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Ilkal Saree, By Nanduri Asha


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Ilkal Saree, By Nanduri Asha

  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I, Nanduri Asha, student of 4th semester textile design; NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY will like to thank Miss Pankaja Sethi for guiding me and providing me sufficient knowledge about the subject ILKAL SARIS, without her help I would not be able to complete my assignment. I also thank my friends and my classmates for helping me and discussing the assignment with me. Thanking you NANDURI ASHA PANKAJA SETHI (GUEST FACULTY)
  5. 5. [6]Ilkal is a small town in Bagalkot district in Karnataka in south of India. It is nearer to the borders of two other states of India that is Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. This particular town is located in the South-East part of Bagalkote district. Ilkal is a well known Trade center of the district. It is a popular place for commerce and industry. The place is quite famous for its ruby red granite and its textile Ilkal sari. Fig. 1 Location of the place Ilkal in Karnataka This place has both Hindus and Muslims since this place was invaded by many of the Muslim rulers like Aiyaz Betageri in near about 200 B.C. Ilkal has become the second most important place in the north district of Karnataka. The weather over there is NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 1
  6. 6. generally very hot during the summers but has a pleasant weather during the winters. Heavy rains occur during in the rainy season. The place is influenced from various places and people. If we observe the life style of the population it has some elements of Andhra Pradesh as well as of Maharashtra and due to the Muslim invasion the way of living had also affected the people over there. Therefore, we can say that this place is the combination of three states of India in context of culture and other religious ceremonies. The people of Ilkal have various ritual and ceremonies. Their religious god is Shri Vijay Mahantesh they believe he is incarnation of lord Shiva. Fig. 2 Picture of Shri Vijay Mahantesh NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 2
  7. 7. There is also one Islamic satin which they worship as god is Murtuza Shah Quadir. Since Ilkal is a small town therefore the population mainly consists of the artisans those are the weavers and the people who do kasuti embroidery. It has also farmers, small scale business men and some other professionals. The main source of income comes from the Red granite which is exported all around the world while Ilkal saris are secondary source of income for the people residing over there since generations. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 3
  9. 9. Life the starched yarn, set the strings right Have equal footing, but don’t touch the loom The shuttle which I am holding has swallowed the bundle of yarn Is it you who wove the sari or I? -Vachankara by Jedara Dasimaya Ilkal saris are the main source of income for the weavers and other population in the northern part of Karnataka. It was an ancient hub for weaving which roughly started in 8th century A.D. The sari became popular due to the patronage of local Chieftains and the easy availability of raw materials from the nearby places around. The weaving is generally done by the local chieftains in and around the villages Kamatgi, Nidigundi and Kolhar. It has become famous because of the technique which is used in it that is the Topi Theni. It was generally woven for the Brahmin communities of Karnataka and Southern Maharashtra. This Weaving tradition is passed on from one generation to the other generation. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 5
  10. 10. Fig. 3 Women wearing Ilkal sari Traditionally it was done with cotton warp and weft both. Usually pit looms were used for the weaving purpose. Both men and women are engaged in per weaving, weaving and the post weaving activities. For weaving mostly both men and women use to sit together especially for making the pallav, since it has cut shuttle or the interlocking of the weft yarns. Many years ago even kids were engaged in all these weaving since their childhood times so that the kid can observe and learn everything. This decreases the effort of teaching each and every bit of the process to the kid after he/ she grew up. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 6
  11. 11. The beautiful Kasuti embroidery is also been done upon some of the saris especially for the upper class or rich people. General Ilkal sari doesn’t have Kasuti work in it. This ornamentation on the sari increases its cost and it becomes really very expensive. After the British came to Karnataka the silk rearing started in Karnataka for making these saris. It was encouraged by Tipu Sultan and then promoted by the British. By, the mid of nineteenth century, the British had established mulberry silk rearing on a large scale activity both for the planters as well as the associates that is the dyers, the weavers of the Ilkal saris , etc. This propelled the growth of silk weaving not only in Karnataka but also in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and nearby places. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 7
  13. 13. Like other saris in India Ilkal saris also has a certain unique way of construction. The production of these saris involves 2000 weavers, dyers and other craftsmen. It is known for the techniques used in making of this sari that is Tope Teni. The length also adds to the beauty of the sari which is near about 6-9 yard long. The eye catching red and white border of the sari also interests the viewer. The festive importance of the sari also makes it respected by others. The process basically starts with the dyeing of the yarns followed by weaving and the ornamentation of the fabric with Kasuti embroidery. YARN DYEING The cotton warp and weft are usually being dyed in a reddish black tone. Generally a cool dark place is being chosen for the dyeing purpose. The yarn is first dyed in with the natural Indigo dye. For dyeing the yarn in indigo dye sajimitti collected from the river bed and then chuna(lime stone) is being added in water. “Half a kilo gram of alta seed obtain from Prodotur and half kilogram of gud(molasses) are boiled in a brass vessel. The soaked seeds bust and mix with the solution forming thick liquor. Then the boiled solution is being cooled and made into six parts. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 9
  14. 14. Fig. 4 Cool and dark place for dyeing Fig. 5 A grinder used for grinding indigo blocks. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 10
  15. 15. Indigo blocks are being taken and then grinded in a grinding stone which is generally used in making the paste of the grains used for idli cooking. During the grinding, decanted lime and sajimitti water are added to make into a solution which is divided into six parts. The dyers have old indigo vats and the old indigo solution. Depending upon the depth of the topping shade required, a number of vats are made use of for repeat dyeing. Each dyeing requires six vats, one knot being dipped in one vat. If the process is repeated six times, 36 vats are used while every day six knots of finally dyed yarn are obtained. The 36 old vats are taken as six sets of vats for dyeing six times. Fig. 6 Indigo vats NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 11
  16. 16. Every day fresh indigo dye solution is added to only one successive set of vat for final dyeing. Thus if it is added to only the 1st set of vats one day, it is added to only the 2nd set of the vat the next day; to the 3rd set of vat the day after and so on. The sixth dyeing of a set of six knots, which is the final dyeing, is done in the replenishes set of vat only, the six knots having been dyed repeatedly in the remaining 5 sets of vats during the previous days. A continuous rotating sequence is thus maintained. After each dyeing yarn is dried, the final dyed yarn in the sun and remaining in the shed. The natural indigo is obtained from Proddotur. These are about 20 dye houses altogether, engaged in indigo dyeing in various ways. All the dark colors like black, deep blue etc. are obtained from the indigo dye. Now a day’s indigo is mixed with other chemical agents but traditionally it was done with pure indigo and other natural colorants like alta. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 12
  17. 17. Fig. 7 The liquor is being stirred so that the yarn is evenly dyed Fig. 8 The extra dye liquor is removed by squeezing the yarns. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 13
  19. 19. WEAVING In Ilkal maximum of the population is engaged in sari weaving. The uniqueness of the sari is joining the body with the pallav warp with a series of loops locally called as TOPE TENI technique. The weavers will gait only 6 yard, 8 yards, 9 yards warp due to above TOPE TENI technique. Kondi technique is used for weft through inserting 3 shuttles. Pallav portion generally consists of three portions one will be in red and the two other left will be in white color. TOPE TENI seragu has been regarded as a state symbol and was greatly respected during festival occasion. The annchu or the borders are woven in traditional form namely chikki, gomi and gadidadi and modern gaythri are unique ones in Ilkal saris. The border of an Ilkal sari ranges from 2.5 to 4 inch in width. The colors are usually the combination of red or maroon with white, in which red or maroon dominates the pallav. The technique TOPE TENI is exclusively used in an Ilkal sari. The warp threads are being prepared separately and at the same time the warp of the pallav is also being setup separately with blended silk or pure silk. In general, the pallav length ranges from 16 to 27 inches. All these weaving are being done in pit loom but the introduction of flying shuttle loom help the weavers in high production. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 15
  20. 20. Fig. 9 A woman making bobbin These saris are 9 yards in length. For making the boarder dobby machine is used to add to the beauty of the sari. The pallav carries temple towers patten with the help of interlocking weft yarn which in general locally called as kondi technique. The end regions of pallav is made up of patterns of different shapes like hanige(comb), koti kammali(fort ramparts) and rampa(mountain range). The colors traditionally used are pomegranate red, brilliant peacock green and parrot green. The saris that are made for NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 16
  21. 21. bridal wear are made of a particular color called Giri Kumukum which is associated the sindoor worn by the wives of the priests in this area. Fig. 10 A woman weaving an Ilkal sari Main body designs are generally stripes, rectangles, squares or are plain. The sari could be plain of be woven in diverse check patterns. These checks pattern locally known as tirki, can be well known as mandap, pacharangi, dapla or pateng. Thick stripes are known as jabra, and finer lines, called suzi, can into the designing of the sari. Saris, in a NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 17
  22. 22. shade of plain indigo, are called Chanderkallis, while the saris combined with red and orange is called basanti. The borders are generally in red and green color and consist of extra warp patterns. Production of Ilkal saris is mostly an indoor activity with the involvement of each and every family member. The sari is either made of cotton, or a mixture of cotton and silk or in pure silk sometimes even gold threads are also being used The saris are produced with cotton warp and weft in the body silk. In Ilkal saris generally the warp is the cotton yarn while weft is silk yarn. But now a day’s cotton warp and cotton weft both are used, sometimes even silk warp and silk weft is used which makes the sari all the more expensive. The saris have silk pallav and cotton/rayon grounds and borders. In olden times only cotton and silk were used, but now rayon is favored, because it is cheaper to use and the market favors the shiny aesthetic. The ground color warp threads are most usually black cotton, the weft is rayon. The extra warp is being used to make the border of the sari which ranges from four inches to five inches in width. Golden thread is generally used in the warp along with the cotton of silk yarns. The border designs are generally being achieved with the help of dobby machine. Thus, providing the sari with a beautiful heavy border in the both sides. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 18
  23. 23. Fig. 11 Combing of cotton yarns UNIQUENESS OF ILKAL SARIS The uniqueness of sari is joining of the body warp with pallav warp with a series of loops locally called as TOPE TENI technique. The weaver will gait only 6 yards, 8 yards, 9 yards warp due to above TOPE TENI technique. KONDI Technique is used for weft through inserting 3 shuttles. Pallav portion-Design: “TOPE TENE SERAGU” Normally in Tope Teni seragu 3 solid portions would be in red color, and in between 2 portions in white colour. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 19
  24. 24. Tope Teni seragu has been regarded as a state symbol and was greatly respected during festival occasions. Traditional Borders: (i) Chikki, (ii) Gomi, (iii) Jari and (iv) Gadidadi, and modern Gayathri are unique ones in Ilkal sarees - width ranging from 2.5” to 4” Border Colour Uniqueness: Red usually or Maroon dominates. Fig. 12 A traditional Ilkai sari NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 20
  26. 26. MOTIFS The distinctive feature of Ilkal sarees is the use of a form of embroidery called as Kasuti.. Kasuti embroidery is a special craft practiced mainly in Uttara Kanara district or North Kanara district. Its secret lies in the fact that it can be done only by counting the threads of the weft and the warp. There is no possibility of tracing or implanting the design prematurely as outlines. With considerable dexterity, an ordinary sewing needle is used to create a variety of designs with coloured threads on the cloth. The embroidery is done only by women. The history of Kasuti dates back to the Chalukya period. The name Kasuti is derived from the word Kai (meaning hand) and Suti (meaning cotton), indicating an activity that is done using cotton and hands. The women courtiers in the Mysore Kingdome in the 17th century were expected to be adept in 64 arts, with Kasuti being one of them. It is also said that the Lambani clan left their traditional home of Rajasthan and settled down in Karnataka and brought the Kasuti craft along with them. The designs used in Kasuti reflect traditional patterns like palanquins, elephants and lotuses which are embroidered onto Ilkal saris. Kasuti embroidery is done above this pallav in a border called bugadi., which forms the base of the embroidery to follow. This continuous border is worked in gavanti stitch, which has been known to mean knot stitch or rural stitch. After this the large patterns on the sari emerge. The Chariot Ratha, or a tree with peacocks or flowers and this distribution of motifs grows sparse as it NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 23
  27. 27. travels away from the pallav, becoming small flowers and dots, which are worked into the pleats of the sari. The most remarkable feature about kasuti is that there is no right or wrong side. Both sides are identical. However complicated the design, the end of the design coincides with the beginning. There is no knot used in the beginning or end of the thread. A small straight stitch is placed at the beginning and end. The technique is difficult to learn, as the patterns made by counting warp and weft threads, which when done on dark backgrounds can cause a great deal of eye strain. It is laborious process and taken years to master. Even a minor error during the embroidery process means undoing the motif and redoing it completely as the error would be spotted afar. This form of embroidery also requires physical and mental alertness and a great deal of patience. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 24
  28. 28. Fig. 13 Kasuti work Kasuti can be described as delicate embroidery with geometric designs which when worked very closely can make dramatic patterns. A combination of four main stitches, all based originally on the counted thread method (distance running stitches- by counting the same number of threads), allow many people to work on the same pattern NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 25
  29. 29. and a change in the working hands does not affect the final design. Now the designs are traced on paper or loosely woven gauge, which is then pulled off after completing the work. Kasuti Embroidery is done with four main stitches. Fig, 14 Elephant made out of Kasuti embroidery Gavanti or Gaunti meaning konts is a double running stitch and used in straight, horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines. Muragi is a zigzag running stitch and looks like a ladder when it is used. Small motifs like squares, hexagons, octagons and ladders are created with this stitch. The Muragi stitch looks identical on both sides of the cloth. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 26
  30. 30. Neygi or Negi - the name of the stitch is derived from the kannada word neyi to weave. This darning stitch in which long and short lines are used which gives the effect of weaving. Menthe - A kannada word meaning Fenugreek seed or a forked stitch, crossed Stitch. This stitch is mainly used to fill motifs. Fig. 15 Birds are made with the help of this embroidery it is generally embroidered in the border area of the sari. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 27
  31. 31. Fig. 16 This is the Ratha with flags and other small elements like the parrot on both the upper and the lower region. There are wheels which are present and some other animals like deer are also being embroidered. Fig. 17 This is another kind of chariot with crisscross embroidery in it. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 28
  32. 32. Fig. 18 This motif has been inspired from the temple architecture and from the padmam which is very calculative and geometric in nature Fig. 19 This is an hexagonal motif usually done on thepallav of Ilkal sari. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 29
  33. 33. Originally this embroidery was done by women with silk threads, which were taken directly from the weavers of the Ilkal saris. Later weavers sold these saris with 10" of extra silk thread in the wrap, which hung from the pallav area. This way the colors used in the embroidery blended well and the combinations were never garnish. The most readily available medium they could use was their daily clothing, which were saris, cholis, kunchis(bonnets) and lahngas or skirts. Fig. 20 The rath motif which is commonly seen in the pallav. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 30
  34. 34. The various themes that are embroidered in Kasuti are that of gopuram, bells, chariots, temple sculpture, flowers, animals etc. Appearing same on both the sides, various designs include Dagabaji Gopura, Gandolagida, Tulasi, Vankipatti, Kayapatti, Gopi Kamala Chittu Kamala, Gundala Gopura etc. The geometrical designs of the Kasuti have been reduced from the temple structure. Accept the kasuti motifs there are other motifs which are generally seen in the annchu that is the border created at the time of weaving the body with the help of dobby machine Gomi, is an arrow shaped pattern used in the border. This is mostly seen in the maximum of Ilkal saris. Chikiparas is a star or dot based pattern again for the border. These are the traditionally used border design. But in later time may other motifs are also introduced those are kaddi chikki and the kondi chikki. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 31
  35. 35. Fig. 21 These are the extra warp motifs generated with dobby it has pea-cock and paisley motifs in it with the gomi in the upper and lower part of the design. Fig. 22 These are the star shaped motifs which are generated in the border. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 32
  36. 36. CONCLUSION
  37. 37. At Kamatagi , weaving of Ilkal sari is being promoted by societies, traders and master weavers. At present 1200 looms are engaged in production of ILKAL Saris in Kamatagi Village. Annual turnover of this cluster is about 1.5 cores. At present marketing of these saris is confined to local market, North Karnataka region and South Maharashtra. There is lot of demand for pure Ilkal saris in Pune, Bombay, Surat and Vidharba. The Kamatagi handloom weaver’s history traces back to over 100 years. It was family tradition among the lower income group of people to take up the weaving jobThere are approximately 3,600 handloom weavers in Kamatagi cluster. The major products here are saris. Ilkal sari is a traditional form of sari which is a common feminine wear in India. The peculiar characteristic of the sari is joining the body warp with the pallav warp which is locally called as Tope Teni This technique is only used exclusively at Ilkal. The distinctive feature of Ilkal saris is the use of a form of embroidery called as Kasuti. The designs used in Kasuti reflect traditional patterns like palanquins, elephants and lotuses which are embroidered onto Ilkal saris. These distinctive features make the sari very unique in itself. Every women of India has an ultimate desire to have this sari in her wardrobe, and the increasing popularity of the sari even outside India increases its demand and supplies both. NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 35
  38. 38. GLOSSARY TOPE TENI~ the joining of the main sari border with the pallav with a series of loops. KONDI~ the pallav having temple towers pattern with the help of weft interlocking. HANIGE~ comb KOTI KAMMALI~ fort ramparts RAMPA~ mountain range CHANDERKALLIS~ Saris in a shade of plain indigo RATHA~ Chariot. GOMI~ arrow shaped pattern used in the border. CHIKIPARAS~ it is a star or dot based pattern for the border. KUNCHIS~ bonnets NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 36
  39. 39. REFERENCE • Referred books:- • SARIS Tradition and beyond By- Rta Kapur Chishti Printed by- Lustre press Roli Books 2010 • INDIAN SARIS TRADITION. PERSPECTIVE. DESIGN By-Vijai Singh Katiyar Publisher- Wisdomtree, 2009 • THE SARI Styles pattern history techniques By- Thames and Hudsun Publisher- Lindalynton NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 37
  40. 40. • NATURAL DYEING PROCESS OF INDIA By- B.C.Mohanty K.V. Chandramouli H.D.Naik Printed by- Grace enterprice • Websites • • • • NATIONAL ISTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY NANDURI ASHA 38
  41. 41. •