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Integrating Native Pollinators into Wildlife Conservation Practices


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This program was prepared by Nancy Lee Adamson (Xerces Society), many other Xerces Society staff, & Carol Heiser (VA Department of Game & Inland Fisheries), for Virginia Master Naturalists promoting meadow establishment for pollinator & upland game conservation, with input & support from Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries biologists & the USDA-NRCS East National Technology Support Center. Notes to accompany the slides are available in a separate Word file.

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Integrating Native Pollinators into Wildlife Conservation Practices

  1. 1. Integrating Native Pollinators into Wildlife Conservation Practices This program was prepared by Nancy Lee Adamson (Xerces Society), many other Xerces Society staff, & Carol Heiser (VA Department of Game & Inland Fisheries), for Virginia Master Naturalists promoting meadow establishment for pollinator & upland game conservation, with input & support from Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries biologists & the USDA-NRCS East National Technology Support Center.Photo: Nancy Adamson
  2. 2. Presentation Outline• Importance of pollinators & other insects• Nesting habits affecting habitat needs• Quail habitat needs• Protection from pesticides• Native meadow habitat establishment• Additional resources American bumble bee, Bombus pensylvanicus, on black locust Photo: Nancy Adamson
  3. 3. The Importance of Pollinators and Other Insects Photo: Nancy Adamson
  4. 4. Economic Value of Insects Contribute $22 billion to Wild natural enemies protect recreation industry as more than $4.5 billion in crop food for wildlife production in the U.S. Native pollinators Clean up grazing lands, saving contribute at least $3 ranchers more than $380 billion in pollination million & help retain nutrientsLosey & Vaughan. 2006. The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided byInsects. Bioscience 56 (4). Photos: VADGIF, Piotr Naskrecki, Edward Ross, USDA-NRCS
  5. 5. Pollination and Human Nutrition Food that depends on insect pollination • 35% of crop production, worldwide • Over $18 to $27 billion value of crops in U.S. ($217 billion worldwide) • One in three mouthfuls of food and drink we consumeMorse RA, Calderone NW. 2000. The value of honey bees as pollinators of U.S. crops in 2000. Bee Culture 128: 1–15.Klein et al. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 303-313. Photo: USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb
  6. 6. Insect Pollinators Are Ecological Keystones More than 85% of flowering plants require an animal, mostly insects, to move pollen.Ollerton, J., R. Winfree, and S. Tarrant. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?Oikos 120: 321-326. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18644.x.Potts, S.G., J.C. Biesmeijer, C. Kremen, P. Neumann, O. Schweiger, and W. E. Kunin. 2010. Globalpollinator delines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evoluntion. 25(6): 345-353. Photo: Eric Mader
  7. 7. Bugs Drive the SystemBenefits to OtherWildlife:• Pollinator-produced fruits and seeds• Pollinators are food for other wildlife• Pollinator habitat Photo: Nancy Adamson supports other insects that are food for Photo: Nancy Adamson songbirds & other wildlife Mace Vaughan © Sierra Vision Stock Photo: Nancy Adamson
  8. 8. Multiple Benefits of Pollinator HabitatFruits and seeds are a majorpart of the diet of many insects,about 25% of birds, and manymammals Photos: Marie Reed, USDA ARS
  9. 9. Multiple Benefits of Pollinator HabitatPollinators and other insects are food for wildlife, including 89% of birds
  10. 10. Multiple Benefits of Pollinator HabitatConservation Biological ControlFlowering plants that support pollinatorsalso support predatory and parasitic insects Soldier beetle Syrphid fly drinking raspberry nectar Parasitoid wasp Ladybird beetle Photos: Mace Vaughan, Paul Jepson, Mario Ambrosino
  11. 11. Main Groups of Pollinators Photos: James Cane; Jeff Adams; Dana Ross; Bruce Newhouse Photos: Mace Vaughan, Bob Hammond, David Inouye, Bruce Newhouse
  12. 12. Bees: The Most Important PollinatorsBees are the most agriculturally important pollinators• Bees actively collect and transport pollen• Bees exhibit flower constancy• Bees regularly forage in area around nest mining bee, Andrena sp., on apple Photo: Nancy Adamson
  13. 13. Honey Bees (Non-Native): Colony Collapse DisorderAnnual losses…Pre-CCD (1995-2006): 15% - 22% per yearPost-CCD (2006-today): 29% - 36% per year honey bee to peach Photo: Nancy Adamson
  14. 14. Some Bumble Bees in Decline Franklin’s Yellowbanded Likely due to introduced disease: Four sister species of bumble bees in decline © Peter Schroeder © Leif Richardson Western Rusty patchedEvans, E.,R. Thorp, S. Jepsen, and S.Hoffman Black, 2009. Status Review of ThreeFormerly Common Species of Bumble Bee inthe Subgenus Bombus. Xerces Society.Cameron et al. 2011. Patterns of widespreaddecline in North American bumble bees.PNAS.Colla and Packer. 2008. Evidence for declinein Eastern North American bumble bees(Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special focus onBombus affinis Cresson. Biodivers Conserv. © Pat Michaels © Jen Knutson
  15. 15. Bumble Bee Citizen Monitoring Project © Jen KnutsonThe rusty-patched bumble bee has declined dramatically from its historic rangeXerces citizen monitors contributed 12 confirmed records of this species, includingrecords at the edges of its range in Minnesota and Massachusetts
  16. 16. Bumble Bee Citizen Monitoring Project © Leif RichardsonThe yellow banded bumble bee has declined from many parts of its historic range inthe past decadeXerces citizen monitors have contributed 7 confirmed records of this species
  17. 17. Pollination and Crop Security As bees decline, crop acreage requiring bee pollination grows From 1961 to 2006, the percent of global cropland requiring bee pollination rose 300% in total acreage (world population grew from 3 to 7 billion) Providing habitat grows ever more important!Aizen, M. A. and L. D. Harder. 2009. The global stock of domesticated honey bees isgrowing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current Biology 19(11):915-918. Photo: Nancy Adamson
  18. 18. The Economic Value of Native Bees Hundreds of species of native bees contribute significantly to crop pollination. • $3 billion/year (conservatively)Losey, J. and M. Vaughan. 2006. The Economic Value of EcologicalServices Provided by Insects. Bioscience 56 (4). Photos: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer & Edward McCain
  19. 19. Native Bee Diversity in Agriculture bumble bee on blueberryDiverse native bees pollinating crops:• 100+ species visit apples in GA, NY and PA• 100+ species visit blueberry in Michigan• 100+ species visit WI cranberries• 80+ species visit berry crops in New England• 60+ species visit CA tomato, sunflower, or watermelon Photo: Nancy Adamson
  20. 20. Benefits of Native Bees in CropsNative bees are very efficient:• Active earlier & later in the day• Collect both pollen & nectar• Buzz pollinate mining bee on blueberry Photo: Nancy Adamson
  21. 21. Native Bee Crop Specialists Squash Bees • Ground-nesting directly at the base of squash plants • Active in early morning hours (before sunrise) • Pollinate flowers before honey bees begin foraging1 • 67% of 87 sites studied across the U.S. had all pollination needs met by squash bees21. Tepedino, V. J. 1981. The pollination efficiency of the squash bee (Peponapis pruinosa) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera) on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54:359-377. Photo: Eric Mader2. Jim Cane (USDA ARS Logan Bee Lab). 2011. Personal communication Photo: Nancy Adamson
  22. 22. Buzz Pollination by Native Bees Example: Cherry tomatoes When native bees were present, Sungold cherry tomato production almost tripled. Buzz pollination video online at 9U&feature=plcp Photos: Nancy Adamson Greenleaf, S. S.,and C. Kremen. 2006. Wild bee species increase tomato production and respond differently to surrounding land use in Northern California. Biological Conservation 133:81-87.Photo: Anne Berblinger
  23. 23. Native Bee Diversity in North America4,000 species of native bees;~700 in the east in 66 genera. sweat bee on blue vervain, Verbena hastata Photo: Nancy Adamson
  24. 24. Lepidoptera Diversity in North AmericaAbout 700 species of butterflies & 13,000 species of mothslong-tailed skipperEpargyreus clarus Photo: Jolie Goldenetz Dollar
  25. 25. Best Way to Support PollinatorsProvide habitat • Native plants for pollen, nectar, and nesting • Shelter for nests & protection from pesticides southeastern blueberry bee Habropoda laboriosa on redbud Photo: Nancy Adamson
  26. 26. 3 Broad Groups (Different Nesting Habits)ground-nesting bees (solitary) bumble bees (social) polyester bee, Colletes inaequlis orchard mason bee, Osmia lignariawood-nesting bees (solitary) Bombus impatiens Photos: Elaine Evans, Steve Javorek, Eric Mader
  27. 27. Life Cycle of a Bumble Bee Colony Winter: Hibernating queen Fall: Mated queens seek overwintering sites Spring: Nest establishment and egg layingFall: Newqueensleave thenest andmateFall: Old queen dies Summer: Colony peak Illustration: David Wysotski
  28. 28. Bumble Bees, Bombus spp. • Social colonies founded by single queen • Annual colonies--last only one season • Nests have ~100-400 workers • Nest in abandoned rodent burrows or under lodged grasses Conserve brush piles, unmown areasBombus impatiens Bombus vagans on cloveron scarlet runner bean Photos: Elaine Evans, Nancy Adamson, Eric Mader
  29. 29. Ground-Nesting Solitary BeesRoughly 70% of bee spp.nest underground• Resemble ant & ground beetle nests from above• May aggregate nests (some nest communally, but forage alone)• Nest chambers lined with waxy glandular secretions that resist flooding Scout for nests, conserve sandy soil & bare ground mining bee Andrena barbara Photos: Jim Cane, Dennis Briggs, Nancy Adamson
  30. 30. Lifecycle of Solitary BeesMining bee (Andrena sp.); a yearin its underground nest as egg,larva, and pupa before emerging tospend a few weeks as an adult. Photos: Dennis Briggs
  31. 31. Cavity or Tunnel Nesting Solitary Bees Roughly 30% of native species nest in hollow plant stems, or old beetle borer holes • Nest tunnel partitions constructed of mud, leaf pieces, or sawdust • Artificially managed for some crops © Edward Ross Conserve snags, brush piles & pithy- stemmed plants. Leave dead plant material over winter.Photo: Matthew Shepherd Photo: Nancy Adamson
  32. 32. Tunnel Nesting Bees Hollow stem example: Cross-section of silk cocoonsPollen mass Egg Mud wall Larva Pupa Adult Silk cocoons with dormant bees inside Mud cap closure
  33. 33. Lepidoptera Food Needs Host Plants Nectar PlantsMonarch caterpillar and adult © Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) milkweed, Asclepias tuberosa Jolie Goldenetz Dollar
  34. 34. Lepidoptera Overwintering Strategies Each species has its own strategy to overwinter as an egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, or adult (migrant).Examples: caterpillars hibernate in rolledleaves on ground, in soil at base of hostplant, under loose tree bark…common buckeye butterfly caterpillar, Junonia coenia Jolie Goldenetz Dollar
  35. 35. Upland Bird Habitat Needs Warm season native bunch grasses and wildflowers provide food and shelter directly and by supporting diverse insects (great sources of protein) Avoid disturbance during nesting season! Photo: Nancy Adamson
  36. 36. Virginia’s Quail Initiative Photo: VADGIF
  37. 37. Meadows are beneficial to quail and other “earlysuccessional” species Photo: VADGIF
  38. 38. Meadows are beneficial to quail and other “earlysuccessional” species Photo: VADGIF
  39. 39. Quail Need 3 Main Habitat TypesNESTING COVERNative grasses, forbs and legumes—30% of thelandscapeWOODY COVER (“covey headquarters”)Woody thickets of low-growing trees and shrubs—15%to 25% of the landscapeBROOD HABITATNative grasses, forbs and legumes—40% to 60% ofthe landscape Photos: VADGIF
  40. 40. All 3 habitat components as close as possibleWoody Grain, Forbs, GrassesForbs, Legumes &Grasses Photo: VADGIF
  41. 41. Nesting Cover• Ideal Nesting Cover – Herbaceous cover consisting of bunch grasses with forbs and low growing shrubby cover with the last year’s grass growth available (at least 12” tall)• Little blue, side oats, broomsedge, timothy with alfalfa, lespedeza, ragweed, native forbs• About 30% of the area• Near brood cover! Photo: VADGIF
  42. 42. A clump of grass per 100 ft2 is adequate nesting cover Photo: VADGIF
  43. 43. • Nest site in previous year’s disked fire line Photo: VADGIF
  44. 44. Woody Cover“Covey Headquarters” • Consists of woody shrubs, low-growing trees, down tree structures, feathered edge. Ground cover within headquarters must be sparse. • 50 ft. X 30 ft. at a minimum – 1,500 sq. ft. Photos: VADGIF
  45. 45. “Feathered Edge” Photo: VADGIF
  46. 46. “Feathered Edge” Photo: VADGIF
  47. 47. REST BURNED Photo: VADGIF
  48. 48. Shrubby CoverREST BURNED Photo: VADGIF
  49. 49. Shrubby CoverPhoto: VADGIF
  50. 50. Good shrubby cover can be rendered almost useless if sod-forming grasses are abundant underneath.Photo: VADGIF
  51. 51. Brood HabitatIdeal Brood Habitat – Plant community (at least 40% of the area) made up of forbs,legumes, and weeds. Must contain bare ground (25-50% exposed soil) underneath afoliage canopy.Brood habitat will contain insects which are the most important food item for nestinghens and chicks. Photo: VADGIF
  52. 52. Native grasses and forbs provide space between the plantsfor young quail to seek insects Photos: VADGIF
  53. 53. Fescue field borderbetween woody coverFescue is“The Great Quail Barrier” Photo: VADGIF
  54. 54. Native grass/forbs/legumes: Nesting & Brood Cover Photo: VADGIF
  55. 55. Native grass/forbs/legumes: Nesting & Brood Cover Woody Headquarters Photo: VADGIF
  56. 56. All components as close as possibleNative grass/forbs/legumes: Nesting & Brood Cover Woody Headquarters Photo: VADGIF
  57. 57. For All Wildlife, Diverse Habitat is Best Crop pollination by wild bees and natural enemy activity is greater in landscapes with diverse habitats (Forehand et al. 2006, Winfree et al. 2008, Bianchi et al. 2011)Bianchi, F. J. J. A., C. J. H. Booij, and T. Tscharntke. 2011. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a reviewon landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proc. R. Soc. B 273: 1715-1727.Forehand, L. M., D. B. Orr, and H. M. Linker. 2006. Insect communities associated with beneficial inset habitat plants inNorth Carolina. Environmental Entomology 35 (6): 1541-1549.Winfree, R., N. M. Williams, H. Gaines, J. S. Ascher, C. Kremen. 2008. Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of cropvisitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. J. Applied Ecology 45(3): 793-802. Photo: Jennifer Hopwood
  58. 58. Pollen and Nectar Through the Growing SeasonAssess what already blooms on site through the season Photos: Elaine Haug NRCS, Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jeff McMillan NRCS, Berry Botanic Garden
  59. 59. Bloom Time Succession• Include at least 3 species in bloom for each season (spring, summer, & fall)• Supplement times that have fewer blooms Photo: Eric Mader
  60. 60. Distance Matters• Small bees may fly less than 500 ft., bumble bees up to 1 mile• Birds stay as close to the nest as possible when rearing young Photo: Toby Alexander (VT NRCS)
  61. 61. Floral Diversity Insect diversity increases with plant diversityCarvell, C., W. R. Meek, R. F. Pywell, D. Goulson and M. Nowakowski. 2007. Comparing the efficacy of agri-environmentschemes to enhance bumble bee abundance and diversity on arable field margins. J of Applied Ecology 44: 29-40.Potts, S. G., B. Vulliamy, A. Dafni, G. Ne’eman, and P. G. Willmer. 2003. Linking bees and flowers: how do floralcommunities structure pollinator communities? Ecology 84:2628-2642.Tscharntke, T. A., A. Gathmann, and I. Steffan-Dewenter. 1998. Bioindication using trap-nesting bees and wasps and theirnatural enemies and interactions. J of Applied Ecology 35:708-719. Photo: Eric Mader
  62. 62. Native Plants Support Greater Diversity Locally native plants support more abundant and species-rich insect communities Native plants benefit diverse wildlife bumble bee Bombus sp.Tallamy, D. 2007. Bringing Nature Home. Timber Press: Portland, OR. sweat beeWilliams et al. 2011. Bees in disturbed habitats use, but do not prefer, alienplants. Basic and Applied Ecology. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2010.11.008 Agapostemon sp. Photo: Nancy Adamson
  63. 63. Shelter for Bumble BeesConserve undisturbed or unmowed areas;protect possible overwintering sites for queens• Cavities such as old rodent holes• Under brush piles & overgrown areas• Under bunch grassesExcellent habitat for groundnesting birds! Artificial nests ineffective little bluestem (but mouse pee helps!) Photos: Mace Vaughan, Matthew Shepherd, Bonnie Carruthers, Nancy Adamson
  64. 64. Shelter for Cavity-Nesting BeesStumps, brush piles, plants with pithy stems(elderberry, blackberry, sumac…)Excellent bird habitat (for nesting & food)!Another ecology story: Many bees dependon wood-boring beetles for habitat! blackberry Photos: Don Keirstead, Nancy Adamson
  65. 65. Shelter for Ground-Nesting Solitary BeesRetain or create bare soil:Access to bare, sandy soil • Keep areas of bare groundAreas without deep mulch,landscape fabric, or plastic • Maximize untilled areas • Clear away some plants from well drained slopes • Experiment with no-till farming techniques • Plant native bunch grasses Photos: Mace Vaughan Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  66. 66. Protect Ground-Nesting Bees: Avoid DeepTilling Reduce tillage No-till farms hosted three times more native squash bees than did conventional farmsShuler, et al. 2005. Farming Practices Influence Wild Pollinator Populationson Squash and Pumpkin. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98(3):790-795 Photos: USDA-NRCS, Bob Hammond, CO Coop Ext
  67. 67. Protection from Pesticides Benefits All Wildlife Photo: Regina Hirsch
  68. 68. Avoid Pesticide PoisoningPesticides cause significantdamage to beneficial insectpopulations• Use active ingredients with least impact on bees• Consider formulation• Label guidelines only apply to honey bees• Don’t spray on plants in bloom• Spray at night and when dry
  69. 69. Organic-Approved ≠ Safe Organic-approved pesticides not safe: • Rotenone = Dangerous for bees! • Pyrethrins = Dangerous for bees! • Spinosad = Dangerous for bees! • Beauveria bassiana = Dangerous! Okay when not directly applied to bees (i.e. non-blooming crops or at night): • Insecticidal soap • Horticultural oil • NeemPhoto: NRCS/Toby Alexander
  70. 70. EstablishingNative Meadow Habitat male sweat bees, Halictus ligatus, on wingstem, Verbesina Photo: Nancy Adamson
  71. 71. Establishing New Habitat: Keys to SuccessThe 6 Critical Elements:1. Remove ALL perennial weeds prior to planting2. Do not disturb dormant weed seed3. Make a clean seed bed/planting area4. Use appropriate planting technology for the site5. Plant perennial seed in the fall6. Manage annual and biennial weeds for two years after planting Photo: Paul Jepson, OSU IPPC
  72. 72. Seeding: Remove ALL Perennial WeedsConventional Farms: Organic Farms:• Mow site and follow with • Shallow cultivation followed glyphosate (Roundup) fallow with a smother crop (at least for a full growing season 1 year) • Buckwheat• Use “Roundup Ready” • Sudan grass soybeans ‒ Combo cover and herbicide • Solarization (clear plastic): • At least 1 year • Horticultural vinegar (expensive) • Flame weeding Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  73. 73. Solarization (A Full Year is Best!)• UV stabilized plastic• Mow closely pre-install• Install following rain or water just prior to install• Dig in edges• Stabilize as needed• Care in keeping tear free and/or repairing quickly Photo: Nancy Adamson
  74. 74. Create a Clean Seed BedSeed Bed Preparation:• Burn or rake off debris, or very light disk or harrow to smooth surface (should be firm, not fluffy)• Do not to bring more weed seeds to the surface! Photos: Jessa Guisse Not ready for planting! Ready for planting! Photos: Don Keirstead Photos: Don Keirstead
  75. 75. Appropriate Planting TechnologyNative Seed Drills:• Multiple seed sizes• Plant directly in stubble (no till)• Tye, Truax, Great Plains(common manufacturers)Brillion Drop Seeders:• Made for sowing turf andpasture grasses, also alfalfa andclover• Works with native seed (changeseed box agitators)• Requires smooth, cultivatedseed bed (not like this photo!) Photos: Jessa Guisse
  76. 76. Seeding: Appropriate Technology Hand Seeding/Broadcasters • Mix seed with sand for even distribution • Requires clean, exposed seed bed • Seed on soil surface – Do not bury the seed Photo: Nancy Adamson Photo: Don KeirsteadPhoto: Nancy Adamson Photo: Jessa Guisse Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  77. 77. Appropriate Planting TechnologyTransplants:• Supplemental irrigation• Animal guards• Mechanical transplanters • Tree planters • Vegetable transplanters Photos: Mace Vaughan, Matthew Shepherd
  78. 78. Seeding: Post PlantingPost Seeding:• Roll with cultipacker, lawn roller• Mow perennial seeded areas during the first year (before annual weeds produce seed) Photos: Mace Vaughan, Jessa Guisse
  79. 79. Establishing New Habitat: Post-PlantingPost Seeding: Mow perennial seeded areas first and second year,before annual and biennial weeds produce seedWhen planting is ~10-12”, mow to 6-8” (as often as needed) to letlight reach new seedlings w/o smothering Photos: Nancy Adamson
  80. 80. The Finished Product!New Hampshire Blueberry Farm Post-Planting: 2011 Photos: Don Keirstead, NH NRCS
  81. 81. Managing Established Pollinator Habitat Post-planting Weed Control: • Mowing and spot-weeding Maintaining Early Successional Habitat: • Rotational mowing, burning*, grazing, brush cutting (no more than 1/3 per year) Other: • Mulching shrubs, deer fencing, vole cages *Burning is generally best Photos: Nancy Adamson
  82. 82. Long-Term Habitat Management: Limit Disturbance Mowing, grazing, burning, disking are best at infrequent intervals • Disturbance to no more than 1/3 of habitat area each year • Time management for when most effective against target, or during dormant season • Early successional habitat is ideal; too much disturbance favors grasses over forbs Photos: USDA-ARS, Audubon California
  83. 83. Manage warm season grasseswith prescribed burning Photos: VADGIF
  84. 84. Benefits of Prescribed Fire• Reduces THATCH between the grass clumps• Increases nutritional value of vegetation• Promotes the growth of beneficial forbs• Controls woody competition Photos: VADGIF
  85. 85. Forb + Grass vs Grass Only Plantings Photo: Nancy Adamson
  86. 86. Forb vs Grass Plantings• Forb seeds/pound vary tremendously Butterfly millkweed: 70,000 seeds/lb Rough goldenrod: 750,000 seeds/lb Cardinal flower: 8,000,000 seeds/lb• Target seeding rate should be in seeds per square foot• Order pure live seed (PLS) whenever possible• Avoid pre-emergent herbicides used for grassland plantings Photo: Nancy Adamson
  87. 87. Seed Calculator Example• Use an Excel spreadsheet to calculate seeds/sq ft; To keep costs lower and ensure enough seeds for successful planting• NRCS, Xerces Society, & seed companies can provide calculators (spreadsheets) like the one shown here
  88. 88. Seeding Rates to Help Keep Costs ReasonableFor forb+grass, target seeding rate• Drill seeding: 25-35 seeds/sq ft• Broadcast: 40-60 seeds/sq ft Photos: Don Keirstead (NH NRCS)
  89. 89. Riparian Restoration Restored riparian habitats support diverse communities of native bees and other wildlifeWilliams, N. 2011 Restoration Ecology 19:4, pg. 450–459. Photo: Jennifer Hopwood
  90. 90. Invasive Plant Removal Invasive plant species can drastically alter pollinator communities Removal of invasive plants can increase insect diversityFiedler, A., D. Landis, M. Arduser. 2011. Rapid Shift in Pollinator Communities Following Invasive Species Removal. Restoration Ecology online.Hanula, J. and S.Horn. 2011. Removing an invasive shrub (Chinese privet) increases native bee diversity and abundance in riparian forests of the southeastern U.S.Insect Conservation and Diversity 4: 275–283
  91. 91. Gardens & Parks Gardens can be valuable habitat for bumble bees, birds, small mammals, & reptiles In agricultural lands, gardens are the most important habitat for bumble bee nestsHagen et al. 2011. PLoS One 6 (5) e19997.Goulson et al. 2010. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 1207–1215. Photo: Nancy Adamson
  92. 92. 2008 Farm Bill Pollinator Habitat Provisions• Makes pollinators a priority for all USDA land managers & conservationists• Encourages inclusion of pollinators in all USDA conservation programs (this basically means adding diversity to plant mixes) Photo: Nancy Adamson
  93. 93. Farms: Soil, Water, & WildlifeFarm Bill support forpollinator habitat benefits Pollinator Hedgerowwildlife generallyVA NRCS: practices forpollinators & other wildlife • Tree/Shrub Establishment Cover Crop • Conservation Cover • Hedgerow Planting • Field Border • Restoration and Management of Conservation Rare or Declining Habitats • Range Planting Cover • Upland Wildlife Habitat Management • Pest Management Field Border • Early Successional Habitat Development/ Management
  94. 94. Contact NRCS and SWCD Your Local USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Office and Soil and Water Conservation District: • Information about Farm Bill programs • New state pollinator technology notes • Revised EQIP/WHIP standards for habitat plantings • Farming for Pollinators brochure • Organic conversion assistancePhoto: USDA-ARS
  95. 95. USDA NRCS: Tree & Shrub Establishment/HedgerowPlant flowering shrubs that bloom in succession.• Design for multiple benefits, such as wildlife, IPM, visual screen, aesthetics, and erosion control. Photo: Katharina Ullmann (Xerces Society)
  96. 96. USDA NRCS: Conservation Cover Cover for erodible slopes Permanent vegetation on highly erodible sites Massachusetts Cranberry Farm Photos: Plymouth County NRCS
  97. 97. USDA NRCS: Integrated Pest Management • Protecting pollinators from pesticides • Establishing habitat for other beneficial insectsPhotos: David Biddinger (Penn State University),Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society), and Elise Fog
  98. 98. USDA NRCS: Field BorderCan include a diverse mix of native and lower cost non-native plants ornative local ecotype materials Photo: Eric Mader
  99. 99. Roadside Habitat Multiple benefits of native pollinator habitat on roadsides. • Provides habitat for pollinators and songbirds • Helps to lower maintenance costs • Vegetation can act as a snow fence in winter • Aesthetically pleasing, reduces driver fatiguePhoto: Kirk Henderson (Iowa IRVM)
  100. 100. Additional Resources bumble bee on silverbell Photo: Nancy Adamson
  101. 101. Further Information: Native Plant DatabaseLady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center: &
  102. 102. Further Information: Native Plant DatabaseLady Bird Johnson WildflowerCenter Recommended Species: Collections • Butterflies and MothsValue to Beneficial Insects • Special Value to Native Bees • Special Value to Bumble Bees • Special Value to Honey Bees • Provide Nesting Materials/Structure for Native Bees Click on those, then narrow to state, habit, light & soil conditions, etc.
  103. 103. Especially for Bumble BeesIn Conserving Bumble Bees: Guidelines forCreating and Managing Habitat for America’sDeclining Pollinators (new Xerces Societypublication)
  104. 104. Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries •
  105. 105. Further Information: The Xerces Society• Xerces Society publications•
  106. 106. Further Information: Resource Center Pollinator Conservation Resource CenterRegion-specific Information fromXerces, Cooperative Extension,USDA-NRCS, NGO, and othersources, including:• Regional plant lists• National plant lists• Conservation guides• Nest construction guides• Links to identification guides• Pesticide guidelines• Native plant nursery directory resource-center
  107. 107. Further Information: PublicationsPublished in February 2011“Attracting Native Pollinators belongson the bookshelf of everyone whovalues the future of the naturalworld.”- Douglas W. Tallamy, researcher and author ofBringing Nature Home “Precise, elegant and thoughtful, therecommendations offered by theXerces Society will become essentialto advancing a healthy and diversefood production system.”- Gary Nabhan, author of The Forgotten Pollinatorsand Renewing America’s Food Traditions
  108. 108. Take Home MessageWildflower-rich habitats supportbeneficial insects & other wildlifeEnsure • Diverse forage & nesting sites • Management for insect diversity bumble bee to blazing star (follow links to pollinator program) Photo: Nancy Adamson
  109. 109. Thank you! links to pollinator program) mason bee Photo: Nancy Adamson on raspberry
  110. 110. The Xerces SocietyWith the support of its members, the Society hasworked to protect wildlife through the conservationof invertebrates and their habitat since 1971 . Xerces blue butterfly (Glaucopsyche xerces), the first U.S. butterfly to go extinct due to human activities. Photos: California NRCS and Ed Ross
  111. 111. Questions? Comments? large carpenter beeon narrow-leaved mountain mint, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Photo: Nancy Adamson