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He would help some memsahib (lady) to carry her bags, or go to the railway station to pick up empty bottles and newspapers to sell to the kabadiwalla (junk seller). Somehow they were managing their life in the city. It was night, but Sidya had not come home. Jhimli was watching a dance on TV, through the neighbour’s window. Jatrya did not like watching TV. Here, everything was so different. The day would pass running around for work, but the evening brought back old memories.

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  1. 1. Jatryabhai Jatryabhai was sitting at the door with his daughter Jhimli. They were waiting for Sidya. It was almost night but Sidya had not come home. Two years back Jatrya’s family came to Mumbai from Sinduri village. Here, they only knew the family of a distant relative. With their help, Jatryabhai began to repair torn fishing nets.
  2. 2. But the money he got was not enough. They had to pay for the medicines, food, school fees and rent for the house. Here, they even had to buy water. Young Sidya also had to work in the nearby fish factory to earn some money. From four o’clock till seven o’clock in the morning, he cleaned and sorted the big and small fish. Then he would come home, take a nap, and go to school in the afternoon. In the evening he would wander around the vegetable market.
  3. 3. He would help some memsahib (lady) to carry her bags, or go to the railway station to pick up empty bottles and newspapers to sell to the kabadiwalla (junk seller). Somehow they were managing their life in the city. It was night, but Sidya had not come home. Jhimli was watching a dance on TV, through the neighbour’s window. Jatrya did not like watching TV. Here, everything was so different. The day would pass running around for work, but the evening brought back old memories.
  4. 4. Thinking of old days: Jatrya was born in Khedi village, in the middle of thick green jungles and hills. His people had been living here for many years even before his grandfather was born. There was peace in Jatrya’s village, but not silence. There were so many soothing sounds – the gurgle of the flowing river, the murmur of trees and the chirping of birds. People did farming.
  5. 5. They would go to the nearby forest, chatting and singing together, to collect wild fruits, roots and dried wood. While working with elders, children also learnt many things – to dance together, to play flute and dhol, to make pots of clay and bamboo, to recognize birds and imitate their sounds, etc. People collected things from the forest for their use. Some of those they would sell in the town across the river. With that money they would buy salt, oil and some clothes.
  6. 6. It was a village, but people here lived together like a big family. Jatrya’s sister was married in the same village. People helped each other, in good and bad times. The elders would arrange weddings, and settle quarrels. Jatrya was now a strong young man. He worked hard in the fields and caught fish from the big river. He and his friends would go to the forest to collect fruits, roots and plants for medicines, and fish from the river, to sell these in the town. During festival time, Jatrya would dance and play the drum, with boys and girls of his age.
  7. 7. Across the river: One day the people of Khedi heard that a big dam was to be built on the river. For this, a big wall would be built to stop the flow of the river. Khedi and many nearby villages in that area would be drowned under water. The people would have to leave their villages and their lands, on which their forefathers had lived for centuries.
  8. 8. After a few days, government officials along with the police started visiting these villages. Small children of the village saw the police for the first time. Some children would run after them, and some would get scared and start crying. The officials measured the width and length of the river, the fields, forests and houses. They called meetings with the elders of the village. They said, “Villages on the bank of the river would have to be removed. People having land at Khedi will be given land far away, on the other side of the river.
  9. 9. They will have everything there – a school, electricity, hospitals, buses, trains, etc. They will have all that they could not even dream of here in Khedi.” Jatrya’s parents and most elders were not happy about leaving their village. Listening to all this, Jatrya would get a little scared, but also feel excited. He would think that after getting married, he would take his bride to the new house in the new village.
  10. 10. A house where he could just press a button for the light and turn on the tap for water. He could go by bus to see the city. When he would have children, he could send them to school. They will not be like him, who had never been to school.
  11. 11. Constructing Dams: What DAM means? A barrier preventing the flow of water or of loose solid materials (such as soil or snow) a beaver dam an ice dam especially, civil engineering : a barrier built across a watercourse for impounding (see impound sense 2) water. b : a barrier to check the flow of liquid, gas, or air.
  12. 12. Benefits of Dams Dams provide a range of economic, environmental, and social benefits, including recreation, flood control, water supply, hydroelectric power, waste management, river navigation, and wildlife habitat.
  13. 13. Advantages of dams: Dams are said to be an important source of water supply and high importance for various other reasons. They supply the water for the various means including domestic use, irrigation purposes and also for the industrial uses. Dams are also involved in the hydroelectric power generation and in the river navigation.
  14. 14. A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow of water, often creating a reservoir, lake. Dams are constructed for various purposes like hydroelectricity, water storage, monitoring the river course, etc. If we build a large dam it may create problem among the local people because: 1. Displacement of local people without rehabilitation. 2. Loss of livelihood of tribal community. 3. Causes serious ecological problems like soil erosion, removal of forest etc.
  15. 15. a) Environmental problem- One of the major consequence of dam construction is deforestation leading to loss of biodiversity. This ultimately is responsible for disturbing the stability of the natural ecosystem. To deal with this problem, more and more trees should be planted.
  16. 16. b) Social problem- Construction of dams may cause the flooding of nearby towns and villages. A huge population becomes homeless due to this. Proper compensation to the affected people should be given by the government.
  17. 17. c) Economic problem- The construction of dams requires a huge amount of money. It becomes profitable only when electricity production starts.
  18. 18. EFFECT ON HUMAN: People and their livelihoods are affected when the areas where they live and work are inundated by a reservoir. For some large reservoirs, tens of thousands of people have had to leave their homes and set up elsewhere. In the past, many of these people have not been given adequate compensation for their losses, and some have not even been given new places to live. Also, existing communities have been broken up and moved to different areas.
  19. 19. Some people made their living from farming the land or fishing from the river. Many of them suffered when they were relocated, as they were not given new land to work and were too far from a river to fish. They needed different skills to get another job and training was not always provided.
  20. 20. These days, authorities are becoming more aware of these issues. Resettlement plans have been developed to minimise the disruption and suffering caused to people in the reservoir area. Good plans make sure that fair compensation and employment opportunities are provided for all people, and that the law protects their rights. In some cases, efforts have been made to resettle people in their communities.
  21. 21. PLANTS AND ANIMALS: Dams are often constructed across rivers to store water that would naturally find its way to the lower reaches of the river and into the sea. The presence of the dam upsets the natural balance of the river, affecting the animal and plant life in and around it. These are some of the reasons.
  22. 22. Upstream of the dam, the river is flooded and becomes a reservoir. The nature of the river flow downstream is changed. The dam can hold back sediment that normally finds its way downstream. When the river valley is inundated with water, animals are forced to leave the area and plants and trees are killed. Sometimes, rare species can be affected.
  23. 23. For some large reservoir projects, nature reserves have been created. Plants and trees have been replanted in them and some of the affected animals have been moved there. However, the reserves can only be really successful when careful thought has been given to the way that the plants and animals depend on each other and their environment.
  24. 24. A dam across a river can form a barrier to fish that migrate, such as salmon. Fish passes can be included in the design of a dam to allow adult fish to swim upstream to spawn, and back downstream later with their young. Fish passes usually take the form of a fish ladder or a fish lock. These fish passes have to be designed very carefully to make sure that the conditions are right for the fish to use them.
  25. 25. Sedimentation: Rivers carry sediment. When a river enters a reservoir, the speed of the flowing water slows down and sediment can be deposited on the reservoir bed. Over a number of years, the sediment in the reservoir can build up, and reduce the space available for storing water. Some of the sediment held back in the reservoir would normally be carried downstream. If too much sediment is stored, the natural balance of the river downstream can be changed, affecting people, wildlife and plants as far away as the river estuary.
  26. 26. Farming land, used for growing crops, can be deprived of silt and its nutrients that are normally deposited when the river floods. Nutrients are important for fertilizing the soil. When designing a dam, the quantity of sediment that will flow into the reservoir has to be considered. The reservoir is designed to reduce the amount of sediment deposited, and to maximize the sediment flow downstream.
  27. 27. The flow of water carrying the sediment can be controlled by carefully positioning spillways and outlet pipes and tunnels. Sometimes sediment is allowed to build up in the reservoir. Then periodically, it is removed. This can be done by letting water out of the reservoir through outlets at the bottom of the dam, so that the sediment gets flushed out. Sometimes dredging is used for small reservoirs, but this is an expensive operation.
  28. 28. Water quality: The quality of water can deteriorate when it is stored in a reservoir. River water contains dissolved oxygen. Sufficient dissolved oxygen is needed to maintain aquatic animal and plant life, and to prevent some types of chemical reactions that form unwanted pollution in the water.
  29. 29. There are many factors that can reduce oxygen levels in a reservoir, for example, organic material in the water can use up oxygen as it decomposes (or rots). The depth of the water, its temperature and its flow can also affect the oxygen levels. The type of land that is inundated by a reservoir may affect the water quality. Pesticides from farmland and toxic materials from industrial land can pollute the water. Also, the streams and rivers flowing into the reservoir may be carrying pollutants.
  30. 30. The designers of a reservoir have to consider whether any of these factors will have a significant effect on the quality of the water and whether they have to include special measures to offset any problems that could occur.
  31. 31. Historical sites: Throughout history, people have settled and built their communities in river valleys. This means that many of the world's archaeological sites and historical buildings and monuments can be found in these areas. Often they include sacred buildings such as churches and temples and their burial sites, which can be of great value to the local inhabitants. Such heritage can be lost forever when a valley is inundated with water to create a reservoir.
  32. 32. In the past, there have been dam projects where no efforts have been made to explore or save any of the local heritages. More recently, special measures have been taken on some projects. They have included: Intensive archaeological investigations at sites believed to have been inhabited by ancient civilisations, before dam construction proceeds.
  33. 33. A new place: It was a summer afternoon. Jatrya was feeling faint in the hot sun and wind. His feet were burning on the coal tar of the pucca road. There wasn’t a single tree to offer some shade. Just a few houses and shops. Jatrya was on his way home after buying medicines. He had an old tyre on his back. These days, he had to light his stove with just these rubber pieces of old tyres.
  34. 34. These caught fire fast, and also saved some firewood. But the smoke and smell of burning trees were terrible! In this new Sinduri village, they had to pay money for everything— medicines, food, vegetables, firewood, and fodder for the animals. They could just not afford to buy kerosene. But from where to get the money for all this? Thinking of all this, Jatrya reached home. The roof made of a tin sheet made the house hot like an oven.
  35. 35. Jatrya’s wife had high fever. His daughter Jhimli was rocking her little brother Sidya to sleep in her lap. After all, there was no other older person with them. Jatrya’s parents had been so sad about leaving Khedi that they had died before he moved here. In Sinduri there were only eight-ten families he could call his own, those from his old village. The whole village had got scattered and people had gone wherever they had been given land.
  36. 36. This was not like the new village Jatrya had dreamt about. There was electricity, but only for sometime in a day. And then, the electricity bill had also to be paid. There were taps, but no water!
  37. 37. In this village, Jatrya got just one room in a tin shed. It had no place to keep the animals. He also got a small piece of land. But that was not good for farming. It was full of rocks and stones. Still Jatrya and his family worked very hard. But they could not grow much on the field, and could not make enough money even to buy seeds and fertilizers. In Khedi, people did not fall sick often.
  38. 38. If someone fell ill there were many people who knew how to treat them with medicines made from plants. People felt better after taking those medicines. Here in Sinduri, there was a hospital but it was difficult to find doctors, and there were no medicines. There was a school here, but the teacher did not care much about the children from Khedi village. These children found it difficult to study in a new language.
  39. 39. The people of Sinduri did not welcome the newcomers from Khedi. They found their language and way of living strange. They made fun of the Khedi people by calling them ‘unwanted guests’. Not much of what he had dreamt had come true!
  40. 40. Some years later: Jatrya stayed for a few years in Sinduri. The children were also getting older. But Jatrya’s heart was not here in Sinduri. He still missed his old Khedi. But there was no Khedi now. There was a big dam and a big lake of collected water in and around Khedi. Jatrya thought, “If we are to be called ‘unwanted guests’, then at least let us go to some place where our dreams can come true.”
  41. 41. Jatrya sold his land and his animals and came to Mumbai. Here, he started a new life with his family. His only dream was to send his children to school, to give them a better future, a better life. Here too, things were not easy. But he hoped that things would get better. Jatrya started saving money to repair his one-room shack. His relatives would tell him, “Don’t waste money on this. Who knows, we may have to move from here too.
  42. 42. In Mumbai there is no place to stay for outsiders like us.” Jatrya was scared and worried. He thought, “We left Khedi for Sinduri, we then left Sinduri for Mumbai. If we have to move from here too, then where can we go? In this big city, is there not even a small place for my family to stay?”
  43. 43. HUMAN MIGRATION: Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location (geographic region). The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration (within a single country) is also possible; globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.
  44. 44. Explain to students that human migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another. Ask: What are some different types of human movements? Then tell students that people move for many reasons, and that types of human migration include:
  45. 45. Internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent External migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent Emigration: leaving one country to move to another Immigration: moving into a new country Return migration: moving back to where you came from Seasonal migration: moving with each season or in response to labor or climate conditions
  46. 46. Migration trends Migration is about the movement of people from place to place. There are usually push factors and pull factors at work. Find out more about the reasons behind the trends and migration policy.
  47. 47. Why do people migrate? People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be classified as economic, social, political or environmental: economic migration - moving to find work or follow a particular career path social migration - moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends political migration - moving to escape political persecution or war environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding.
  48. 48. Some people choose to migrate, eg someone who moves to another country to enhance their career opportunities. A refugee is someone who has left their home and does not have a new home to go to. Often refugees do not carry many possessions with them and do not have a clear idea of where they may finally settle.
  49. 49. The global migration debate has overlooked the experiences of millions of people who move between developing countries, according to a new report that says policymakers are too focused on immigrants in rich countries and the money they send home to their families.
  50. 50. The 2013 Migration World Report, released on Friday by the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), draws on data from the Gallup World Poll to present, for the first time, a global picture of the gains and losses associated with migration from the perspective of migrants themselves.
  51. 51. The report collated data collected by Gallup about the experiences of 25,000 migrants and 441,000 non-migrants in 150 countries. Respondents were asked what they have gained and lost through migration, how satisfied they are with their lives, whether they find it more difficult to find jobs or start a business, and whether they are likelier to report health problems.
  52. 52. The findings suggested the greatest gains in wellbeing come from migration to rich countries. Migrants moving from one rich country to another – the UK to Canada, for instance – reported the highest levels of life satisfaction, financial security, personal safety, and health. In contrast, migrants who moved between developing countries – Indonesia to Malaysia, for example – seemed to fare similarly or worse, according to the report. They were also identified as the group least likely to feel optimistic about their lives.
  53. 53. Nearly 30% reported having struggled to afford shelter in the previous year; 23% said they had money or property stolen. Moreover, health outcomes within this group were found to be poorer than they would have been had migrants remained at home.
  54. 54. The report also looked at the experiences of the small but growing number of people who move from rich countries to developing countries, including those migrating from the US to Mexico, Germany to Turkey, and Portugal to Brazil. These people generally find themselves relatively better off financially but with fewer social contacts, said the report, which noted that they were less likely to have someone they could count on for help.
  55. 55. The data suggests that the majority of international migrants are male, except in the case of movement between rich countries, where the majority of migrants are female. All migrants – particularly newcomers – are more likely to experience sadness, according to the data.
  56. 56. The report comes amid a growing debate on how the benefits of migration can best be "harnessed" for development and calls for discussions to go beyond the focus on remittances, which are thought to be worth more than $500bn worldwide or more than three times global aid flows.
  57. 57. "Has migration made the migrant better off?" should be a central question, argues the report, which calls for an examination of how migration more broadly affects human development. According to Gallup data only 8% of adult migrants in developing countries, and 27% in rich countries, reported sending "financial help" to family in another country.
  58. 58. The UN general assembly will hold a special high-level dialogue on international migration and development in New York this October, which will feed into ongoing discussions about what should succeed the millennium development goals when they expire in 2015.
  59. 59. Figures released earlier this week suggest the number of international migrants reached 232 million in 2013, up from 175 million in 2000 and 154 million in 1990. An estimated 82.3 million migrants from developing countries were living in other developing countries in 2013, with an almost equal number living in rich countries. The number of people from rich countries living in developing countries was estimated at 13.7 million.
  60. 60. Migrants from developing countries to rich countries represented 40% of the total surveyed by Gallup, followed by migrants between developing countries (33%), between rich countries (22%), and from rich countries to developing countries (5%). The report suggested the development of an ongoing "global migration barometer" survey to monitor the wellbeing of the growing number of people who have crossed borders to live and work
  61. 61. "Existing international migration data currently tell us very little about the wellbeing of migrants, and whether human development outcomes for migrants are improving or not," it says. The Gallup poll did not collect data specifically about certain vulnerable groups of migrants, such as victims of trafficking, stranded migrants, and undocumented migrants.