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Understanding Open Science: Definitions and framework

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Presented in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June 28th 2017, as part of the FOSTER "Train the trainers" event organised by EIFL.

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Understanding Open Science: Definitions and framework

  1. 1. Understanding Open Science: Definitions and framework Dr. Nancy Pontika Open Access Aggregation Officer CORE Twitter: @nancypontika
  2. 2. What is Open Science
  3. 3. Research Lifecycle: as simple as it gets Idea Methodology Data Collection Analysis Publish
  4. 4. Idea Methodology Data Collection Analysis Publish Journal article, Dissertation, Book, Source Code, etc. Experiments, Interviews, Observations, etc. Numbers, Code, Text, Images, sound records, etc. Statistics, processes, analysis, documentation, etc. Research Lifecycle: focus on the steps
  5. 5. What is Open Science? The movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society. [FOSTER, Open Science Definition https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/taxonomy/term/7] Scope: • Transparency in experimental methodology, observation, and collection of data • Public availability and reusability of scientific data • Public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication • Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration [The OpenScience Project, What exactly is open science http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269]
  6. 6. Idea Methodology Data Collection Analysis Publish Experiments, Interviews, Observations, etc. Numbers, Code, Text, Images, sound records, etc. Statistics, processes, analysis, documentation, etc. Journal article, Dissertation, Book, Source Code, etc. ResearchLifecycle: focus on the publications
  7. 7. Nobel winner declares boycott of top science journals Randy Schekman says his lab will no longer send papers to Nature, Cell and Science as they distort scientific process https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/dec/09/nobel-winner- boycott-science-journals, Dec 2013 @ theguardian ”pressure to publish in "luxury" journals encouraged researchers to cut corners and pursue trendy fields of science instead of doing more important work. ”
  8. 8. Open Science can Multiply Serendipity in research …
  9. 9. Opening up the research life cycle Idea Methodology Data Collection Analysis Publish Experiments, Interviews, Observations, etc. Numbers, Code, Text, Images, sound records, etc. Statistics, processes, analysis, documentation, etc. Journal article, Dissertation, Book, Source Code, etc. Versioning control, Storage & Management Workflow Management Systems Interactive computing Wikis, Blogs, Social Media
  10. 10. Source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v461/n7261/index.html ”If we wait 5 years for (Arctic) data to be released, the Arctic is going to be a very different place” Parsons, Arctic Research Scientist
  11. 11. Mostly due to current methods capture and data malpractice, approximately 50% of all research data and experiments is considered not reproducible, and the vast majority (likely over 80%) of data never makes it to a trusted and sustainable repository. At an investment of Europe in data-generating research of €120 Billion between 2014-2020, the annual capital destruction is consequently very substantial. “ Source: Realising the European Open Science Cloud, EC DG Research & Innovation 2016 http://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/pdf/realising_the_european_open_science_cloud_2016.pdf#view=fit&pagemode=none
  12. 12. Opening up the research life cycle Idea Methodology Data Collection Analysis Publish Experiments, Interviews, Observations, etc. Numbers, Code, Text, Images, sound records, etc. Statistics, processes, analysis, documentation, etc. Journal article, Dissertation, Book, Source Code, etc. Versioning control, Storage & Management Workflow Management Systems Interactive computing Wikis, Blogs, Social Media
  13. 13. Open Science taxonomy Paper available at http://oro.open.ac.uk/44719/. Image available at http://oro.open.ac.uk/47806/
  14. 14. Topics: adoption and gaps Image available at https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/resources
  15. 15. Open Science implementation
  16. 16. Is it a wrap rage? Image from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrap_rage
  17. 17. How can we get closer to Open Science?
  18. 18. Open Science is now a requirement Research results: “each beneficiary must ensure open access to all peer- reviewed scientific publications” (page 4) Research data: “A new feature of Horizon 2020 is the Open Research Data Pilot (ORD Pilot), designed to improve and maximise access to and reuse of research data generated by projects… The Pilot on Open Research Data will be monitored throughout Horizon 2020 with a view to further developing Commission policy on open research.” (page 7) Report URL: https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/grants_manual/hi/oa_pilot/h2020-hi-oa-pilot-guide_en.pdf
  19. 19. Funders recognise it
  20. 20. Research and Social Impact Research Excellence Framework (REF) 65% 20% 15% Excellence – Impact - Implementation Quality Research Outputs Impact Research Environment [Source: http://www.ref.ac.uk/panels/assessmentcriteriaandleveldefinitions/]
  21. 21. Academic Staff Today`s Graduate Student Tomorrow`s Horizon 2020 Applicant Project Managers & Horizon 2020 NCPs Institution & its strategic focus Librarians Figure: Ecosystem of Key Actors in long-term Open Science implementation. along the young researcher`s career path that. Each group along the young researcher’s career path has a unique role, needs and challenges and can influence integration of Open Science principles into the standard Research Lifecycle (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.30564 ). Funding Conditions (jointly targetted with FP7 Pasteur4OA) Key actors in Open Science implementation
  22. 22. Open Science benefits
  23. 23. General benefits • Increases research efficiency • Promotes scholarly rigour and enhances research quality • Enhances visibility and engagement • Enables the creation of new research questions • Enhances collaboration and community building [Source: Open To All? Case studies of openness in Research http://www.rin.ac.uk/system/files/attachments/NESTA-RIN_Open_Science_V01_0.pdf]
  24. 24. Benefits for early career researchers • Become pioneers • Have gained valuable experience • Distinguish from the crowd • Plan successful research proposals • Receive higher citations • Know how to comply with funders’ policies • Comply with funders’ policies • Demonstrate research and societal impact [Note: see also benefits of open access for early career researchers http://oro.open.ac.uk/44720/]
  25. 25. Benefits to research consumers Source: https://core.ac.uk/
  26. 26. Benefits to Text and Data Miners Open content enables the collection of a large corpus and promotes the use of TDM. • Unlocks hidden information and develops new knowledge • Explores new horizons • Improves research and evidence base • Improves research process quality
  27. 27. Why Open Science?
  28. 28. All of the Open Access benefits… • Good for the public benefit • Research advancement • More citations • Larger media coverage • Taxpayers’ return of investment • More visibility • Etc.
  29. 29. Research Reproducibility • greater visibility and impact for authors & projects • makes research networked & interconnected • networked research generates serendipity by default • speeds up innovation & discovery, takes ideas to the market & solutions to societal challenges
  30. 30. Impact Source : Embedding open science practices within evaluation systems can promote research that meets societal needs in developing countries, LSE Impact Blog Jan 2017 http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/. Image credit: 2 by Mundial Perspectives “academic impact trumps excellence and relevance together, the cost of which is researchers deviating from paths they would have followed were the incentive structures different. If researchers continue to be assessed using such narrow criteria, scientific research activities will become further dislocated from the needs of the society “
  31. 31. Source: Houghton, J., Swan, A. & Brown, S. Access to research and technical information in Denmark. (2011) http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/272603 19% of the processes developed would have been delayed or abandoned without access to research a 2.2 years delay would cost around EUR 5 million per firm in lost sales Open Science contributes to Economic Growth
  32. 32. “By interviewing users the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) estimated that the cost of assembling hard-to-find data with uneven standards and uncertain quality added about 25% to the cost of products and services based on these data.” Source: Marine Knowledge 2020: roadmap http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=SWD:2014:149:FIN
  33. 33. Other benefits • Media coverage • Receive more citations for your data • Open licenses allow reuse • Discover projects and collaborators • Open peer review
  34. 34. FOSTER Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research
  35. 35. FOSTER – an Open Science portal
  36. 36. Course: Introduction to Open Science • Learning outcomes • Level of previous knowledge • Targeted audience • Online material with re-usable/open licenses • Videos, readings, quizzes, certificate • Self-paced for the time being • Forum where learners can post questions Direct link to the course https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/content/open-science-scientific-research
  37. 37. Research Support: what we’ve seen so far… Open Access Open Data Stand alone concepts Open Science • Open Access • Open Data • Open Reproducible Research • Open Peer Review • etc Wider concepts What next?
  38. 38. Research Support: … and what next Open Access Open Data Stand alone concepts Open Science • Open Access • Open Data • Open Reproducible Research • Open Peer Review • etc Wider concepts Responsible Research and Innovation Citizen Science Embedded research support applied in applied in
  39. 39. Responsible Research and Innovation - RRI
  40. 40. RRI Definition Source: https://renevonschomberg.wordpress.com/definition-of-responsible-innovation/ “Responsible Research and Innovation is a transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view to the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society).” (von Schomberg, 2011:9)
  41. 41. RRI Components Engagement: of all societal actors Ethics: increase societal relevance and acceptability of research and innovation outcomes Governance: developing a framework that integrates all the RRI elements Gender equality: integration of the gender dimension in research and innovation Open Access: providing access to research results Science Education: make change happen Source: http://www.pasteur4oa.eu/sites/pasteur4oa/files/resource/RRI_POLICY%20BRIEF.pdf
  42. 42. RRI opportunities and obstacles Source: https://www.rri-tools.eu/training/resources opportunities!from!new!networks;!access!to!new!funding!sources.! % The!biggest!clusters!of!issues!were!around!attitudes!and!culture.!! ! ! Figure%2:%Overview%issues%identified%as%possible%obstacles%to%implementing%RRI%–%shown%by%relative%size/importance.%
  43. 43. https://www.theguardian.com/ technology/2014/jan/25/online-gamers- solving-sciences-biggest-problems
  44. 44. Citizen science projects Source: https://www.citizensciencealliance.org/
  45. 45. The awesome power of Citizen Science Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZwJzB-yMrU
  46. 46. Assignment: Think of a research project you recently worked on. Have you applied OS to all research steps?
  47. 47. Thank you! Q&A

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