrounded by water so it’s no surprise that it has a hotel themed around the maritime history of the place. Argonaut Hotel is housed within a historic building called the Haslett Warehouse which overlooks the historic ships docked at the city’s Maritime National Historic Park. The luxury hotel (situated in the Fisherman’s Wharf neighborhood) has all of the amenities you could possible need from spas to gourmet snacks, but maintains a strong link with the history of the region.
  47. 47. Le Monde Hotel [Edinburgh, Scotland] This hotel is themed around the idea that you can travel around the world without leaving your hotel. Each of the rooms is decorated to illicit the feeling that you are in a specific city somewhere else in the world. There are also themed bars to create the sensation that you are a globetrotting party animal. And, of course, there are theme restaurants with cuisine from the city around which they are based : dine in Paris, drink in Shanghai and then fall asleep in Miami. Astronomer’s Inn [AZ, United States] If the theme that gets you all hot and bothered is to be out and about amidst the stars then you might want to stay in a bed-and-breakfast devoted to the art of astronomy. These accommodations are situated right next door to an observatory and provide all of the amenities necessary to create the perfect star-gazing situation. Rooftop telescopes, guided tours of the night sky and a peaceful ambience are all conducive to helping you gain an understanding of the constellations above you. There are four suites to choose from for enhancing your stay: The Galaxy Room, The Astronomer’s Studio, The Egyptian Room and The Garden Room. No matter which suite you pick, you’ll have an out-of-this-world hotel stay.
  48. 48. 3. Destinations/Attractions!
  49. 49. 3.1 The nature and role of destinations! The destination really does sit at the core of the wider tourism system in that it represents an amalgam of tourism products that collectively offer a destination ‘experience’ to visitors. The destination is the principal motivating factor behind the consumer’s decision and expectations. !
  50. 50. 3.2 Destination types! 3.2.1 Coastal destinations - epitomised in the ever popular seaside resort that has undergone many changes since their modern-day emergence in the mid-eighteenth century with advocacy of inland spas and sea bathing for health cures. One of the fundamental lessons to learn from the development of coastal resorts, whether new or old, is the importance of the public-private sector partnership. !
  51. 51. 3.2.2 Urban destinations - in the major cities have been cultural attractions from ancient times onwards and some, such as Venice, which was popularised in the period of the Grand Tour by Europe’s aristocracy, have continued as tourist cities long after their commercial function has diminished.! ! From the early 1980s, major cities have been taking tourism development more seriously and trying to strengthen the sector with strategic plans and tactics hinged upon the existence of quintessential factors for tourism development. ! ! Some of the common characteristics of city destinations are:! ! - Urban destinations are both multi-sold and multi-bought, through offering a range of tourist products and services that create diverse product packages;! = City destinations are often the tourism gateways to their surrounding region. Location that associate themselves with a major city destination may benefit from the high volumes of visitors;! The sheer scale of heterogeneous products and services sold to visitors and locals in urban areas make each city destination a unique tourism product cluster;! Developing and marketing the product clusters of city destinations cannot be directed by a single authority. Residents, private and public tourism stakeholders and other urban authorities need to cooperate to initiate development projects and to effect marketing activities by creating a on-voice strategies. !
  52. 52. - Despite the fact that tourism-related products and services in cities are manifold, visitors usually concentrate on certain locations and create invisible boundaries that define tourist zones or districts; ! - Tourism in urban areas, compared to traditional holiday resorts, is an all-year-round activity with limited seasonality. This is principally due to the diversified demand and supply aspects of city destinations; and! - By their very nature, cities embrace more than one economic industry. Hence their economic function depends on the coexistence of various manufacturing and service operations. Neither tourism nor other industries should hamper each other’s functioning. Opposition to tourism may arise from residents and businesspeople if concentrated tourist flows in certain districts impair the living standards of the city.!
  53. 53. 3.2.3 Rural destinations that range from the ordinary countryside to national parks, wilderness areas, mountains and lakes. In other words, the product strengths of many rural areas lie in their strong natural environments, for example, hills, mountains and lakes, and remoteness, which make them increasingly attractive for tourism development at a time when ‘green tourism’ is in vogue.! ! On the other hand, there is concern for the social impact of tourism on small, close-knit communities and the environmental threat to undisturbed wilderness. As a result, when considering the impact of tourism on the local community, the greater the difference in lifestyles between rural hosts and tourists, and the less the former have been exposed to visitors, then the longer should be the period of adaptation. !
  54. 54. 3.3 Attractions!
  55. 55. Attractions provide the single most important reason for leisure tourism to a destination. Many of the components fo tourist trip - for example, transport and accommodation - are demands derived from the consumer’s desire to enjoy what a destination has to offer in terms of ‘things to see and do’. ! ! Thus, a tourist attraction is a focus for recreational and, in part, educational activity undertaken by both day and stay visitors that is frequently shared with the domestic resident population. ! ! Early attempts to classify the attractions were according to type, distinguishing between ‘natural resources’ and artificial ‘man - made’ features or products. !
  56. 56. 3.3.1 Natural Attractions! The feature of natural attractions is the quality of the resource to provide the attraction, whereby location becomes secondary. Their appeal is both national and international. For example, people come from all over the globe to enjoy the beaches in Phuket, Khaoyai National Park. Traditionally, water based resources either coastlines or lakes, have always been the most important tourism resource and still are, but with more frequent holiday - taking, the countryside and panoramic scenery have witnessed increasing usage. ! ! National attractions, however, are not only confined to its physiography (the nature and appearance of its landscape) but also include, for example, its climate (the kind of weather it has over a period of years i.e. the conditions of heat and cold, moisture and dryness and wind). In addition to this, the third component of the natural environment is people. They are including: 1) those who ‘belong’ to the destination (its residents) and 2) those who are current or potential visitors to the destination (the tourism market). !
  57. 57. The most common aspect of natural resources is that they are generally fixed in supply and are able to provide only a limited amount of services in any given time period,! ! Natural resources included national parks, wildlife, viewpoints and outstanding natural phenomena such as Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Australia or the Niagara Falls in Ontario, Canada. !
  58. 58. 3.3.2 Man - Made Attractions! Another dimension of the tourism phenomenon is the built environment that has been created by humans. Many man-made attractions are products of history and culture. The range of museums and art galleries in the world’s top tourist destinations is usually extensive and many are subject-specific. ! ! Examples of man made attractions are including: historic buildings, old industrial buildings, disused market halls, railway stations and docks. Recently, it has been rather common to convert old industry buildings into tourist zones which serve both visitors and speciality shopping - as in the designer outlet village in Swindon, UK - a convention centre, exhibition hall or trade centre. !
  59. 59. Other man made attractions are including: Festivals and special events, fairs, museums, zoo and aquariums, theme parks (amusement park), carnivals, circus, live entertainment, spectator sports, gaming and shopping (Megamalls). !
  60. 60. 4. Food & Beverage! Tourism and dining out go hand in hand. Restaurants are the most likely place to fulfill the need to dine. However, grocery stores are an extension of the dining component for campers who buy food supplies as well as for local residents who buy food for their traveling guests
  61. 61. " " 5. Intermediaries/Travel Distributors!
  62. 62. 5.1 The nature of intermediation! In all industries the task of intermediaries is to transform goods and services from a form that consumers do not want into a product that they do want. In tourism, however, the situation is somewhat different for it is quite possible to buy the components of the tourism trip (accommodation, transport, excursions and entertainment) directly from producers. " ! Traditionally, this has not happened to any great degree because of the linkagages (termed distribution channels) between the suppliers of tourism products and their potential customers are imperfect, and so the output of the travel intermediary is what is termed a search good, since it offers customers the opportunity of avoiding the effort and cost of undertaking the production activity. ! ! In other words, the advance of the technology has helped the distribution channels in a great deal. !
  63. 63. 5.2 Benefits! Producers:! + are able to sell in bulk and so transfer risk to the tour operator, though wholesalers do attempt to cover themselves by a variety of agreements and release clauses. The latter may vary from four or more weeks to seven days;! + can reduce promotion costs by focusing on the travel trade, rather than consumer promotion, which is much more expensive.! ! Consumers:! + can avoid search and transaction costs in both time and money by being able to purchase an inclusive tour;! + gain from the specialist knowledge of tour operator and the fact that uncertainties of travel are minimised. For example, cruising and coach tours are attractive to senior citizens because the holiday starts the moment they board the ship or coach;! + often gain most from lower prices, notably in the case of resorts dealing with large numbers of visitors as in the Mediterranean, Mexico, Florida and Hawaii. In such destinations, wholesalers are able through their buying power to negotiate discounts of up to 60% off the normal tariff. !
  64. 64. Destinations:! + especially in developing countries where budgets are limited, may benefit considerably from the international marketing network of tour operators. However, it is naive to expect, as some countries do, that this should be a responsibility of these companies, particularly as the Internet has made it so much easier for national tourist organisations (NTOs) to promote their tourist areas. !
  65. 65. 5.3 Drawbacks! Producers:! + use of intermediaries reduce margins and their degree of marketing control and influence over the process of distribution;! + it is also most likely that ultimate customer service will be beyond their control with most attention being directed at the channel intermediaries rather than the end customers. ! ! Customers:! + reduce choice and increase price.! ! Destinations:! + if they become overly dependent on intermediaries for bookings, they are very much susceptible to ‘whims’ and ‘vagaries’ of the marketplace.!
  66. 66. Direct sales of individual components" Tourist! Product! ! Tourist! Tour Operator" Retail Agent" Own Outlets" Direct sales of package tours" Independent traveller! Independent or inclusive travel! Inclusive tour! Figure 1: Structure of distribution channels" Source: Adapted from Cooper et al., 2008" 5.3 Structure!
  67. 67. 6. Public Sector and Policy (Tourism promoters and Land Managing Agencies !
  68. 68. With tourism as one of the main international economic drivers in the 21st century, together with increasing demands from the domestic population for leisure and recreation, the industry is a development option that few governments can afford to ignore. ! ! Since the tourist industry does not control all those factors that make up the attractiveness of a destination and the impact on the host population can be considerable, it is necessary for the options concerning the development of tourism to be considered at the highest level of government and the appropriate pubic administrative framework put in place. ! ! Beyond the national horizon, governments are involved in supporting a variety of multinational agencies. The official flag carrier for international tourism is the UNWTO, which is vested by the United Nations with a central and decisive role in promoting the development of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. Elsewhere there are a number of other international bodies whose activities impinge upon tourism, these include the World Bank, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNESCO, the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).!
  69. 69. At a lower level, there is a variety of regional bodies such as the Organization of American States (OAS), Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) and the European Travel Commission (ETC).!
  70. 70. 6.1 Impact of the Public Sector! •  Marketing and promotion - marketing is the principal function of the NTO and its job is to create and protect the brand image of the country/destination;! •  Information provision and network development - the ability of tourists to express their demands depends upon their awareness of the facilities available, particularly attractions, which are a key component of leisure tourism;! •  Pricing - there are several ways in which the public sector may affect the price the tourist pays for staying at a destination. The direct influence arises out of state ownership, notably in the case of attractions. The trend in market-orientated economies is for governments to introduce charges for publicly owned attractions. Many of the world s airlines are still owned by governments, though the trend is increasingly towards privatisation or, if not, the liberalisation of air policy, particularly in response to the rise of low-cost airlines. !
  71. 71. •  Controlling access - is a means of limiting visitor numbers of channelling visitor flows. At an international level, the easiest way for a country to limit demand is by restricting the number of visas issued. Prohibiting charter flights is a means by which several countries have conveyed an image of exclusiveness to the market; ! •  Safety and security - There have always been issues of criminal activities targeted at tourists, particularly in countries where there are large disparities between ‘the haves and have-nots’. Increasingly, tourist enterprises have tightened security and visitors have been given advice to make them ‘streetwise’. Governments have also instituted special tourist police and tourism victim support services. Unfortunately, terrorism is much more difficult to deal with, because its causes have little to do with tourism. ! •  Land -use planning and environmental control - is the most basic technique and arguable the one that has the greatest influence on the supply of tourist structures. All governments have a form of town and country planning legislation whereby permission is required to develop, extend or change the use of almost every piece of land. The controls are designed to protect areas of high landscape and amenity value. !
  72. 72. 7. References! •  Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilber, D. and Wanhill, S. (2008) Tourism: Principles and Practice. 4th edition Pearson Education, Harlow. •  Goeldner, C.R. Ritchie, J.R.B. (2009) Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, INC. •  Nickerson, N.P. (1996). Foundations of Tourism. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. •  Pender, L. (2005) Managing the Tourism System . In Pender, L. and Sharpley, R. (Eds.). The Management of Tourism. London: SAGE •  Sharpley, R. (1999) Tourism, Tourists and Society. Cambridgeshire: ELM Publications.