Dr. N. Sannigrahi,
Associate Professor of Botany,
Nistarini College, Purulia (W.B) India.
THE THREE HIDDEN ISSUES
The 21st century is the century of lot of challenges- some are hidden while
rest are explored. Education, unemployment, malnutrition , gender equality,
poverty, hunger, good health & well being, clean water & sanitation, Affordable
& clean energy, decent work & economic growth, Industry, innovation &
infrastructure, reduced inequalities, sustainable cities and communities,
Responsible consumption & production are some of the issues which are
supposed to be addressed in the forthcoming years as dreamt by SDGs17 by
UNESCO in order to bring the holistic development of the all the people across
the globe. But the process of the acceleration of the growth of the world, some
problems are hidden and if these problems are not to be addressed properly, it
may even cause a severe disasters which never to be anticipated nowadays
sitting in the global village of market economy and globalization. Climate
Change, Artificial Intelligence (AI & ML),Nuclear Weapons are the three most
important issues that need immediate understanding in this consequences.
We are what we think, ---With our thoughts, we make the world.”
Most Common addressed issues in the society-
An invisible, less addressed issue in the modern days but
perennial problems need immediate attention of the policy
makers, Politicians, Industrialists, Scientists, Common people
along with Intellectuals in academic fraternity including the
youths of millions, the future of the green planet.
FRAGILE STORY OF TEA PLANTATION IN
After China, India is the second (1.30 million tones/year)
largest producer of tea.
Flavor and color with aroma deserve high quality,
A sustainable source of foreign income since last 200 years
Leaf production decrease
Insect contamination is high due to environmental madness,
Top soil erosion due to change of rainfall pattern effects the
quality of tea
Tea production will become 0 in the next 50 years
Tea workers will become workless,
Migration of work force to other sectors
Change of demographic pattern expedited by Climate change
Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and
weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, such as through
variations in the solar cycle. But since the 1800s, human activities
have been the main driver of climate change,
primarily due to burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas.
Burning fossil fuels generates greenhouse gas emissions that act like
a blanket wrapped around the Earth, trapping the sun’s heat and
Examples of greenhouse gas emissions that are causing climate
change include carbon dioxide and methane. These come from using
gasoline for driving a car or coal for heating a building, for example.
Clearing land and forests can also release carbon dioxide. Landfills
for garbage are a major source of methane emissions. Energy,
industry, transport, buildings, agriculture and land use are among the
major cause. Emissions continue in an uninterrupted manner to
meet up the greed of human.
The important issue is the challenge of the climate change across
the globe. It is the human induced global warming that is supposed
to cause the detrimental effect of the global climate pattern.
Emission of green house gases from the uncontrolled burning of the
fossil fuels is one of the important causes to induce the phenomenal
change of the global warming. The agriculture activities in random
manner along with the installation of different heavy industries like
cement making, the power generations from fossil fuels, steel
making etc are some of the causes for the global climate change in
this century. The IPCC has warned about the change of the average
mean temperature of the earth and the detrimental effect of the
climate change will bring devastation on the physical environment
of the earth. The recent upsurges of the different physical
phenomenon like the heavy rainfall in some regions while drought
on the others.
Global sea level rising due to the melting of the glaciers is an
important concern of the different cities close to the sea. The
change of the ecosystem will bring changes in the crop
productivity in one hand while the forest and wild life will be
severely affected. Change of the lively hood can cause the poverty
of the millions of population particularly in the sub-Saharan Africa
and the South East Asian countries. The unstable food security
may cause starvation of the millions. Under nutrition due to
starvation may cause the pandemic of the different diseases mainly
escalated by the malnutrition and poor health and hygienic
practices. Agriculture based industries will face a serious
challenge and this may lead to the millions of unemployment
situation. The GDP of the country in general and underdeveloped
and developing countries in particular will become serious
challenges in the drive to solve the unemployment and mal
Burning coal, oil and gas produces carbon dioxide and nitrous
Cutting down forests (deforestation). Trees help to regulate the
climate by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. When they are
cut down, that beneficial effect is lost and the carbon stored in the
trees is released into the atmosphere, adding to the greenhouse
Increasing livestock farming. Cows and sheep produce large
amounts of methane when they digest their food.
Fertilizers containing nitrogen produce nitrous oxide emissions.
Fluorinated gases are emitted from equipment and products that
use these gases. Such emissions have a very strong warming
effect, up to 23 000 times greater than CO2.
The main driver of climate change is the greenhouse effect. Some gases in the
Earth's atmosphere act a bit like the glass in a greenhouse, trapping the sun's heat
and stopping it from leaking back into space and causing global warming.
Many of these greenhouse gases occur naturally, but human activities are
increasing the concentrations of some of them in the atmosphere, in particular:
carbon dioxide (CO2)
CO2 produced by human activities is the largest contributor to global warming.
By 2020, its concentration in the atmosphere had risen to 48% above its pre-
industrial level (before 1750).
Other greenhouse gases are emitted by human activities in smaller quantities.
Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, but has a shorter
atmospheric lifetime. Nitrous oxide, like CO2, is a long-lived greenhouse gas
that accumulates in the atmosphere over decades to centuries. Non-greenhouse
gas pollutants, including aerosols like soot, have different warming and cooling
effects and are also associated with other issues such as poor air quality.
Natural causes, such as changes in solar radiation or volcanic activity are
estimated to have contributed less than plus or minus 0.1°C to total warming
between 1890 and 2010.
Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of
extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, floods and
tropical cyclones, aggravating water management problems,
reducing agricultural production and food security, increasing
health risks, damaging critical infrastructure and interrupting the
provision of basic services such water and sanitation, education,
energy and transport. From 1880 to 2012, average global
temperature increased by 0.85°C
Oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have
diminished and sea level has risen. From 1901 to 2010, the
global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded. The
Arctic’s sea ice extent has shrunk in every successive decade
Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by
almost 50 per cent since 1990
Emissions grew more quickly between 2000 and 2010 than in
each of the three previous decades
FUTURE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Temperature will continue to rise
Frost free season lengthen
Changes in Precipitation Pattern
More drought & heat waves
Hurricanes will become stronger and more intense
Sea level rise
Arctic likely to become ice free
Climate change by creating unsuitable living conditions (e.g.,
desertification, sea-level rise, decline in freshwater availability,
food shortage, health issues) will move many people (forced
displacement, planned resettlement, migration). Poor
communities are particularly impacted by the human
movement. It is estimated that by 2050, up to several hundred
million persons will be moved . Population movement will
expose countries to multiple challenges (e.g., social, health,
and financial consequences and violent conflicts).
Effect on human health
Adaptation on animals
A “refugee” is defined as a person who has crossed an international
border “owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons
of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social
group or political opinion” In some contexts, the definition extends
to persons fleeing “events seriously disturbing public order”
Climate change affects people inside their own countries, and
typically creates internal displacement before it reaches a level
where it displaces people across borders. However, there may be
situations where the refugee criteria of the 1951 Convention or the
broader refugee criteria of regional refugee law frameworks could
apply. People may have a valid claim for refugee status, for
example, where the adverse effects of climate change interact with
armed conflict and violence. Building on its study 'In Harm’s Way’,
in 2020, UNHCR issued Legal Considerations to guide
interpretation and steer international discussion on such claims.
Regardless, the term “climate refugee” is not endorsed by UNHCR,
and it is more accurate to refer to “persons displaced in the context
of disasters and climate change.”
In the past decade, the global refugee population has more than
doubled. According to the UNHCR, over 84 million people
around the world have been forced to flee their homes. Among
them are over 26.6 million refugees, the highest population on
record. 68% of the world’s refugees come from just 5 countries.
1. Eritrea Refugee crisis
2. Central African republic
5. Democratic Republic of Congo
6. The Rohingya Crisis
7. South Sudan
Sustainability is defined as: “the integration of environmental
health, social equity and economic vitality in order to create
thriving, healthy, diverse and resilient communities for this
generation and generations to come. The practice of sustainability
recognizes how these issues are interconnected and requires a
systems approach and an acknowledgement of complexity.”
Sustainable practices support ecological, human, and economic
health and vitality. Sustainability presumes that resources are
finite, and should be used conservatively and wisely with a view to
long-term priorities and consequences of the ways in which
resources are used. In simplest terms, sustainability is about our
children and our grandchildren, and the world we will leave them.
In order to reach a sustainable society, it is necessary to
integrate climate change measures into national policies,
strategies, and planning. It is vital to improve education,
awareness-raising, and human and institutional capacity on
climate change mitigation but also to strengthen global
resilience and adaptive capacities to the effects of global
warming. adopt strategies to respond to environmental
challenges and adapt their communities accordingly. This
approach is carried out through the improvement of
education, awareness and human and institutional capacities,
as well as progress in fields such as transport, recycling,
water and waste management, production and consumption
of local products and tourism.
In 1987 the United Nations the Brundtland Commission defined
sustainable development as meeting the needs of the present
without compromising the needs of future generations.
Economic progress: Refers to the allocation and efficient
management of public and private investments and resources that
not only generate economic profitability to the company but also
efficiency in terms of macro-social benefits (Sachs 2008).
Social justice: Relates to building a civilization with greater equity
in the distribution of earnings in a way that reduces inequality
between rich and poor by protecting and ensuring the participation
of local communities (Sachs 2008).
Environment preservation: Refers to the rational use of natural
resources taking into account the balance of ecosystems and the
conservation of non-renewable resources and biodiversity (Sachs
Method for Sustainability
1.Conserve, protect, restore, and improve the supply and quality
of natural resources and environmental media (energy, water,
materials, ecosystems, land, and air) over the long term;
2. Align and integrate programs, tools, incentives, and indicators
to achieve as many positive outcomes as possible in
environmental, economic, and social systems; and,
3. Consider the full life cycles of multiple natural resources,
processes, and pollutants in order to prevent pollution, reduce
waste, and create a sustainable future.
4. Promotion of green chemistry
5. Alternative source of green energy
6. Development for all
THINK GLOBALLY BUT ACT LOCALLY
Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel laureate),
“The most important lesson
that man can learn from life,
is not that there is pain in this world
but that is possible for him
to transmute it into joy”.
Thanks a lot for your journey
• Different websites for the study content,
• Google for the beautiful images
• Several books and the YouTube repository to develop this
• This PPT has been made to create the mass awareness in the
most burning issue of climate change and the sustainability
which are also dreamt as the goals of SDG17 by UNESCO.