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Does your face or anything else look similar to that of someone else in your family? What is it? Did someone tell you this or did you find it out yourself? How do you feel when people compare you with someone else in your family? Why do you feel so? Who laughs the loudest in your family? Laugh like that person.

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  1. 1. Aaa chhee! Ashima was sitting near the window and reading. It was windy and there was a lot of dust in the air. Suddenly Ashima sneezed loudly— aaa chhee! Ashima’s parents were sorting out vegetables in the kitchen. Her mother said, “She sneezes just like you do. If you were not here, I would have thought it was your sneeze.”
  2. 2. Tell Does your face or anything else look similar to that of someone else in your family? What is it? Did someone tell you this or did you find it out yourself? How do you feel when people compare you with someone else in your family? Why do you feel so? Who laughs the loudest in your family? Laugh like that person.
  3. 3. Who is whose aunt: Nilima had gone to the house of her nani (mother’s mother) in the school holidays. She saw someone coming and went to tell her mother, “Amma, a mausi (mother's sister) has come to meet you.” Her mother came out to see who had come. She told Nilima, “No, this is not your mausi ! She is your sister Kiran. You know your eldest nani ? Kiran is the daughter of her elder son. Kiran is your cousin sister. In fact, you are her cute son Samir’s mausi !”
  4. 4. How we are all related! Nilima started playing with Samir. Her mother called Kiran and said, “See, my Nilima’s hair is a lot like yours – thick, curly and black. It’s good she does not have hair like mine – straight, limp and brown!” Nilima’s nani laughed and said, “Yes, isn’t it strange? We sisters had thick curly hair and now our second generation has similar hair.” Nilima was listening to all this. She thought, “We are called ‘distant’ relatives, but, how closely related we are in many ways!”
  5. 5. We learn so many things when we come to school. But do you know which is our first school? Yes, it is our family. We learn so many things from our family – much before we learn from anywhere else. This is because we are so close to our family. But we really never give it a thought. Let us think about our family and talk about it.
  6. 6. In this family we can see mother, father, grandmother, grandfather, sister, brother, uncle, aunt and their children. This is large family. We can called this families are Joint-family.
  7. 7. In this picture we can see only four members mother, father, sister and brother. This is a small family. This type families we can called nuclear family.
  9. 9. Is this a mirror? Look at the next page. Is Saroja standing in front of a mirror? No, this is her twin! Did you get confused? Their mother's brother (mama) also gets confused when he sees them together.
  10. 10. At times Saroja gets scolded for mischief done by Suvasini. Sometimes Suvasini tricks her mama and says, “Suvasini has gone out.” But now mama has learnt a trick. He says – Sing a song in Marathi ! Why this funny trick?
  11. 11. Read about them and you will understand. The sisters were just two weeks old when Saroja's father's brother's wife (chachi) adopted her and took her to Pune. Everyone in chachi's house is very fond of music. Mornings begin with music in the house. Saroja knows many songs in both languages – Tamil and Marathi.
  12. 12. At home everyone speaks Tamil and at school most children speak in Marathi. Suvasini stays with her father in Chennai. Her father is a karate coach. Since she was three, Suvasini started doing karate with the other children. On holidays, both father and daughter start practicing in the morning. Saroja and Suvasini look alike but are also quite different.
  13. 13. Do you now know why mama has his way of finding out who is who? Saroja and Suvasini look a lot like each other yet are different. For example, Saroja knows two languages. If Suvasini's family also talked in two languages she could also learn both. We learn many things like language, music, love for reading, or knitting, when we get a chance and an environment to do so.
  14. 14. Satti was only a few months old when one of her legs was affected by polio. But she never let this come in the way of her work and her life. Walking long distances and climbing many stairs has been a part of her work. Now Satti is married. Some people tell her not to have any children. She is also worried that her children may also get polio. She spoke to a doctor about this.
  15. 15. 8 Traits Babies Inherit From Their Mother When you're anxiously awaiting your little one's arrival, you’ll probably wonder not only what they will look like, but how they’ll act, talk, walk, and more. Here are eight traits your baby will inherit from their mom.
  16. 16. Your baby can inherit a lot more than just hair color and physical features from its parents. As you await the arrival of your new baby, you’ll probably wonder not only what they will look like, but how they’ll act, talk, walk, and more. Thankfully, studying genetics has allowed us to pinpoint which of these traits come from which parent, so you can narrow down exactly who your little one got those dimples from.
  17. 17. Sleeping Style Between tossing and turning, insomnia, and even being a fan of n babies can aps, pick up on these from mom during nap time and turn them into their own lifelong sleep habits. Monkey see, monkey do!
  18. 18. Hair Color While it is most likely that the baby will inherit the dominant over recessive genes, the color of a mother’s hair can also say a lot about what the hairs on your little one will look like.
  19. 19. Hair Texture Like hair color, your little one is more likely to inherit the texture of their mother’s hair over their father, so your curls could definitely carry over to the baby!
  20. 20. Temper Will your little one not stop crying or screaming? You may have yourself to thank (or blame) for that! While their environment does play a part in this, new studies have indicated that genetic makeup could play a larger role in your baby’s temperament.
  21. 21. Dominant Hands While having two parents who are left-handed could all but guarantee that their baby would too be left-handed, if only the mother is a lefty, your baby likely will be too!
  22. 22. Migraines If you suffer from migraines, there could be a higher chance that your little one will too one day.
  23. 23. Intelligence Sorry, dads! A new study shows that because intelligence is carried over into the baby with two X chromosomes from the mother and one from the father, this could have an effect on the baby’s level of intelligence. A second study showed that despite education, race and socio-economic class, the IQ level of the mother could be a good indicator for that of a baby. Most often, babies are a perfectly intricate mix of both parents, but there are still more than a few things they could pick up from just mom or dad. Does your little one have any traits from you?
  24. 24. Healthy Eating Habits: What you feed your body and baby during pregnancy isn’t just important while you’re in the womb, it could have lifelong effects on your little one! One study done in rats showed that a poor pregnancy diet could affect a gene linked to insulin production, which could increase their risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. While the same study has yet to be tested on humans, it’s best to be safe!
  25. 25. 8 Traits Inherit From Their Father: When you're anxiously awaiting your little one's arrival, you’ll probably wonder not only what they will look like, but how they’ll act, talk, walk, and more. Here are eight traits your baby will inherit from their dad.
  26. 26. Surprises in Nature: Genetics is a funny thing! I’ve seen two people who were so sure that their baby was going to be a huge linebacker, but when the time came, a sweet petite little girl slipped into this world. Obviously, everyone was shocked, but more than anything, mom was pleasantly surprised. It was, also, a blatant reminder that we are all just big equations and it takes only a shift in DNA coding to create a brand new person.
  27. 27. One more important thing to know is that a recent study found that men are four times more likely to have mutations because they continue to produce sperm as they age, but women are born with all of the eggs they will ever need. Age plays a role in both male and female reproduction. Here are seven traits that your baby is likely to inherit from their father:
  28. 28. Height Physical appearance as a whole is heavily biased towards expressing your father-given genes and there’s much thought that this is due to survival of the fittest. Back when our survival depended on physical endurance and stamina, it was preferred for females to partner with a physically superior males.
  29. 29. Dental Health If your pop has a mouthful of cavities, it could be that you’re looking at a life filled with trips to the dentist. Better check for a rewards cards!
  30. 30. Dimples Women swoon over dimples. They are like precious accessories on an already tall drink of water! Good news about these sweet cheeks is that they are dominant, so your child is likely to have dimples, too.
  31. 31. Toes Particularly, webbed toes if dad is a carrier of Apart syndrome gene and is over 40 years old.
  32. 32. Fingerprint There is a belief that this is a sneaky way that nature designed to be a way for males to identify their offspring. This could be a fun genetic expression that is still around from hunting and gathering days.
  33. 33. Mental Disorders Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are among the list of psychological conditions that are passed down via the “Y Linkage.” This is a peculiar relationship that happens when a father passes along a mental health condition (on the Y chromosome) to their son.
  34. 34. Handedness You’re more likely to share your dominant hand with your father over your mother if one is left-handed and one is right-handed. Add this to the list after your child being your husband’s identical twin, their first word being ‘dada,’ and always looks 10x more delighted to see their father!
  35. 35. All jokes aside, nature was designed specifically to create varying equations resulting in varying humans. This is yet a beautiful reminder to never judge other people-- especially people you know nothing about. You never know what is going on in their world--literally and genetically. We are all very complex individuals and the way we are wired is unique to each individual.
  36. 36. I’ll leave you with this: You are exactly who you are supposed to be and you’re rocking being you. You can do this. You are doing this. Wondering what type of personality your baby will have? You or your partner's? Check out this genetic explanation of how personality is determined.
  37. 37. Dominant DNA: Scientists used to think people had up to 100,000 genes -- until the Human Genome Project revealed that we actually have closer to 25,000. Why the huge overestimate? It turns out most genes are multitaskers and do their jobs by marshalling other genes -- turning them on and off or boosting their effects -- so we need fewer genes overall.
  38. 38. Strongly Genetic Height Body fat Fingerprint ridge count Depression Epilepsy (some forms) Cystic fibrosis Type 2 diabetes
  39. 39. Moderately Genetic Blood pressure Maximum heart rate Cleft lip/palate IQ Shyness Temperament Memory Diet preferences Type 1 diabetes
  40. 40. Some from the family, some from the environment From a distance Vibha knows that her nana (grandfather) is coming – from his loud laughter. Nana also talks loudly and hears with difficulty. Are there people in your house who talk loudly? Is it their habit, or they cannot also hear very well? Are there times when you do not talk loudly in front of some people? When? With whom? Why? When can you speak loudly?
  41. 41. Some people use a machine in their ear to help them hear better. Some use a stick or spectacles to help them in other ways. Do you know someone who does so? We have seen that some traits or habits we get from our family. Some things and skills we learn from our environment. At times our abilities change because of some illness or old age. All these together make us what we are!
  42. 42. Genes and genetics: Related parents are more likely than unrelated parents to have children with health problems or genetic conditions. This is because the two parents share one or more common ancestors and so carry some of the same genetic material. If both partners carry the same inherited gene change, their children are more likely to have a genetic condition.
  43. 43. Experiments with peas: Gregor Mendel was born in a poor farmer’s family in Austria in 1822. He was very fond of studies but the very thought of examinations made him nervous (Oh! you too feel the same!). He did not have money to study at the University so he thought of becoming a ‘monk’ in a monastery. He thought from there he would be sent to study further. Which he was. But to become a science teacher he had to take an exam. Oh no! he got so nervous that he kept running away from the exam, and kept failing!
  44. 44. But he did not stop doing experiments. For seven years he did experiments on 28,000 plants in the garden of the monastery. He worked hard, collected many observations, and made a new discovery! Something which scientists at that time could not even understand! They understood it many years after his death, when other scientists did such experiments and read what Mendel had already written. What did Mendel find in those plants? He found that the pea plant has some traits which come in pairs.
  45. 45. Like the seed is either rough or smooth. It is either yellow or green, and the height of the plant is either tall or short. Nothing in between. The next generation (the children) of a plant which has either rough or smooth seeds will also have seeds which are rough or smooth. There is no seed which is mixed a bit smooth and a bit rough. He found the same with colour. Seeds which are either green or yellow give rise to new seeds which are either green or yellow.
  46. 46. The next generation does not have seeds with a mixed new colour made from both green and yellow. Mendel showed that in the next generation of pea plants there will be more plants having yellow seeds. He also showed that the next generation will have more plants with smooth seeds. What a discovery!
  47. 47. In this web lab, students experiment with garden pea plants (Pisum sativum) as did Austrian monk Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Mendel chose to experiment with peas because they possessed four important qualities: Peas had been shown to be true-breeding (all offspring will have the same characteristic generation after generation). Peas exhibit a variety of contrasting traits (purple vs. white flowers; round vs. wrinkled seeds). The shape of the pea flower protected it from foreign pollen. Peas usually reproduce by self-pollination, in which pollen produced by a flower fertilizes eggs in the same flower.
  48. 48. Pea plants grow quickly and do not require much space. The traits that Mendel studied are listed below: Form of ripe seed (R) – smooth or wrinkled Color of seed albumen (Y) – yellow or green Color of flower (P) – purple or white Form of ripe pods (I) – inflated or constricted Color of unripe pods (G) – green or yellow Position of flowers (A) – axial or terminal Length of stem (T) – tall or dwarf
  49. 49. Mendel is the guide for students throughout the web lab. When he first appears, he says, “Hello. My name is Gregor Mendel. I lived in Austria in the 1800s long before anyone knew about genes and genetics. I experimented with plants to study how traits are passed from parents to offspring ad discovered the basic rules of inheritance that are still used in your textbooks today. Come and try some of my experiments to see what you can discover about inheritance.
  50. 50. The next text reads, “I used pea plants because they grow quickly and easily, and it is easy to see and recognize their different traits.” This section of the web lab allows students to explore the traits on which Mendel experimented, then cross pea plants to see what offspring they produce.
  51. 51. Mendel urges students to, “Plant five pea plants and observe what they look like.” Each of the pea plants quickly sprouts. By rolling over the plants with the cursor, the student can see the color of the pea pod, the shape of the pod, and the color and form of the ripe seed.
  52. 52. All of the different variations of pea plant can be seen in these growing peas, although the plants are randomly chosen each time the application is run. After they have planted and grown five plants, Mendel asks students how many distinguishing traits they see in the plants. On the next screen, he reveals that there are seven different traits:
  53. 53. Pea shape (round or wrinkled) Pea color (green or yellow) Pod shape (constricted or inflated) Pod color (green or yellow) Flower color (purple or white) Plant size (tall or dwarf) Position of flowers (axial or terminal)
  54. 54. In this section of the web lab, students explore plant crosses and predict what the offspring of these crosses will look like. A plant with round peas and a random assortment of other traits appears on the screen. Mendel says “Cross this plant with itself. What pea shapes do the offspring have?”
  55. 55. When the student drags the plant into one of the Parent boxes, the Cross button appears. When the student clicks the Cross button, five offspring grow. Some of the offspring from the plant with round peas have wrinkled peas. Mendel then asks, “Were you surprised that a plant with round peas produced some offspring with wrinkled peas?”
  56. 56. Mendel appears and says, “What did you learn about your peas?” Students will probably recognize that, while a plant with round peas produced some offspring with wrinkled peas, the plant with wrinkled peas produced only offspring with wrinkled peas. This is one key to Mendel’s experimentation—a trait that was not apparent in a parent generation appeared in the F1 generation.
  57. 57. Mendel then explains the concept of dominant and recessive alleles by saying, “By performing my experiments with peas, I learned a lot about genetics and how traits are passed on. I noticed that sometimes offspring seem to have traits that their parents did not show. I called the traits that appeared to mask (or hide) other traits dominant. I called traits that seemed to be hidden recessive.”
  58. 58. Pedigree In this section of the web lab, students experiment with pea plants to try to discover which alleles are dominant and which are recessive. Using four different pea plants, students can cross plants with themselves or with each other to determine dominance. One strategy that students might employ is to cross plants with themselves—offspring that show a different trait than the parent of such a cross possess the recessive allele (which was hidden by the dominant allele in the parent generation).
  59. 59. Mendel says, “Using these plants, figure out how the trait for flower color is passed on. Which color is dominant, white or purple? This is a pedigree. You can cross plants with themselves or with each other.” When a student clicks on one of the plant symbols (a white or a black box), the cross button appears. If the student selects two plants, then the two plants are crossed and the offspring appear below. If a student selects only one plant and clicks the Cross button, then the plant self-fertilizes and the offspring appear below. Students can cross plants as many times as they want before deciding which allele is dominant. Back To Mendel's Experiment Directory
  60. 60. Explore Students can explore all seven of the pea traits that Mendel explored in this section. Four pea plants appear in the pedigree and students can select which trait they are looking at with the pull down menu in the upper left corner of the screen. When students have determined which alleles are dominant, they can record their choices in their notepads by clicking on the View Notepad button. The Check button allows students to check the answers they have input into their notepads. The following table shows each of the traits and which traits are dominant and which recessive.
  61. 61. Trait Dominant Expression Recessive Expression Form of ripe seed (R) Smooth Wrinkled Color of seed albumen (Y) Yellow Green Color of flower (P) Purple White Form of ripe pods (I) Inflated Constricted Color of unripe pods (G) Green Yellow Position of flowers (A) Axial Terminal Length of stem (T) Tall Dwarf Glossary Axial