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ON THE MOVE AGAIN - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES CBSE-V

Dhanu’s village
Today all the relatives have come to Dhanu’s house to celebrate Dushera. They have come with their luggage in their bullockcarts. Dhanu’s father is the eldest in the family. So all the festivals are celebrated at their house. Dhanu’s mother (aai ), mother’s brother’s wife (mami ) and father’s brother’s wife (kaki ) are busy making puranpoli (sweet rotis made from jaggery and gram).

Along with this a spicy kadi dish is also made. The day passes in laughing and chatting. But by evening everyone’s mood changes. The women and children begin to pack their luggage. The men sit down with the mukadam (agent who lends money) for the meeting. The mukadam gives the details of the loan taken by each family.

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ON THE MOVE AGAIN - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES CBSE-V

  1. 1. Dhanu’s village Today all the relatives have come to Dhanu’s house to celebrate Dushera. They have come with their luggage in their bullockcarts. Dhanu’s father is the eldest in the family. So all the festivals are celebrated at their house. Dhanu’s mother (aai ), mother’s brother’s wife (mami ) and father’s brother’s wife (kaki ) are busy making puranpoli (sweet rotis made from jaggery and gram).
  2. 2. Along with this a spicy kadi dish is also made. The day passes in laughing and chatting. But by evening everyone’s mood changes. The women and children begin to pack their luggage. The men sit down with the mukadam (agent who lends money) for the meeting. The mukadam gives the details of the loan taken by each family.
  3. 3. Then the talks for the next few months begin. The mukadam explains to the villagers in which areas they would go for the next six months. He also gives them some money as loan, for their expenses. Ever since Dhanu remembers, this has been the routine.
  4. 4. Families like Dhanu’s work on the lands of big farmers till Dushera, before the rainy season. Many other families also work on such lands. They earn just enough money to keep them going through these months. But how to manage the remaining six months, when there is no rain, and no work in the fields? So, everyone borrows money from the mukadam. To pay back this money, they have to work for the mukadam. Mukadam is an agent for sugarcane factories. He helps them to find work in sugarcane fields.
  5. 5. In the next few months, Dhanu, his parents, his kaka (father’s brother) and his two elder children, his mama, mami and their two daughters, and forty-fifty other families from the village will stay away from home. In these six months, Dhanu and many children like him will not be able to go to school. Dhanu’s old grandmother, aunt who cannot see, and two-month old cousin sister would stay back in the village. In other homes too the old and the ill people stay behind. Dhanu misses his grandmother a lot. Dhanu always keeps wondering who will take care of his grandmother! But, what can Dhanu do?
  6. 6. After Dushera: The caravan of these families would now settle near the sugarcane fields and sugar factories. For six months they would stay in their huts made of dry sugarcane and its leaves. The men will get up early in the morning and go to cut sugarcanes in the fields. The women and children tie the bundles of sugarcane. Then the bundles are taken to the sugar factory.
  7. 7. Dhanu often goes with his father. Sometimes, they spend nights outside the factory on bullock-carts. There, Dhanu plays with the bullocks and wanders around. At the factory, Dhanu’s father gets the sugarcane weighed and takes a receipt (a note to say how much sugarcane they have given). They show this receipt to the agent who then keeps an account of their loan.
  8. 8. The agent also gives them some money for the next week’s expenses. Then Dhanu’s aai and mami take the children to the nearby village market, to buy atta (flour) and oil for the next week. Sometimes mami buys laddoos or some sweets for the children. She also buys pencils, an eraser and a notebook for Dhanu. After all he is mami’s favorite! But Dhanu won’t be using these for six months, because he won’t be going to school.
  9. 9. Mami wants Dhanu to study and become somebody in life. She does not want Dhanu to move around with his family like this. mama and mami tell Dhanu’s parents, “Next time when we leave our village after Dushera we will leave Dhanu with his dadi and chachi. He will go to school like the other children in the village. He should continue his studies. He should study further and become somebody.”
  10. 10. Sugarcane Farming: Sugarcane is also one the most grown commercial crop, all over the world. However, growing sugarcane is not a hardworking job but it requires good care and management while sugarcane farming to produce optimum since this crop is very susceptible to the climate conditions, type of soil, manure and fertilizers, the way of irrigation, pests, insects, diseases and their controlling measures.
  11. 11. Basically, sugarcane crop is a perennial grass crop that grows the most in tropics and subtropics region which produces multiples of stems having a diameter about 3 to 5 cm and height about 5 m. However, this crop belongs to the bamboo family. Stems of this crops grow into cane stalk formed, and contributes about more than 70 % of the total plant when matured.
  12. 12. A mature sugarcane stem contains about 11 to 18 % water-soluble sugar, 10 to 16 % of fibers, about 3 to 4 % of non-sugars content along with more than 70 % of water content in it. Basically, this commercial crop is native to India which is mainly grown or cultivated for producing sugar the most. Apart from this, it also supplies raw material for making alcohol and other beverages.
  13. 13. The rest residue of sugarcane is also used as the nutritious fodder for the dairy cattle. One can create a huge income via growing sugarcane with suitable techniques and technology. So, let’s learn commercial sugarcane farming or cultivation and earn millions of this.
  14. 14. Sugarcane Health Benefits The following is the list of some health benefits of sugarcane, let’s learn the list. Sugarcane improves the function of the liver. Sugarcanes are the great source of energy and drinking sugarcane juice is the best way to overcome dehydration problem. Sugarcanes are excellent source of potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, and manganese Sugarcane also prevents you from some of the critical cancers such as prostate cancer, breast cancer etc.
  15. 15. Sugarcane is natural sweeteners so it is also good for the diabetic patients. Sugarcanes are also helpful in keeping the kidney healthy. It also aids in the growth of teeth, and bones. Sugarcane also used as the home remedy for curing acne. This also helps in curing febrile related disorders. Its juice can act as a good digestive tonic and can enhance good digestive systems.
  16. 16. Use of Sugarcane Sugarcane farming is mainly done for the sugar production. However, apart from producing sugar, this crop is also used for manufacturing numbers of by-products from it.
  17. 17. Major Sugarcane Producers: All over the world, India tops the list of sugarcane producing countries after the Brazil. 1) Brazil 2) India 3) China, mainland 4) Thailand 5) Pakistan. 6) Mexico 7) Colombia 8) Philippines 9) Indonesia 10) USA (The United States of America)
  18. 18. Where Does Sugarcane Grow?: Agro climate Condition for Growing Sugarcane. This perennial grass crop can grow their best in the tropics as well as the subtropical region where normally the temp ranges from 20 °C to 45 °C. Also, this crop also responses very well to long period bright sunlight along with high humidity.
  19. 19. This commercial crop requires a moderate rainfall, ranging 1500 mm to 2500 mm annually for the best growth and production. Nowadays, it is possible to grow sugarcane throughout the whole year with irrigated conditions.
  20. 20. Best Soil for Growing Sugarcane Sugarcane can be cultivated over a wide variety of soils since it can thrive it best, almost in all the types of soil with sufficient moisture content. However, a deep and loamy soil, full of all the essential organic matter content is considered as the best for growing sugarcane and optimum production.
  21. 21. Although, a soil ranging from black to medium black with good drainage facility is also considered as the most suitable for sugarcane production. For optimum sugarcane production, the ideal soil pH for sugarcane production ranges from 5.5 to 7.5. Loamy and sandy soil on the riversides are also good for sugarcane cultivation.
  22. 22. Do you know “How long does it take for sugarcane to grow?” Usually, this commercial crop takes about 12 to 18 months to become ready for harvesting. So, a soil with good productivity is most preferred for its production. Do not plant this crop on the waterlogged soils or soils with no good drainage capacity since water logging in this crop can invite numbers of pests and diseases to this crop.
  23. 23. How to Start Sugarcane Farming? Select a Suitable Sugarcane Variety. All over the world, there are many hybrid and improved varieties of sugarcane available for commercial farming. However, following is a list of some high yielding varieties of the countries, producing the most.
  24. 24. Land for Sugarcane Farming: For optimum production, your soil should have fine tilth form for good germination %age. So, firstly bring your soil into fine tilth form for proper germination and healthy stem growth of this crop. Usually, about two or three deep ploughings with tractors are sufficient enough for bringing your soil in the fine tilt form.
  25. 25. After first plowing, let it expose to bright sunlight for about three months period. Also, crushed the clods and leveled it well for optimum production. Land preparation helps in good aeration in the soil and removed the roots penetration of the previous crop. It is a good idea to incorporate soil with well-rotted farmyard manure, for about more than 35 tonnes per hectare to increase the productivity of the soil.
  26. 26. How to Grow Sugarcane Crop: This commercial crop is mainly propagated by cuttings matured vegetative known as “setts”. For optimum sugarcane production, select a disease resistant, high yielding and quality sets to produce maximum. After collecting the quality setts, discard the ends from the apical portion. This discarding of the apical portion increases the easier buds breaking in this crop. The cuttings should have length, at least 35 cm to 45 cm with minimum 3 budding on each of them.
  27. 27. Sugarcane plantation: Sugarcane plantation can be done by following any of the below methods: Ridge Method Furrow Method Pit Method Wet Method Flat Bed Method Rayungan Method Trench and Jawa Method Transplanting Method However, for commercial sugarcane plantation, furrow method is the most suitable and is also followed by the most of the growers
  28. 28. Furrow Method: In this method, setts are planted horizontally in the furrow by keeping depth 20 to 30 cm inside. After planting them horizontally covers these planted setts with thin layer soil. The setts of cane can also grow via planting them directly on the main field or through transplanting them on the main field.
  29. 29. Pit Method Apart from the furrow method of sugarcane plantation, pit method is also chosen by the growers since it has the capacity to produce more than the furrow method, about two times than the furrow method. Planting Density or Seed Rate In Sugarcane Farming. For growing sugarcane on a hectare land commercially, it requires cuttings, about 18,000 to 24,000 cuttings to cover the whole field. However, plants the setts at good planting depth so that seedlings appear faster.
  30. 30. Irrigation in Sugarcane: This crop is very sensitive to water supply and needs water more than other crops. This crop requires sufficient water supply at every crucial stage such as sprouting stage, formative stage, ripening stage and also during the introductions of sprouts in the setts. However, giving water abundantly is the best way to produce the maximum. So, supplying water through drip irrigation or with alternate furrow method of irrigation in water scarce area for optimum sugarcane production.
  31. 31. Application of Manures and Fertilizers in Sugarcane Farming Sugarcane crop is heavy feeder and long durational crop that also requires manures and fertilizers in more amount. So, it is a good idea to add about 50 tones of well-rotted farmyard manure at the time of soil preparation onwards. However, following is a table about the application of manures and fertilizers in sugarcane production along with the time of application.
  32. 32. A good farm management practices in sugarcane production leads to higher production. This includes mulching, weed control along with suitable crop rotation.
  33. 33. Weed Control in Sugarcane Farming: This commercial crop is massively influenced by weeds on the main field because this crop requires more water than other commercial crops along with more nutrition supply. In order to achieve proper growth, there are also more possibility of more weed occurrence.
  34. 34. Crop Rotation : Rotating crop is also a good task that helps you more in controlling weeds in sugarcane production. This also increases the fertility of the soil. In heavy rainfall areas, rotate sugarcane with rice. And, in low rainfall area, rotate this commercial crop with cotton crop. However, rotating sugarcane crop with the Banana crop, Turmeric crop, Soya bean Crop, Groundnut crop, and some gram crops.
  35. 35. Sugarcane, pests, and diseases: Red rot Grassy shoot Wilt Smut Red striped disease Leaf scald disease Mosaic disease Rust Pokkahboeng Sugarcane yellow leaf disease
  36. 36. Harvesting of sugarcane This crop is a long duration crop that takes about 12 to 16 months to become ready for harvesting. Also, harvesting at the proper time is also important task that needs special care. Harvest your crop at their right maturity level because both, early and delayed harvesting leads to quality loss production. Also, stop irrigations before two weeks of harvesting or cutting this crop.
  37. 37. However, on the basis of available facility, manual or mechanical harvesting can be done. For manual harvesting, give a slant cut at the ground base with a help of cane cutting knife. Also, dried leaves from the roots and canes should be discarded at the time of harvesting.
  38. 38. Also cut the immature top portion along with 2 to 4 internodes from the top. After harvesting canes, make the bunches, and send them to the local market for crushing off. Crush them after about one day of harvesting to prevent the reversion of sucrose to glucose.
  39. 39. Yield of Sugarcane Farming The yield of sugarcane crop depends on numbers of key factors such as the type of soil, way of irrigation, application of manures and fertilizers, pests and diseases management along with good farm management skills. However, for commercial sugarcane farming, an average yield of more than 150 tonnes of canes from a hectare land can be obtained with normal farming practices. Have a Happy Sugarcane Production!!!

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