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Climate Change & sustainability.pdf

  2. PRESENTED BY Dr. N. Sannigrahi, Associate Professor of Botany, Nistarini College, Purulia (W.B) India.
  3. THE THREE HIDDEN ISSUES The 21st century is the century of lot of challenges- some are hidden while rest are explored. Education, unemployment, malnutrition , gender equality, poverty, hunger, good health & well being, clean water & sanitation, Affordable & clean energy, decent work & economic growth, Industry, innovation & infrastructure, reduced inequalities, sustainable cities and communities, Responsible consumption & production are some of the issues which are supposed to be addressed in the forthcoming years as dreamt by SDGs17 by UNESCO in order to bring the holistic development of the all the people across the globe. But the process of the acceleration of the growth of the world, some problems are hidden and if these problems are not to be addressed properly, it may even cause a severe disasters which never to be anticipated nowadays sitting in the global village of market economy and globalization. Climate Change, Artificial Intelligence (AI & ML),Nuclear Weapons are the three most important issues that need immediate understanding in this consequences. We are what we think, ---With our thoughts, we make the world.” (Buddha)
  4. CLIMATE CHANGE Most Common addressed issues in the society- Education Unemployment Fundamentalism Politics Pollution Population Poverty COVID19 An invisible, less addressed issue in the modern days but perennial problems need immediate attention of the policy makers, Politicians, Industrialists, Scientists, Common people along with Intellectuals in academic fraternity including the youths of millions, the future of the green planet.
  5. FRAGILE STORY OF TEA PLANTATION IN INDIA After China, India is the second (1.30 million tones/year) largest producer of tea. Flavor and color with aroma deserve high quality, A sustainable source of foreign income since last 200 years Recently, Leaf production decrease Insect contamination is high due to environmental madness, Top soil erosion due to change of rainfall pattern effects the quality of tea Tea production will become 0 in the next 50 years Tea workers will become workless, Migration of work force to other sectors Change of demographic pattern expedited by Climate change
  6. Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, such as through variations in the solar cycle. But since the 1800s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change, primarily due to burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas. Burning fossil fuels generates greenhouse gas emissions that act like a blanket wrapped around the Earth, trapping the sun’s heat and raising temperatures. Examples of greenhouse gas emissions that are causing climate change include carbon dioxide and methane. These come from using gasoline for driving a car or coal for heating a building, for example. Clearing land and forests can also release carbon dioxide. Landfills for garbage are a major source of methane emissions. Energy, industry, transport, buildings, agriculture and land use are among the major cause. Emissions continue in an uninterrupted manner to meet up the greed of human.
  7. The important issue is the challenge of the climate change across the globe. It is the human induced global warming that is supposed to cause the detrimental effect of the global climate pattern. Emission of green house gases from the uncontrolled burning of the fossil fuels is one of the important causes to induce the phenomenal change of the global warming. The agriculture activities in random manner along with the installation of different heavy industries like cement making, the power generations from fossil fuels, steel making etc are some of the causes for the global climate change in this century. The IPCC has warned about the change of the average mean temperature of the earth and the detrimental effect of the climate change will bring devastation on the physical environment of the earth. The recent upsurges of the different physical phenomenon like the heavy rainfall in some regions while drought on the others.
  8. Global sea level rising due to the melting of the glaciers is an important concern of the different cities close to the sea. The change of the ecosystem will bring changes in the crop productivity in one hand while the forest and wild life will be severely affected. Change of the lively hood can cause the poverty of the millions of population particularly in the sub-Saharan Africa and the South East Asian countries. The unstable food security may cause starvation of the millions. Under nutrition due to starvation may cause the pandemic of the different diseases mainly escalated by the malnutrition and poor health and hygienic practices. Agriculture based industries will face a serious challenge and this may lead to the millions of unemployment situation. The GDP of the country in general and underdeveloped and developing countries in particular will become serious challenges in the drive to solve the unemployment and mal nutrition.
  9. Burning coal, oil and gas produces carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Cutting down forests (deforestation). Trees help to regulate the climate by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. When they are cut down, that beneficial effect is lost and the carbon stored in the trees is released into the atmosphere, adding to the greenhouse effect. Increasing livestock farming. Cows and sheep produce large amounts of methane when they digest their food. Fertilizers containing nitrogen produce nitrous oxide emissions. Fluorinated gases are emitted from equipment and products that use these gases. Such emissions have a very strong warming effect, up to 23 000 times greater than CO2.
  10. The main driver of climate change is the greenhouse effect. Some gases in the Earth's atmosphere act a bit like the glass in a greenhouse, trapping the sun's heat and stopping it from leaking back into space and causing global warming. Many of these greenhouse gases occur naturally, but human activities are increasing the concentrations of some of them in the atmosphere, in particular: carbon dioxide (CO2) methane nitrous oxide fluorinated gases CO2 produced by human activities is the largest contributor to global warming. By 2020, its concentration in the atmosphere had risen to 48% above its pre- industrial level (before 1750). Other greenhouse gases are emitted by human activities in smaller quantities. Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, but has a shorter atmospheric lifetime. Nitrous oxide, like CO2, is a long-lived greenhouse gas that accumulates in the atmosphere over decades to centuries. Non-greenhouse gas pollutants, including aerosols like soot, have different warming and cooling effects and are also associated with other issues such as poor air quality. Natural causes, such as changes in solar radiation or volcanic activity are estimated to have contributed less than plus or minus 0.1°C to total warming between 1890 and 2010.
  11. Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, floods and tropical cyclones, aggravating water management problems, reducing agricultural production and food security, increasing health risks, damaging critical infrastructure and interrupting the provision of basic services such water and sanitation, education, energy and transport. From 1880 to 2012, average global temperature increased by 0.85°C Oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished and sea level has risen. From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded. The Arctic’s sea ice extent has shrunk in every successive decade since 1979 Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by almost 50 per cent since 1990 Emissions grew more quickly between 2000 and 2010 than in each of the three previous decades
  12. IS CLIMATE CHANGE REAL? Rising of sea level, Warming Oceans, Shrinking Ice Sheets, Glacial Retreat, Decreased Snow Cover, Sea Level Rise Declining Arctic Sea Ice Extreme Events, Ocean acidification
  13. FUTURE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE  Temperature will continue to rise  Frost free season lengthen  Changes in Precipitation Pattern  More drought & heat waves  Hurricanes will become stronger and more intense  Sea level rise  Arctic likely to become ice free
  14. Climate change by creating unsuitable living conditions (e.g., desertification, sea-level rise, decline in freshwater availability, food shortage, health issues) will move many people (forced displacement, planned resettlement, migration). Poor communities are particularly impacted by the human movement. It is estimated that by 2050, up to several hundred million persons will be moved . Population movement will expose countries to multiple challenges (e.g., social, health, and financial consequences and violent conflicts). Effect on human health Nutrition Productivity Infection Adaptation on animals
  15. A “refugee” is defined as a person who has crossed an international border “owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion” In some contexts, the definition extends to persons fleeing “events seriously disturbing public order” Climate change affects people inside their own countries, and typically creates internal displacement before it reaches a level where it displaces people across borders. However, there may be situations where the refugee criteria of the 1951 Convention or the broader refugee criteria of regional refugee law frameworks could apply. People may have a valid claim for refugee status, for example, where the adverse effects of climate change interact with armed conflict and violence. Building on its study 'In Harm’s Way’, in 2020, UNHCR issued Legal Considerations to guide interpretation and steer international discussion on such claims. Regardless, the term “climate refugee” is not endorsed by UNHCR, and it is more accurate to refer to “persons displaced in the context of disasters and climate change.”
  16. In the past decade, the global refugee population has more than doubled. According to the UNHCR, over 84 million people around the world have been forced to flee their homes. Among them are over 26.6 million refugees, the highest population on record. 68% of the world’s refugees come from just 5 countries. 1. Eritrea Refugee crisis 2. Central African republic 3. Somalia 4. Sudan 5. Democratic Republic of Congo 6. The Rohingya Crisis 7. South Sudan 8. Afghanistan 9. Bangladesh 10. Others
  17. Sustainability is defined as: “the integration of environmental health, social equity and economic vitality in order to create thriving, healthy, diverse and resilient communities for this generation and generations to come. The practice of sustainability recognizes how these issues are interconnected and requires a systems approach and an acknowledgement of complexity.” Sustainable practices support ecological, human, and economic health and vitality. Sustainability presumes that resources are finite, and should be used conservatively and wisely with a view to long-term priorities and consequences of the ways in which resources are used. In simplest terms, sustainability is about our children and our grandchildren, and the world we will leave them.
  18. In order to reach a sustainable society, it is necessary to integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning. It is vital to improve education, awareness-raising, and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation but also to strengthen global resilience and adaptive capacities to the effects of global warming. adopt strategies to respond to environmental challenges and adapt their communities accordingly. This approach is carried out through the improvement of education, awareness and human and institutional capacities, as well as progress in fields such as transport, recycling, water and waste management, production and consumption of local products and tourism.
  19. In 1987 the United Nations the Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. Economic progress: Refers to the allocation and efficient management of public and private investments and resources that not only generate economic profitability to the company but also efficiency in terms of macro-social benefits (Sachs 2008). Social justice: Relates to building a civilization with greater equity in the distribution of earnings in a way that reduces inequality between rich and poor by protecting and ensuring the participation of local communities (Sachs 2008). Environment preservation: Refers to the rational use of natural resources taking into account the balance of ecosystems and the conservation of non-renewable resources and biodiversity (Sachs 2008).
  20. Method for Sustainability 1.Conserve, protect, restore, and improve the supply and quality of natural resources and environmental media (energy, water, materials, ecosystems, land, and air) over the long term; 2. Align and integrate programs, tools, incentives, and indicators to achieve as many positive outcomes as possible in environmental, economic, and social systems; and, 3. Consider the full life cycles of multiple natural resources, processes, and pollutants in order to prevent pollution, reduce waste, and create a sustainable future. 4. Promotion of green chemistry 5. Alternative source of green energy 6. Development for all THINK GLOBALLY BUT ACT LOCALLY
  21. Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel laureate), “The most important lesson that man can learn from life, is not that there is pain in this world but that is possible for him to transmute it into joy”.
  22. ---------------and miles to go before I sleep”
  23. Thanks a lot for your journey • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: • Different websites for the study content, • Google for the beautiful images • Several books and the YouTube repository to develop this presentation • Disclaimer: • This PPT has been made to create the mass awareness in the most burning issue of climate change and the sustainability which are also dreamt as the goals of SDG17 by UNESCO.