He would help some memsahib (lady) to carry her bags, or go to the railway station to pick up empty bottles and newspapers to sell to the kabadiwalla (junk seller). Somehow they were managing their life in the city. It was night, but Sidya had not come home. Jhimli was watching a dance on TV, through the neighbour’s window. Jatrya did not like watching TV. Here, everything was so different. The day would pass running around for work, but the evening brought back old memories.
Jatryabhai was sitting at the door with his daughter Jhimli. They were
waiting for Sidya. It was almost night but Sidya had not come home.
Two years back Jatrya’s family came to Mumbai from Sinduri village.
Here, they only knew the family of a distant relative. With their help,
Jatryabhai began to repair torn fishing nets.
But the money he got was not enough. They had to pay for the
medicines, food, school fees and rent for the house. Here, they even had
to buy water. Young Sidya also had to work in the nearby fish factory to
earn some money. From four o’clock till seven o’clock in the morning,
he cleaned and sorted the big and small fish. Then he would come home,
take a nap, and go to school in the afternoon. In the evening he would
wander around the vegetable market.
He would help some memsahib (lady) to carry her bags, or go to the
railway station to pick up empty bottles and newspapers to sell to the
kabadiwalla (junk seller). Somehow they were managing their life in the
city. It was night, but Sidya had not come home. Jhimli was watching a
dance on TV, through the neighbour’s window. Jatrya did not like
watching TV. Here, everything was so different. The day would pass
running around for work, but the evening brought back old memories.
Thinking of old days:
Jatrya was born in Khedi village, in the middle of thick green jungles and
hills. His people had been living here for many years even before his
grandfather was born. There was peace in Jatrya’s village, but not
silence. There were so many soothing sounds – the gurgle of the flowing
river, the murmur of trees and the chirping of birds. People did farming.
They would go to the nearby forest, chatting and singing together, to
collect wild fruits, roots and dried wood. While working with elders,
children also learnt many things – to dance together, to play flute and
dhol, to make pots of clay and bamboo, to recognize birds and imitate
their sounds, etc. People collected things from the forest for their use.
Some of those they would sell in the town across the river. With that
money they would buy salt, oil and some clothes.
It was a village, but people here lived together like a big family. Jatrya’s
sister was married in the same village. People helped each other, in
good and bad times. The elders would arrange weddings, and settle
quarrels. Jatrya was now a strong young man. He worked hard in the
fields and caught fish from the big river. He and his friends would go to
the forest to collect fruits, roots and plants for medicines, and fish from
the river, to sell these in the town. During festival time, Jatrya would
dance and play the drum, with boys and girls of his age.
Across the river:
One day the people of Khedi heard that a big dam was to be built on the
river. For this, a big wall would be built to stop the flow of the river.
Khedi and many nearby villages in that area would be drowned under
water. The people would have to leave their villages and their lands, on
which their forefathers had lived for centuries.
After a few days, government officials along with the police started
visiting these villages. Small children of the village saw the police for
the first time. Some children would run after them, and some would get
scared and start crying. The officials measured the width and length of
the river, the fields, forests and houses. They called meetings with the
elders of the village. They said, “Villages on the bank of the river would
have to be removed. People having land at Khedi will be given land far
away, on the other side of the river.
They will have everything there – a school, electricity, hospitals, buses,
trains, etc. They will have all that they could not even dream of here in
Khedi.” Jatrya’s parents and most elders were not happy about leaving
their village. Listening to all this, Jatrya would get a little scared, but
also feel excited. He would think that after getting married, he would
take his bride to the new house in the new village.
A house where he could just press a button for the light and turn on the
tap for water. He could go by bus to see the city. When he would have
children, he could send them to school. They will not be like him, who
had never been to school.
What DAM means?
A barrier preventing the flow of water or of loose solid materials (such
as soil or snow) a beaver dam an ice dam especially, civil engineering : a
barrier built across a watercourse for impounding (see impound sense
2) water. b : a barrier to check the flow of liquid, gas, or air.
Benefits of Dams
Dams provide a range of economic, environmental, and social benefits,
including recreation, flood control, water supply, hydroelectric power,
waste management, river navigation, and wildlife habitat.
Advantages of dams:
Dams are said to be an important source of water supply and high
importance for various other reasons. They supply the water for the
various means including domestic use, irrigation purposes and also for
the industrial uses. Dams are also involved in the hydroelectric power
generation and in the river navigation.
A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards
the flow of water, often creating a reservoir, lake. Dams are constructed
for various purposes like hydroelectricity, water storage, monitoring the
river course, etc. If we build a large dam it may create problem among
the local people because:
1. Displacement of local people without rehabilitation.
2. Loss of livelihood of tribal community.
3. Causes serious ecological problems like soil erosion, removal of
a) Environmental problem- One of the major consequence of dam
construction is deforestation leading to loss of biodiversity. This
ultimately is responsible for disturbing the stability of the natural
ecosystem. To deal with this problem, more and more trees should be
b) Social problem- Construction of dams may cause the flooding of
nearby towns and villages. A huge population becomes homeless due to
this. Proper compensation to the affected people should be given by the
c) Economic problem- The construction of dams requires a huge
amount of money. It becomes profitable only when electricity
EFFECT ON HUMAN:
People and their livelihoods are affected when the areas where they live
and work are inundated by a reservoir. For some large reservoirs, tens of
thousands of people have had to leave their homes and set up elsewhere.
In the past, many of these people have not been given adequate
compensation for their losses, and some have not even been given new
places to live. Also, existing communities have been broken up and
moved to different areas.
Some people made their living from farming the land or fishing from
the river. Many of them suffered when they were relocated, as they
were not given new land to work and were too far from a river to fish.
They needed different skills to get another job and training was not
These days, authorities are becoming more aware of these issues.
Resettlement plans have been developed to minimise the disruption and
suffering caused to people in the reservoir area. Good plans make sure
that fair compensation and employment opportunities are provided for all
people, and that the law protects their rights. In some cases, efforts have
been made to resettle people in their communities.
PLANTS AND ANIMALS:
Dams are often constructed across rivers to store water that would
naturally find its way to the lower reaches of the river and into the sea.
The presence of the dam upsets the natural balance of the river, affecting
the animal and plant life in and around it. These are some of the
Upstream of the dam, the river is flooded and becomes a reservoir.
The nature of the river flow downstream is changed. The dam can hold
back sediment that normally finds its way downstream. When the river
valley is inundated with water, animals are forced to leave the area and
plants and trees are killed. Sometimes, rare species can be affected.
For some large reservoir projects, nature reserves have been created.
Plants and trees have been replanted in them and some of the affected
animals have been moved there. However, the reserves can only be really
successful when careful thought has been given to the way that the plants
and animals depend on each other and their environment.
A dam across a river can form a barrier to fish that migrate, such as
salmon. Fish passes can be included in the design of a dam to allow adult
fish to swim upstream to spawn, and back downstream later with their
young. Fish passes usually take the form of a fish ladder or a fish lock.
These fish passes have to be designed very carefully to make sure that
the conditions are right for the fish to use them.
Rivers carry sediment. When a river enters a reservoir, the speed of the
flowing water slows down and sediment can be deposited on the
reservoir bed. Over a number of years, the sediment in the reservoir can
build up, and reduce the space available for storing water. Some of the
sediment held back in the reservoir would normally be carried
downstream. If too much sediment is stored, the natural balance of the
river downstream can be changed, affecting people, wildlife and plants
as far away as the river estuary.
Farming land, used for growing crops, can be deprived of silt and its
nutrients that are normally deposited when the river floods. Nutrients are
important for fertilizing the soil. When designing a dam, the quantity of
sediment that will flow into the reservoir has to be considered. The
reservoir is designed to reduce the amount of sediment deposited, and to
maximize the sediment flow downstream.
The flow of water carrying the sediment can be controlled by carefully
positioning spillways and outlet pipes and tunnels. Sometimes sediment
is allowed to build up in the reservoir. Then periodically, it is removed.
This can be done by letting water out of the reservoir through outlets at
the bottom of the dam, so that the sediment gets flushed out. Sometimes
dredging is used for small reservoirs, but this is an expensive operation.
The quality of water can deteriorate when it is stored in a reservoir.
River water contains dissolved oxygen. Sufficient dissolved oxygen is
needed to maintain aquatic animal and plant life, and to prevent some
types of chemical reactions that form unwanted pollution in the water.
There are many factors that can reduce oxygen levels in a reservoir, for
example, organic material in the water can use up oxygen as it
decomposes (or rots). The depth of the water, its temperature and its
flow can also affect the oxygen levels. The type of land that is inundated
by a reservoir may affect the water quality. Pesticides from farmland and
toxic materials from industrial land can pollute the water. Also, the
streams and rivers flowing into the reservoir may be carrying
The designers of a reservoir have to consider whether any of these
factors will have a significant effect on the quality of the water and
whether they have to include special measures to offset any problems
that could occur.
Throughout history, people have settled and built their communities in
river valleys. This means that many of the world's archaeological sites
and historical buildings and monuments can be found in these areas.
Often they include sacred buildings such as churches and temples and
their burial sites, which can be of great value to the local inhabitants.
Such heritage can be lost forever when a valley is inundated with water
to create a reservoir.
In the past, there have been dam projects where no efforts have been
made to explore or save any of the local heritages. More recently,
special measures have been taken on some projects. They have included:
Intensive archaeological investigations at sites believed to have been
inhabited by ancient civilisations, before dam construction proceeds.
A new place:
It was a summer afternoon. Jatrya was feeling faint in the hot sun and
wind. His feet were burning on the coal tar of the pucca road. There
wasn’t a single tree to offer some shade. Just a few houses and shops.
Jatrya was on his way home after buying medicines. He had an old tyre
on his back. These days, he had to light his stove with just these rubber
pieces of old tyres.
These caught fire fast, and also saved some firewood. But the smoke and
smell of burning trees were terrible! In this new Sinduri village, they
had to pay money for everything— medicines, food, vegetables,
firewood, and fodder for the animals. They could just not afford to buy
kerosene. But from where to get the money for all this? Thinking of all
this, Jatrya reached home. The roof made of a tin sheet made the house
hot like an oven.
Jatrya’s wife had high fever. His daughter Jhimli was rocking her little
brother Sidya to sleep in her lap. After all, there was no other older
person with them. Jatrya’s parents had been so sad about leaving Khedi
that they had died before he moved here. In Sinduri there were only
eight-ten families he could call his own, those from his old village. The
whole village had got scattered and people had gone wherever they had
been given land.
This was not like the new village Jatrya had dreamt about. There was
electricity, but only for sometime in a day. And then, the electricity bill
had also to be paid. There were taps, but no water!
In this village, Jatrya got just one room in a tin shed. It had no place to
keep the animals. He also got a small piece of land. But that was not
good for farming. It was full of rocks and stones. Still Jatrya and his
family worked very hard. But they could not grow much on the field, and
could not make enough money even to buy seeds and fertilizers. In
Khedi, people did not fall sick often.
If someone fell ill there were many people who knew how to treat them
with medicines made from plants. People felt better after taking those
medicines. Here in Sinduri, there was a hospital but it was difficult to
find doctors, and there were no medicines. There was a school here, but
the teacher did not care much about the children from Khedi village.
These children found it difficult to study in a new language.
The people of Sinduri did not welcome the newcomers from Khedi. They
found their language and way of living strange. They made fun of the
Khedi people by calling them ‘unwanted guests’. Not much of what he
had dreamt had come true!
Some years later:
Jatrya stayed for a few years in Sinduri. The children were also getting
older. But Jatrya’s heart was not here in Sinduri. He still missed his old
Khedi. But there was no Khedi now. There was a big dam and a big lake
of collected water in and around Khedi. Jatrya thought, “If we are to be
called ‘unwanted guests’, then at least let us go to some place where our
dreams can come true.”
Jatrya sold his land and his animals and came to Mumbai. Here, he
started a new life with his family. His only dream was to send his
children to school, to give them a better future, a better life. Here too,
things were not easy. But he hoped that things would get better. Jatrya
started saving money to repair his one-room shack. His relatives would
tell him, “Don’t waste money on this. Who knows, we may have to move
from here too.
In Mumbai there is no place to stay for outsiders like us.” Jatrya was
scared and worried. He thought, “We left Khedi for Sinduri, we then left
Sinduri for Mumbai. If we have to move from here too, then where can
we go? In this big city, is there not even a small place for my family to
Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to
another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new
location (geographic region). The movement often occurs over long
distances and from one country to another, but internal migration (within
a single country) is also possible; globally. People may migrate as
individuals, in family units or in large groups.
Explain to students that human migration is the movement of people
from one place in the world to another. Ask: What are some different
types of human movements? Then tell students that people move for
many reasons, and that types of human migration include:
Internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent
External migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent
Emigration: leaving one country to move to another
Immigration: moving into a new country
Return migration: moving back to where you came from
Seasonal migration: moving with each season or in response to labor or
Migration is about the movement of people from place to place. There
are usually push factors and pull factors at work. Find out more about
the reasons behind the trends and migration policy.
Why do people migrate?
People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be
classified as economic, social, political or environmental: economic
migration - moving to find work or follow a particular career path social
migration - moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer
to family or friends political migration - moving to escape political
persecution or war environmental causes of migration include natural
disasters such as flooding.
Some people choose to migrate, eg someone who moves to another
country to enhance their career opportunities. A refugee is someone who
has left their home and does not have a new home to go to. Often
refugees do not carry many possessions with them and do not have a
clear idea of where they may finally settle.
The global migration debate has overlooked the experiences of millions
of people who move between developing countries, according to a new
report that says policymakers are too focused on immigrants in rich
countries and the money they send home to their families.
The 2013 Migration World Report, released on Friday by the
International Organisation for Migration (IOM), draws on data from
the Gallup World Poll to present, for the first time, a global picture of
the gains and losses associated with migration from the perspective of
The report collated data collected by Gallup about the experiences of
25,000 migrants and 441,000 non-migrants in 150 countries.
Respondents were asked what they have gained and lost through
migration, how satisfied they are with their lives, whether they find it
more difficult to find jobs or start a business, and whether they are
likelier to report health problems.
The findings suggested the greatest gains in wellbeing come from
migration to rich countries. Migrants moving from one rich country to
another – the UK to Canada, for instance – reported the highest levels
of life satisfaction, financial security, personal safety, and health. In
contrast, migrants who moved between developing countries – Indonesia
to Malaysia, for example – seemed to fare similarly or worse, according
to the report. They were also identified as the group least likely to feel
optimistic about their lives.
Nearly 30% reported having struggled to afford shelter in the previous
year; 23% said they had money or property stolen. Moreover, health
outcomes within this group were found to be poorer than they would
have been had migrants remained at home.
The report also looked at the experiences of the small but growing
number of people who move from rich countries to developing countries,
including those migrating from the US to Mexico, Germany to Turkey,
and Portugal to Brazil. These people generally find themselves
relatively better off financially but with fewer social contacts, said the
report, which noted that they were less likely to have someone they could
count on for help.
The data suggests that the majority of international migrants are male,
except in the case of movement between rich countries, where the
majority of migrants are female. All migrants – particularly newcomers
– are more likely to experience sadness, according to the data.
The report comes amid a growing debate on how the benefits of
migration can best be "harnessed" for development and calls for
discussions to go beyond the focus on remittances, which are thought to
be worth more than $500bn worldwide or more than three times global
"Has migration made the migrant better off?" should be a central
question, argues the report, which calls for an examination of how
migration more broadly affects human development. According to
Gallup data only 8% of adult migrants in developing countries, and 27%
in rich countries, reported sending "financial help" to family in another
The UN general assembly will hold a special high-level dialogue on
international migration and development in New York this October,
which will feed into ongoing discussions about what should succeed the
millennium development goals when they expire in 2015.
Figures released earlier this week suggest the number of international
migrants reached 232 million in 2013, up from 175 million in 2000 and
154 million in 1990. An estimated 82.3 million migrants from
developing countries were living in other developing countries in 2013,
with an almost equal number living in rich countries. The number of
people from rich countries living in developing countries was estimated
at 13.7 million.
Migrants from developing countries to rich countries represented 40% of
the total surveyed by Gallup, followed by migrants between developing
countries (33%), between rich countries (22%), and from rich countries
to developing countries (5%). The report suggested the development of
an ongoing "global migration barometer" survey to monitor the
wellbeing of the growing number of people who have crossed borders to
live and work
"Existing international migration data currently tell us very little about
the wellbeing of migrants, and whether human development outcomes
for migrants are improving or not," it says. The Gallup poll did not
collect data specifically about certain vulnerable groups of migrants,
such as victims of trafficking, stranded migrants, and undocumented