LIKE FATHER, LIKE DAUGHTER - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES CBSE-V
Does your face or anything else look similar to that of someone else in your family? What is it? Did someone tell you this or did you find it out yourself? How do you feel when people compare you with someone else in your family? Why do you feel so? Who laughs the loudest in your family? Laugh like that person.
LIKE FATHER, LIKE DAUGHTER - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES CBSE-V
Ashima was sitting near the window and reading. It was windy and
there was a lot of dust in the air. Suddenly Ashima sneezed loudly—
aaa chhee! Ashima’s parents were sorting out vegetables in the
kitchen. Her mother said, “She sneezes just like you do. If you were
not here, I would have thought it was your sneeze.”
Does your face or anything else look similar to that of someone else in
your family? What is it? Did someone tell you this or did you find it out
yourself? How do you feel when people compare you with someone else
in your family? Why do you feel so? Who laughs the loudest in your
family? Laugh like that person.
Who is whose aunt:
Nilima had gone to the house of her nani (mother’s mother) in the school
holidays. She saw someone coming and went to tell her mother, “Amma,
a mausi (mother's sister) has come to meet you.” Her mother came out to
see who had come. She told Nilima, “No, this is not your mausi ! She is
your sister Kiran. You know your eldest nani ? Kiran is the daughter of
her elder son. Kiran is your cousin sister. In fact, you are her cute son
Samir’s mausi !”
How we are all related!
Nilima started playing with Samir. Her mother called Kiran and said,
“See, my Nilima’s hair is a lot like yours – thick, curly and black. It’s
good she does not have hair like mine – straight, limp and brown!”
Nilima’s nani laughed and said, “Yes, isn’t it strange? We sisters had
thick curly hair and now our second generation has similar hair.” Nilima
was listening to all this. She thought, “We are called ‘distant’ relatives,
but, how closely related we are in many ways!”
We learn so many things when we come to school. But do you know
which is our first school? Yes, it is our family. We learn so many things
from our family – much before we learn from anywhere else. This is
because we are so close to our family. But we really never give it a
thought. Let us think about our family and talk about it.
In this family we can see mother, father, grandmother, grandfather,
sister, brother, uncle, aunt and their children. This is large family. We can
called this families are Joint-family.
In this picture we can see only four members mother, father, sister and
brother. This is a small family. This type families we can called nuclear
Family and their relation
MOTHER’S OR FATHER’S SON BROTHER
MOTHER’S OR FATHER’S DAUGHTER SISTER
MOTHER’S OR FATHER’S BROTHER UNCLE
MOTHER’S OR FATHER’S SISTER AUNT
MOTHER’S OR FATHER’S MOTHER GRAND MOTHER
MOTHER’S OR FATHER’S FATHER GRAND FATHER
SON’S WIFE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW
DAUGHTER’S HUSBAND SON-IN-LAW
HUSBAND’S OR WIFE SISTER SISTER-IN-LAW
HUSBAND’S OR WIFE’S BROTHER BROTHER-IN-LAW
BROTHER’S SON NEPHEW
BROTHER’S DAUGHTER NIECE
UNCLE OR AUNT SON OR DAUGHTER COUSIN
SISTER’S HUSBAND BROTHER-IN-LAW
BROTHER’S WIFE SISTER-IN-LAW
GRANDSON’S OR GRANDDAUGHTER’S SON GREAT GRAND SON
Is this a mirror?
Look at the next page. Is Saroja standing in front of a mirror? No, this is
her twin! Did you get confused? Their mother's brother (mama) also gets
confused when he sees them together.
At times Saroja gets scolded for mischief done by Suvasini. Sometimes
Suvasini tricks her mama and says, “Suvasini has gone out.” But now
mama has learnt a trick. He says – Sing a song in Marathi ! Why this
Read about them and you will understand. The sisters were just two
weeks old when Saroja's father's brother's wife (chachi) adopted her and
took her to Pune. Everyone in chachi's house is very fond of music.
Mornings begin with music in the house. Saroja knows many songs in
both languages – Tamil and Marathi.
At home everyone speaks Tamil and at school most children speak in
Marathi. Suvasini stays with her father in Chennai. Her father is a karate
coach. Since she was three, Suvasini started doing karate with the other
children. On holidays, both father and daughter start practicing in the
morning. Saroja and Suvasini look alike but are also quite different.
Do you now know why mama has his way of finding out who is who?
Saroja and Suvasini look a lot like each other yet are different. For
example, Saroja knows two languages. If Suvasini's family also talked in
two languages she could also learn both. We learn many things like
language, music, love for reading, or knitting, when we get a chance
and an environment to do so.
Satti was only a few months old when one of her legs was affected by
polio. But she never let this come in the way of her work and her life.
Walking long distances and climbing many stairs has been a part of her
work. Now Satti is married. Some people tell her not to have any
children. She is also worried that her children may also get polio. She
spoke to a doctor about this.
8 Traits Babies Inherit From Their Mother
When you're anxiously awaiting your little one's arrival, you’ll probably
wonder not only what they will look like, but how they’ll act, talk,
walk, and more. Here are eight traits your baby will inherit from their
Your baby can inherit a lot more than just hair color and physical
features from its parents. As you await the arrival of your new baby,
you’ll probably wonder not only what they will look like, but how they’ll
act, talk, walk, and more. Thankfully, studying genetics has allowed us
to pinpoint which of these traits come from which parent, so you can
narrow down exactly who your little one got those dimples from.
Between tossing and turning, insomnia, and even being a fan of n
babies can aps, pick up on these from mom during nap time and turn
them into their own lifelong sleep habits. Monkey see, monkey do!
While it is most likely that the baby will inherit the dominant over
recessive genes, the color of a mother’s hair can also say a lot about
what the hairs on your little one will look like.
Like hair color, your little one is more likely to inherit the texture of
their mother’s hair over their father, so your curls could definitely carry
over to the baby!
Will your little one not stop crying or screaming? You may have
yourself to thank (or blame) for that! While their environment does play
a part in this, new studies have indicated that genetic makeup could play
a larger role in your baby’s temperament.
While having two parents who are left-handed could all but guarantee
that their baby would too be left-handed, if only the mother is a lefty,
your baby likely will be too!
If you suffer from migraines, there could be a higher chance that your
little one will too one day.
Sorry, dads! A new study shows that because intelligence is carried over
into the baby with two X chromosomes from the mother and one from
the father, this could have an effect on the baby’s level of intelligence. A
second study showed that despite education, race and socio-economic
class, the IQ level of the mother could be a good indicator for that of a
baby. Most often, babies are a perfectly intricate mix of both parents,
but there are still more than a few things they could pick up from just
mom or dad. Does your little one have any traits from you?
Healthy Eating Habits:
What you feed your body and baby during pregnancy isn’t just
important while you’re in the womb, it could have lifelong effects on
your little one! One study done in rats showed that a poor pregnancy diet
could affect a gene linked to insulin production, which could increase
their risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. While the same study has yet to
be tested on humans, it’s best to be safe!
8 Traits Inherit From Their Father:
When you're anxiously awaiting your little one's arrival, you’ll probably
wonder not only what they will look like, but how they’ll act, talk, walk,
and more. Here are eight traits your baby will inherit from their dad.
Surprises in Nature:
Genetics is a funny thing! I’ve seen two people who were so sure that
their baby was going to be a huge linebacker, but when the time came, a
sweet petite little girl slipped into this world. Obviously, everyone was
shocked, but more than anything, mom was pleasantly surprised. It was,
also, a blatant reminder that we are all just big equations and it takes only
a shift in DNA coding to create a brand new person.
One more important thing to know is that a recent study found that men
are four times more likely to have mutations because they continue to
produce sperm as they age, but women are born with all of the eggs they
will ever need. Age plays a role in both male and female reproduction.
Here are seven traits that your baby is likely to inherit from their father:
Physical appearance as a whole is heavily biased towards expressing
your father-given genes and there’s much thought that this is due to
survival of the fittest. Back when our survival depended on physical
endurance and stamina, it was preferred for females to partner with a
physically superior males.
If your pop has a mouthful of cavities, it could be that you’re looking at
a life filled with trips to the dentist. Better check for a rewards cards!
Women swoon over dimples. They are like precious accessories on an
already tall drink of water! Good news about these sweet cheeks is that
they are dominant, so your child is likely to have dimples, too.
Particularly, webbed toes if dad is a carrier of Apart syndrome gene and
is over 40 years old.
There is a belief that this is a sneaky way that nature designed to be a
way for males to identify their offspring. This could be a fun genetic
expression that is still around from hunting and gathering days.
Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are among the list of
psychological conditions that are passed down via the “Y Linkage.” This
is a peculiar relationship that happens when a father passes along a
mental health condition (on the Y chromosome) to their son.
You’re more likely to share your dominant hand with your father over
your mother if one is left-handed and one is right-handed. Add this to the
list after your child being your husband’s identical twin, their first word
being ‘dada,’ and always looks 10x more delighted to see their father!
All jokes aside, nature was designed specifically to create varying
equations resulting in varying humans. This is yet a beautiful reminder
to never judge other people-- especially people you know nothing about.
You never know what is going on in their world--literally and
genetically. We are all very complex individuals and the way we are
wired is unique to each individual.
I’ll leave you with this: You are exactly who you are supposed to be and
you’re rocking being you. You can do this. You are doing this.
Wondering what type of personality your baby will have? You or your
partner's? Check out this genetic explanation of how personality is
Scientists used to think people had up to 100,000 genes -- until the
Human Genome Project revealed that we actually have closer to 25,000.
Why the huge overestimate? It turns out most genes are multitaskers and
do their jobs by marshalling other genes -- turning them on and off or
boosting their effects -- so we need fewer genes overall.
Fingerprint ridge count
Epilepsy (some forms)
Type 2 diabetes
Maximum heart rate
Type 1 diabetes
Some from the family, some from the environment From a distance
Vibha knows that her nana (grandfather) is coming – from his loud
laughter. Nana also talks loudly and hears with difficulty. Are there
people in your house who talk loudly? Is it their habit, or they cannot
also hear very well? Are there times when you do not talk loudly in front
of some people? When? With whom? Why? When can you speak loudly?
Some people use a machine in their ear to help them hear better. Some
use a stick or spectacles to help them in other ways. Do you know
someone who does so? We have seen that some traits or habits we get
from our family. Some things and skills we learn from our environment.
At times our abilities change because of some illness or old age. All
these together make us what we are!
Genes and genetics:
Related parents are more likely than unrelated parents to have children
with health problems or genetic conditions. This is because the two
parents share one or more common ancestors and so carry some of the
same genetic material. If both partners carry the same inherited gene
change, their children are more likely to have a genetic condition.
Experiments with peas:
Gregor Mendel was born in a poor farmer’s family in Austria in 1822.
He was very fond of studies but the very thought of examinations made
him nervous (Oh! you too feel the same!). He did not have money to
study at the University so he thought of becoming a ‘monk’ in a
monastery. He thought from there he would be sent to study further.
Which he was. But to become a science teacher he had to take an exam.
Oh no! he got so nervous that he kept running away from the exam, and
But he did not stop doing experiments. For seven years he did
experiments on 28,000 plants in the garden of the monastery. He
worked hard, collected many observations, and made a new discovery!
Something which scientists at that time could not even understand! They
understood it many years after his death, when other scientists did such
experiments and read what Mendel had already written. What did
Mendel find in those plants? He found that the pea plant has some traits
which come in pairs.
Like the seed is either rough or smooth. It is either yellow or green,
and the height of the plant is either tall or short. Nothing in between. The
next generation (the children) of a plant which has either rough or
smooth seeds will also have seeds which are rough or smooth. There is
no seed which is mixed a bit smooth and a bit rough. He found the same
with colour. Seeds which are either green or yellow give rise to new
seeds which are either green or yellow.
The next generation does not have seeds with a mixed new colour made
from both green and yellow. Mendel showed that in the next generation
of pea plants there will be more plants having yellow seeds. He also
showed that the next generation will have more plants with smooth
seeds. What a discovery!
In this web lab, students experiment with garden pea plants (Pisum
sativum) as did Austrian monk Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Mendel
chose to experiment with peas because they possessed four important
qualities: Peas had been shown to be true-breeding (all offspring will
have the same characteristic generation after generation). Peas exhibit
a variety of contrasting traits (purple vs. white flowers; round vs.
wrinkled seeds). The shape of the pea flower protected it from foreign
pollen. Peas usually reproduce by self-pollination, in which pollen
produced by a flower fertilizes eggs in the same flower.
Pea plants grow quickly and do not require much space.
The traits that Mendel studied are listed below:
Form of ripe seed (R) – smooth or wrinkled
Color of seed albumen (Y) – yellow or green
Color of flower (P) – purple or white
Form of ripe pods (I) – inflated or constricted
Color of unripe pods (G) – green or yellow
Position of flowers (A) – axial or terminal
Length of stem (T) – tall or dwarf
Mendel is the guide for students throughout the web lab. When he first
appears, he says, “Hello. My name is Gregor Mendel. I lived in Austria
in the 1800s long before anyone knew about genes and genetics. I
experimented with plants to study how traits are passed from parents to
offspring ad discovered the basic rules of inheritance that are still used in
your textbooks today. Come and try some of my experiments to see what
you can discover about inheritance.
The next text reads, “I used pea plants because they grow quickly and
easily, and it is easy to see and recognize their different traits.” This
section of the web lab allows students to explore the traits on which
Mendel experimented, then cross pea plants to see what offspring they
Mendel urges students to, “Plant five pea plants and observe what they
look like.” Each of the pea plants quickly sprouts. By rolling over the
plants with the cursor, the student can see the color of the pea pod, the
shape of the pod, and the color and form of the ripe seed.
All of the different variations of pea plant can be seen in these growing
peas, although the plants are randomly chosen each time the application
is run. After they have planted and grown five plants, Mendel asks
students how many distinguishing traits they see in the plants. On the
next screen, he reveals that there are seven different traits:
Pea shape (round or wrinkled)
Pea color (green or yellow)
Pod shape (constricted or inflated)
Pod color (green or yellow)
Flower color (purple or white)
Plant size (tall or dwarf)
Position of flowers (axial or terminal)
In this section of the web lab, students explore plant crosses and predict
what the offspring of these crosses will look like. A plant with round
peas and a random assortment of other traits appears on the screen.
Mendel says “Cross this plant with itself. What pea shapes do the
When the student drags the plant into one of the Parent boxes, the Cross
button appears. When the student clicks the Cross button, five offspring
grow. Some of the offspring from the plant with round peas have
wrinkled peas. Mendel then asks, “Were you surprised that a plant with
round peas produced some offspring with wrinkled peas?”
Mendel appears and says, “What did you learn about your peas?”
Students will probably recognize that, while a plant with round peas
produced some offspring with wrinkled peas, the plant with wrinkled
peas produced only offspring with wrinkled peas. This is one key to
Mendel’s experimentation—a trait that was not apparent in a parent
generation appeared in the F1 generation.
Mendel then explains the concept of dominant and recessive alleles by
saying, “By performing my experiments with peas, I learned a lot about
genetics and how traits are passed on. I noticed that sometimes offspring
seem to have traits that their parents did not show. I called the traits that
appeared to mask (or hide) other traits dominant. I called traits that
seemed to be hidden recessive.”
In this section of the web lab,
students experiment with pea plants
to try to discover which alleles are
dominant and which are recessive.
Using four different pea plants,
students can cross plants with
themselves or with each other to
determine dominance. One strategy
that students might employ is to cross
plants with themselves—offspring
that show a different trait than the
parent of such a cross possess the
recessive allele (which was hidden by
the dominant allele in the parent
Mendel says, “Using these plants, figure
out how the trait for flower color is
passed on. Which color is dominant,
white or purple? This is a pedigree. You
can cross plants with themselves or with
When a student clicks on one of the
plant symbols (a white or a black box),
the cross button appears. If the student
selects two plants, then the two plants
are crossed and the offspring appear
below. If a student selects only one plant
and clicks the Cross button, then the
plant self-fertilizes and the offspring
appear below. Students can cross plants
as many times as they want before
deciding which allele is dominant.
Back To Mendel's Experiment Directory
Students can explore all seven of the pea
traits that Mendel explored in this
section. Four pea plants appear in the
pedigree and students can select which
trait they are looking at with the pull
down menu in the upper left corner of
the screen. When students have
determined which alleles are dominant,
they can record their choices in their
notepads by clicking on the View
Notepad button. The Check button
allows students to check the answers
they have input into their notepads. The
following table shows each of the traits
and which traits are dominant and which
Trait Dominant Expression Recessive Expression
Form of ripe seed (R) Smooth Wrinkled
Color of seed albumen (Y)
Color of flower (P) Purple White
Form of ripe pods (I) Inflated Constricted
Color of unripe pods (G) Green Yellow
Position of flowers (A) Axial Terminal
Length of stem (T) Tall Dwarf