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NUTRITION IN BACTERIA.pdf

This presentation gives the bird's eye view of bacterial nutrition along with some other issues required to understand bacterial diversity as far as nutrition is concerned.

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NUTRITION IN
BACTERIA
By
Dr. N. Sannigrahi,
Associate Professor,
Department of Botany,
Nistarini college,
Purulia,
D.B. Road, Purulia (
W.B)
India, 723101
 All forms of life , from microbes to human beings, share certain nutritional
requirements for growth and normal functioning. The following
observations hold good for this attributes-
 All organisms require source of energy either from solar energy
(Phototrophs) or chemical compounds ( Chemotrophs),
 Required source of electrons for metabolism, either reduced inorganic
compounds as electron donors (Lithotrops) or organic compounds (
Organotrops- Chemoorganotroips or Photoorganotrops),
 Require carbon as autotrophs or heterotrophs,
 Require Nitrogen for diverse compounds,
 Require oxygen, sulpher and Phosphorous as key elements to perform
different metabolic activities,
 Different trace elements like Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, B, Co as cofactors
for metabolic issues,
 In addition to vitamins or vitamin like compounds and water
 Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that require nutrients and energy for
their growth and development like other living organisms. They require
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, metals and water for their biochemical
processes.
 Inorganic nutrients get their inorganic nutrients from environment.
 Microbes differ very much with respect to their organic requirements,
 Some can manufacture their food from inorganic sources ,
 Some other absorb their organic nutrients from environment,
 On the basis of their energy source and the carbon, bacteria are divided into
two major classes: autotrophs and heterotrophs.
 Required for structural components of cell like cell membrane,
protoplasmic components,
 Synthesis of bio-molecules like protein, lipid, nucleic acids etc,
 To assist complete growth,
 To catalyzing enzyme activities
 CARBON- Serves as backbone of the organic compounds available to the
organisms from preexisting organic compounds in the habitat or cellular
metabolisms,
 OXYGEN-Available to the organisms from water, atmosphere and other organic
compounds,
 NITROGEN- 14% of the dry weight, constituent of amino acids, nucleic acids ,
nucleotides , proteins or organisms , available from ammonia, nitrates, atmospheric
nitrogen and other nitrogenous compounds,
 HYDROGEN- 8% of the dry weight as the organic compounds of cell and cell
water, act as electron donors of various organisms, get hydrogen from water and
other organic compounds,
 PHOSPHOROUS- Essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, phospholipids,
nucleotides, cofactors , ATP, some proteins and other cellular components, 3% of
the dry weight comes from inorganic phosphates,
 SULPHER-Required for the synthesis of methionine, biotin, thiamine, sulpher
containing proteins, 1% of the dry weight, available from H2s, elemental sulpher
and organic sulpher compounds ,
 K, Mg, Ca, Fe- as cellular cations and cofactors for certain enzymatic functions, K
helps in transport mechanisms, Fe from the components of cytochromes enzymes
and non heme proteins
NUTRITION IN BACTERIA.pdf
 Transport of nutrients take place by-
 I. Passive process – without expenditure of energy,
 A. Passive diffusion- from higher conc. To lower conc. as per rule with the
large concentration gradient,
 B. Facilitated diffusion-By the presence of carrier molecule like permease,
allows specific molecules to diffuse into the cell that otherwise would not
have taken up, without energy , by the concentration gradient
 II. Active process- At the cost of energy either by
 Symport- linked transport of two substances in the same direction ,
 Antiport - limited transport of two substances to opposite direction
 III. Bulk uptake- ingestion when the cell extends pseudopodia around large
molecules trapping them in digestive vacuoles either by phagocytosis
(solid) or pinocytosis ( liquid).
 IV. Group translocation- molecules are modified as they are transported
across the membrane, complex mechanism with cytoplasm & membrane
enzymes involved, helps in transport of sugar using PEP as phosphate
donor.

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NUTRITION IN BACTERIA.pdf

  • 1. NUTRITION IN BACTERIA By Dr. N. Sannigrahi, Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Nistarini college, Purulia, D.B. Road, Purulia ( W.B) India, 723101
  • 2.  All forms of life , from microbes to human beings, share certain nutritional requirements for growth and normal functioning. The following observations hold good for this attributes-  All organisms require source of energy either from solar energy (Phototrophs) or chemical compounds ( Chemotrophs),  Required source of electrons for metabolism, either reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors (Lithotrops) or organic compounds ( Organotrops- Chemoorganotroips or Photoorganotrops),  Require carbon as autotrophs or heterotrophs,  Require Nitrogen for diverse compounds,  Require oxygen, sulpher and Phosphorous as key elements to perform different metabolic activities,  Different trace elements like Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, B, Co as cofactors for metabolic issues,  In addition to vitamins or vitamin like compounds and water
  • 3.  Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that require nutrients and energy for their growth and development like other living organisms. They require carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, metals and water for their biochemical processes.  Inorganic nutrients get their inorganic nutrients from environment.  Microbes differ very much with respect to their organic requirements,  Some can manufacture their food from inorganic sources ,  Some other absorb their organic nutrients from environment,  On the basis of their energy source and the carbon, bacteria are divided into two major classes: autotrophs and heterotrophs.  Required for structural components of cell like cell membrane, protoplasmic components,  Synthesis of bio-molecules like protein, lipid, nucleic acids etc,  To assist complete growth,  To catalyzing enzyme activities
  • 4.  CARBON- Serves as backbone of the organic compounds available to the organisms from preexisting organic compounds in the habitat or cellular metabolisms,  OXYGEN-Available to the organisms from water, atmosphere and other organic compounds,  NITROGEN- 14% of the dry weight, constituent of amino acids, nucleic acids , nucleotides , proteins or organisms , available from ammonia, nitrates, atmospheric nitrogen and other nitrogenous compounds,  HYDROGEN- 8% of the dry weight as the organic compounds of cell and cell water, act as electron donors of various organisms, get hydrogen from water and other organic compounds,  PHOSPHOROUS- Essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, phospholipids, nucleotides, cofactors , ATP, some proteins and other cellular components, 3% of the dry weight comes from inorganic phosphates,  SULPHER-Required for the synthesis of methionine, biotin, thiamine, sulpher containing proteins, 1% of the dry weight, available from H2s, elemental sulpher and organic sulpher compounds ,  K, Mg, Ca, Fe- as cellular cations and cofactors for certain enzymatic functions, K helps in transport mechanisms, Fe from the components of cytochromes enzymes and non heme proteins
  • 6.  Transport of nutrients take place by-  I. Passive process – without expenditure of energy,  A. Passive diffusion- from higher conc. To lower conc. as per rule with the large concentration gradient,  B. Facilitated diffusion-By the presence of carrier molecule like permease, allows specific molecules to diffuse into the cell that otherwise would not have taken up, without energy , by the concentration gradient  II. Active process- At the cost of energy either by  Symport- linked transport of two substances in the same direction ,  Antiport - limited transport of two substances to opposite direction  III. Bulk uptake- ingestion when the cell extends pseudopodia around large molecules trapping them in digestive vacuoles either by phagocytosis (solid) or pinocytosis ( liquid).  IV. Group translocation- molecules are modified as they are transported across the membrane, complex mechanism with cytoplasm & membrane enzymes involved, helps in transport of sugar using PEP as phosphate donor.
  • 10.  Nutritional Types of Bacteria  The classification of bacteria based on nutrition is as follows:  Autotrophs  Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide and use light energy or inorganic chemical compounds to produce complex organic compounds are known as autotrophs. These are bacteria that can synthesize their own food from inorganic compounds.  Autotrophic bacteria are further classified into two:  Photoautotroph  Photoautotrophic bacteria use CO2 as their carbon source to convert it into carbohydrates in the presence of sunlight. These bacteria have bacteriochlorophyll and bacterioviridin pigments in their photo systems. Example: cyanobacteria, purple sulphur bacteria and green sulphur bacteria.  Note: Green sulphur bacteria use H2S as the hydrogen donor.
  • 11.  Chemoautotrophs  Chemoautotrophs are organisms that use inorganic sources to synthesize organic compounds in the absence of light. These bacteria lack any pigments and carry out only the dark phase of photosynthesis. Example: sulphur bacteria that oxidize elemental sulphur to gain energy, Hydromonas (hydrogen bacteria) that convert hydrogen into water, iron bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing dissolved ferrous oxides, methanogens and nitrifying bacteria.  Heterotrophs  Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot make their own food but instead obtain nutrition from other organic sources that may be living or dead. Heterotrophs can be divided into two:  Photoheterotrophs  Photo heterotrophic bacteria are those that use light as their source of energy but cannot use carbon dioxide as the carbon source. Instead they obtain nutrition from organic compounds found in the environment such as alcohols, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Examples: purple non-sulphur bacteria, heliobacteria and green non-sulphur bacteria.
  • 12.  Chemoheterotrophs: Chemoheterotrophs are organisms that derive their energy as well as their carbon source from organic compounds such as carbohydrates and lipids. Example: saprophytic bacteria  (i) Parasitic: These bacteria obtain their food from living hosts on which these grow. Parasites which cause diseases are known as pathogens e.g., Clostridium, Mycobacterium etc.  ii) Saprophytic: These bacteria obtain their food from dead and organic remains like fruits, vegetables, leaves, meat, faeces, corpses and other non- living products. The anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates is fermentation while that of proteins is called putrefaction, e.g., Putrefying bacteria like Bacillus mycoides, B. ramosus etc.  (iii) Symbiotic: These bacteria live in close association with organs of other organisms (higher plants and animals) in such a way that both the concerned organism receive mutual benefit from this association. This is called symbiosis for e.g., Rhizobium leguminosarum in the root nodules of the leguminous plants.
  • 13.  This bacteria fix free atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds which are utilized by the plants. In return, the plant provides nutrients and protection to the bacteria. In the stomach of the cows and goats bacteria digest cellulose enabling these animals to feed on grass. Our own intestine contains a number of harmless bacteria e.g., Escherichia coli.  It is apparent that to grow bacteria successfully, the above type of the nutritional requirements along with the diverse type of the choices of nutrition selected by the bacteria for their growth and multiplication.  The artificial environment needs media composition as per the basic ingredients along with other selective substances required in this regard,  The environmental parameters like oxygen, pH, temperature and other parameters are also required in this regard for the bacterial pleasure.  Thus, it can be concluded that like the higher organisms, bacteria are not exceptional one in this regard for their growth & development.
  • 14.  References:  Google for images  Microbiology & Phycology - Mishra & Dash  Brook Microbiology of Microorganisms-Madigan, Martinko, Bender, Buckley & Stahl,  A Textbook of Microbiology- Chakraborty  Microbiology- Pelzer Jr., Chan & Krieg,  Different WebPages to enrich content.  Disclaimer: This PPT has been designed to enrich the open source of learning. The author does not claim any kind of financial pleasure