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6Gender and Alternative and Sustainable Livelihood Projects

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6Gender and Alternative and Sustainable Livelihood Projects

  1. 1. Ghana Environmental Management Project (GEMP) How to Mainstream Gender Equality in Livelihood Projects Alternative and Sustainable MODULE 6 Livelihood ProjectsLivelihood Projects Alternative and SustainableAlternative and Sustainable
  2. 2. Introduction totheModule These modules are for government staff of the ministries and departments related to Environmental Protection, Environment, Science and Technology, Food and Agriculture, Gender, Children and Social Protection; District staff, planners and Gender Desk Officers; NGOs, CBOs, women's groups andcommunityleaders. Themodulescovereachofthesix themesoftheGhanaEnvironmentalManagementProject: Module1: Landuse andsoilmanagement Module2: Wildlifeandbiodiversityconservation Module3: Energyresourcemanagement Module4: Waterresourcemanagement Module5: Managementofvegetativecover Module6: Alternativeandsustainablelivelihoods. Contents Introduction to the Module....................................................................................................................2 Gender and Alternative and Sustainable Livelihoods.............................................................................4 1. Problem Identification ................................................................................................................4 Gender Issues ..................................................................................................................................4 2. Project Design .............................................................................................................................5 Project Logic Model: Gender and alternative and sustainable livelihoods ................................6 3. Project Implementation..............................................................................................................7 Case Study 1: Special Micro-Credit Service to Combat Land Degradation and Desertification ....8 Case Study 2: Healthy Environment, Healthy Family.....................................................................9 Case Study 3: Natural evolutions: changing the environment, changing gender relations........11 Case Study 4: Loving your environment transforms communities and families .........................12 4. Project Monitoring....................................................................................................................14 Indicators......................................................................................................................................15 5. Project Evaluation.....................................................................................................................16 Monitoring and Evaluation Tools ..................................................................................................16 1
  3. 3. Despite many agencies' commitment to gender equality, gender mainstreaming in project cycle management has been limited. Some pay attention to gender during Problem Identification, and at certain points of the Design and Monitoring phases. To truly mainstream gender in sustainable land management projects, each phase of the project cycle needs to be linked with appropriategenderanalysistoolsandkeygenderquestions. Eachmodulecontainsadviceonhow tomainstreamgenderthroughtheprojectcycle: 1. ProblemIdentification 2. ProjectDesign 3. ProjectImplementation 4. ProjectMonitoring 5. ProjectEvaluation You can use these materials to assist you to go through the planning cycle with staff, district stakeholders and communities to ensure that the gender issues of inequity are really being addressed by interventions for gender and sustainable land management. Each section contains key questions and examples to assist you to design, implement and monitor gender-sensitive projectswithstakeholdersandcommunities. 2
  4. 4. GenderandAlternativeand Sustainable Livelihoods Problem identification involves understanding the problems, needs and opportunities related to gender and sustainable land management. It should take into consideration environmental policy, current technologies, ways of working with communities, and considerations for transformingexistinggenderrelationsofpowerandcontrol. When you are identifying a problem related to gender and sustainable land management, answerthefollowingquestionstoensurethatgenderequalityismainstreamed. 1. Has relevant gender information, especially socio‐economic information, been identifiedandcollectedso thatitcanbeincludedindiscussions aboutprojectdesign? 2. Is background data disaggregated by sex? (In many cases, disaggregation by other social identitiessuch as age and ethnic origin is also required, given that communitiesare rarely homogeneousunits.) 3. Have gender specialists (in the CBO or NGO, for example) and representatives of women's organizationswithinthecommunitybeenconsulted? 4. Have both men and women been involved in problem identification (even if the ultimate problemrecognizedaffectsonesexmorethantheother)? Here is a list of some of the issues of gender inequity (gender issues) related to alternative and sustainablelivelihoods: 1. Differences in access to and control over assets between women and men contribute to differencesinlivelihoodopportunitiesandoutcomes 2. Women generally have less access to information on alternative livelihoodsbecause of lack of access to extension services and inadequate numbers of women extension officers 3. Women generally have fewer skills or training opportunities to be able to engage in sustainableandalternativelivelihoodactivities 4. Womenhaveless accesstostart-upcapitalforalternativelivelihoodactivities 5. There is a lack of appropriate, women friendly technologies, which preventswomen's accesstoextraincome. Insteadwomenoftenhavetohirementooperatesomemachines 6. Women farmers have inadequate access to information and communication technology(i.e. records managements, mobile phones, computers) linking to them to markets 7. Distancestomarketsposegreaterdisadvantagestowomen 8. The lack of sustainable livelihood options often leads to migration, which results in: an increase in female-headed households; single parenting; prostitution; diseases such as HIVandAIDS, especiallyamongwomen. The following is a short description of the major gender issues of inequity related to gender and alternativeandsustainablelivelihoods: 1. ProblemIdentification GenderIssues 3
  5. 5. Women and men combine a range of assets to achieve their agricultural livelihood outcome. These include the land, water, forest, biodiversity, credit, capital, income, livestock and technology, particularly labour saving technologies and information (local knowledge and access to information). Depending on the cultivation of the land for livelihood support has always been a gamble because of the uncertainties about the weather.During the long dry period, most of the people either stay idle or migrate to the south for menial jobs to earn income for the family sustenance. The migration is mainly by the youth and adult men and women; leavingtheelderlybehindtotheirfate. For purposes of survival, there have been several other non-agricultural and off-farm activities that people engage in. Some of these activities include bee keeping, pottery making, pito brewing, basket and mat weaving, cotton spinning and the like that would make people less dependent on natural resources. The establishment of start-up capital credit schemes to support development of small-scale businesses such as fish processing,oil extration (shea butter, ground nut),soapmakingandgariprocessingis recommendable. Agricultural diversification to promote and support the production of high value crops during the dry season, seedlings for economic trees, intensive guinea fowl production and small ruminants rearing could provide alternative sources of income for women, men and the youth to reversethecurrent situation. Women suffer from large information gaps that relate to imbalances in the delivery of extension services and a lack of appropriate women friendly technology. The effective establishment of local trade to link up the rural communities can improve the livelihoods of women and men by providing them with a source of income. The improvement of information and communication technology(ICT)iscriticalinlinkingfarmerstothemarket. An excerpt from: Gender Equality Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Drought and Desertification in the three Northern Regions of Ghana (GESAP), developed in 2011 by the Environmental ProtectionAgency, in conjunction with the Ghana Environmental Management Project. Within the framework given by your agency or organization, or sometimes by your funder's request, you will need to identify objectives and the activities that will enable you to achieve expected results. The Project Design stage is the most important when it comes to integrating the gender dimension into the project. You can apply all the information obtained from your gender analysis in order to plan based on real information concerning the lives of the male and femalebeneficiaries. When you are choosing expected results and activities for your project, answer the following questionstoensurethatgenderequalityis mainstreamed. 1. Whatis thecurrentsituationofmenandwomenintheareaofyourplannedintervention? 2. Willtheproposedprojectcontributetoexistinginequalitiesamongmenandwomen? 3. Does the proposed project break down or challenge existing inequalities among men and 2. ProjectDesign 4
  6. 6. 4. Will the proposed project change the perceptions or stereotypes about men and women andtheirrolesinanyway? 5. Whatoptionsshouldbeconsideredtostrengthenagenderperspective? 6. Will the proposed project contribute to women's empowerment? If not, is there place for an allied intervention that will contribute to empowerment, so as not to reinforce the disparitybetweenmenandwomen? Once you have decided on all the expected results and activities for your project, you can summarizetheminaLogicModel: · The Ultimate Outcome is the overall goal of the project, which contributes to national- levelaimsandpolicies. · The Intermediate Outcomes are the expected results related to changes in your organizationorgroup,anditssystemsorprocesses. · The Immediate Outcomes are the expected results related to changes in individuals, their knowledgeandawareness,skillsorabilities,oraccess. · Outputs(orcompletedactivities)leadtooutcomes. Therefore it is important that you implement your activities as planned, based on gender analysis. If youdo,youwillcertainlyachieveyourexpectedresults. The expected results and activities listed in the logic model below are examples for you. Depending on the funds you have, you may want to implement only a few of the activities representedinthisLogicModel. Project Logic Model: Gender and alternative and sustainable livelihoods Theme Alternative and Sustainable Livelihoods Ultimate Outcome Strengthened mainstreaming of gender considerations in issues relating to community-based activities necessary for the reduction and reversing of land degradation and desertification. Gender Equality Strategy and Action Plan ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Intermediate Outcomes Increased utilization of alternative livelihood options by women Increased access of women to extension services and user friendly technologies ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Immediate Outcomes Improved women access to non-traditional livelihood options, technology, sense of business planning and resource management. Enhanced access to information, use of technology and confidence of women increased women extension workers and women-friendly technologies 5
  7. 7. ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Type of Activities to be implemented in order to achieve results Dug-outs built for dry season gardening Women linked to credit schemes Transportation cooperatives formed for women to take goods to market Train women and men in the following livelihood activities to increase household income and women’s participation in decision making on use of income: Soap making Shea butter processing Dawadawa processing Basket weaving Cotton spinning Bee keeping Dry season gardening Guinea fowl rearing Fowl rearing Sheep rearing Goat rearing Khebab processing Soya beans processing Groundnut oil extraction FM radio stations used to communicate information about alternative livelihoods Consciousness raising sessions and assertiveness training workshops held for women Training sessions held for women in business planning and resource management Train women and men in the following: feasibility studies, fund raising, savings mobilization, financial management to improve their capacities to initiate and sustainably run income generating activities Train women and men in coaching/mentoring for development of income generating activities Train women and men in group dynamics: Group formation Roles and responsibilities Leadership skills Women extension workers trained to promote alternative livelihood activities Workshops organized to design user-friendly technologies for women Women sensitized to higher education and use of information technologies Women trained to engage in new livelihood options and technologies Women’s groups provided with solar- powered grinding mills High-value crop seeds and seedlings promoted and distributed Market avenues created for women 3. Project Implementation Implementation is the major phase in the project cycle, when plans are transformed into reality. Implementation involves using your resources to implement activities in order toachieve the expected results. When you are implementing the activities for your project, answer the following questions to ensure that gender equality is mainstreamed. 6
  8. 8. 1. Arewomenandmenbenefitingfromtheproject? Inthesamewayordifferentways? 2. Aresomewomenormennegativelyimpactedbytheproject? 3. Have gender relations (power and control) of women and men changed as a result of the project?Havegendergapsbeenreduced? 4. Arenewgenderissues ofinequityemergingwithintheproject? 5. Are there new external factors affecting gender relations besides the project? Are they positiveornegative? 6. Are women and men both supportive of the project, or do they wish to change it? Who? Why?How? What follows are some case studies about project activities. Ideally, it would be great if your staff and stakeholders, including community members, could visit the communities described in the stories. However, these case studies are the next best thing to visiting. Each case study shows how womenandmenare: · participatingintheproject · sharingprojectresources · sharingprojectbenefits · changingtheirlivestogether · experiencingempowerment. After each story, there are a number of questions to answer. Read (or translate) the story to your staff, stakeholders or community members. Lead the discussion based on the questions listed after the story. This will assist your staff and stakeholders to visualize the types of changes that they should expect, and allow them to discuss the implications for their own work and lives. They may want to implement a similar project. Similarly, their discussion of the story may inspirethemwithnewideasfortheirown projects. Your staff and stakeholders should understand that exciting things related to gender and sustainable land management are happening in northern Ghana.They too can be part of it! They cantransformgenderrelationsthroughsustainablelandmanagementprojects! This case study is about Zuarungu-Moshie Asilgatua – a community in Bolgatanga Municipality of the Upper East Region. The community has a group made up of 30 members, 20ofwhomarewomen,who engageinlivestockproduction. It used to be that livestock production in these communities was very low due to animal disease prevalence. Therefore, during the inception of the project, the farmers raised their concerns regarding livestock protection. As a result, a Veterinary Officer from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture was invited to educate farmers on routine prophylaxes and disease treatment. All animals that were brought in by the Project Co-ordinator for distribution to farmers were treated. This reduced mortality and improved growth and performance. From this, the farmers (bothmenandwomen)learnedtostrategizeforlivestockimprovement. Case Study 1: Special Micro-Credit Service to Combat Land Degradation and Desertification 7
  9. 9. Livestock production in this community has increased as a result of the routine treatment offered by the Veterinary Services. Also women now have the right to own and benefit from their own properties. Their husbands consult them before using any of their animals. As such, thisprojectcreatedopportunitiesforwomentoown valuableassets. Now that women are recognized for their success in managing livestock, they have become involved in positions of decision making to promote development. District officials and other leaders advocate for the active involvement of women in the preliminary investigations of projects. They also assign quotas for the representation of women in the executives of managementcommitteesforanycommunityproject. Women can equally promote good practices in agriculture and food security if given the right inputs. They can protect and manage forest resources, and promote equality and human dignity in every sphere of life. Reported by: Felicity Adorbah Gender Desk Officer Bolgatanga Municipality Questions for Discussion: 1. What are women's and men's traditional roles in livestock rearing? Take both big animals and small ruminants into account. Do women have particular roles, such as indigenous knowledge or special skills? 2. What new skills did women learn? 3. What new channels for community involvement opened up for women? 4. How does the story show that gender roles have changed? How have the roles and tasks changed? Has the way the community values those roles and tasks changed? 5. The issues of access and control are prominent in this story. Do women have access and control over the livestock? Do men? Be specific by giving evidence from the story. 6. How did the livestock assist women to have better sustainable livelihood options? 7. How do you think women and men worked together to make the project a success? 8
  10. 10. CaseStudy2: HealthyEnvironment,HealthyFamily In the community of Kanpuo, in Upper West Region, women and men have worked side by side toimprovetheirenvironment. There used to be frustration in family life – this was directly related to the degradation of the land and lack of productivity. Men tried to do their best, but women said they were oppressed, and children too, were “worrying them.” With men earning and controlling what little money they made, there was not enough income to meet everyone's needs. As a result, there were lots of petty quarrels which evolved into major disagreements, until husbands and wives stopped communicating altogether. It was a hopeless situation, and they ended up living separate lives. After making all the major decisions about how the household should be run, men used their money to “refresh” themselves, leaving their wives and children at home to bemoan their unhappysituation. When the Environmental Protection Agency came with a proposal to begin a Ghana Environmental Management Project, the people were ready for something new. After stopping bush burning and learning many techniques for soil and water conservation, the people were able to resume farming and other productive activities. The land was wet, green and fertile again. When the land came back to life, there were other changes too. Instead of complaining about their husbands, women found that they could help themselves. They did not have to depend on their husbands for everything. They started to process dawa dawa and shea nuts. They made soap andsold vegetables. Thewomendiscoveredthatthingsbegantochangebetweenthemand their men. Their relationships started to improve – they started to talk again and make decisions together – they showed respect for each other. Women found that they could advise the men abouttheircrops,andalsoseektheiradviceaboutsocialmatters. Butwhatwas thereasonforallthesechanges? Womenstartedtomakemoney! Once women started to make some income, men were relieved of the stress they felt. Now they are happier because they share the burden of responsibilities with their wives. However, the women are careful with the money they make -- they hold on to their share. When they find out that there is a problem or an outstanding payment, they will assist. They feel that they cannot trust their husbands to keep their money. Men agree with this approach, and do not ask for money from their wives unless it is critical. Some of the things for which women release money are: school fees and books, engaging labour and corn milling. Now children go to school, and withbothmotherandfatherworking,theyshareresponsibilitiesforhouseholdchores. Women say that once they are satisfied with their men, it's easy – they will do anything to make the men happy. Themenarealsohappybecausetheirwivescannow contributeandshareresources. 9
  11. 11. Questions forDiscussion: 1. Before the environment project, why weren't women making money? Didn't they want tohavetheirown income? 2. After the environment project started to show results, women saw that they could make money? Whatwas thereasonforthischange? 3. In what types of livelihood activities did the women become engaged? Were these alternativelivelihoodsorjusttheusualones? Aretheysustainable? 4. How did men feel once women started to make money? Were they threatened that womenweretakingawaytheirpowerandcontrol? 5. Why do the women hold on to their money and not just hand it over to their husbands? Whatis themen's reactiontothis? 6. At the end of the story, women said that they would do anything to make their men happy? Wouldthemensay thesame? Whyorwhy not? 7. How does the story show that gender roles have changed? How have the roles and tasks changed? Has thewaythecommunityvaluesthoserolesandtaskschanged? In 2010, Balungu in Talensi District, Upper East Region became a Ghana Environmental Management Project community. Agroup of men and women worked together to develop a tree nursery. Even though establishing tree nurseries is typically a men's activity, men and women came together morning and evening to water the seedlings in the nursery. They were successful with this activity and went on to develop a proposal to do shea butter processing. They are now able to process shea nuts in their own community rather than going to the next place. Because these were activities introduced by GEMP, men and women decided to do everything together anddidnottreateachotherdifferently. The experience of these projects was extended to other aspects of this group's lives. The men and women have learned to help each other in more ways, such as house building and making local bricks. Before men and women could stay together in the house yard, but not talk to each other. They were used to living together but being apart. Now they are affectionate with each otherandhavelongtalks. Everyone in the community sees the difference in the group of women and men. Others have also taken up the changes. Men and women are helping each other with their work, and at the sametimelivinginpeaceandharmony,lovingeachothermorethanbefore. The community noticed that messages about men and women working together were coming from all different directions: from the church, the radio and from Madam Zainabu, who taught themtotreateachotherwithfairnessandkindness. They also remembered a man who used to live in their community,ApwaraYara. He came from Accra ten years ago to retire in Balungu. Apwara and his wife would hold hands when they came to the market and then drink pito together. At the time, the community was surprised, and insulted them because they were affectionate in public. He also used to sweep and cook for his wife while she was picking shea nuts. They felt that Apwara was a disgrace to men. But now theyunderstandtheimportanceofalovingrelationshipinmarriage. Case Study 3: Natural evolutions: changing the environment, changing gender relations 10
  12. 12. Now Mother and Father tell the children what to do. Boys and girls also share tasks. There is understanding in the home. The Chief, who is a retiredAgricultural Officer, is very happy about the changes in the community. Not only do his people live in harmony with each other, but they alsoliveinharmonywiththeland. Questions forDiscussion: 1. What are women's and men's traditional roles in tree nurseries? Do women have particularroles,suchas indigenousknowledgeorspecialskills? 2. Whatnewskillsdidwomenlearn? 3. Whatnewchannelsforcommunityinvolvementopenedupforwomen? 4. “Because these were activities introduced by GEMP, men and women decided to do everything together and did not treat each other differently.” Why do you think the introduction of GEMPactivities inspired men and women to work together and not treat eachotherdifferently? 5. How does the story show that gender roles have changed? How have the roles and tasks changed? Has thewaythecommunityvaluesthoserolesandtaskschanged? 6. Listallthereasonsgivenforthechangesingenderrelations? 7. What do you think about Apwara Yara and his wife? Do you know couple who behave likethat? Do youadmirethem? Why? 8. The story refers to children – parents' behaviour toward them, their activities, and their behaviour. Whyis referencetochildrenimportantinthisstory? 9. Do you think that this transformation in gender relations is real and sustainable? Or do youthinkthatthingwillgobacktothewaytheywere? 10. What does gender transformation have to do with the environment and sustainable land management? 11
  13. 13. CaseStudy4: Lovingyourenvironmenttransformscommunitiesandfamilies The community of Kumblingo is near Bolgatanga in Upper East Region. Kumblingo used to getverylittlerainbecausetheycutdown mostoftheirtrees. In Kumblingo, GEMP partners with Divine Tender Care Foundation to do various activities withthecommunity. Onehundredandfiftymembersengageinthefollowingsmallbusinesses: · Sheabutterextraction · Beekeeping · Guineafowlraising · Animalrearing · Treenurseries. GEMP has six strategic nurseries in the region, and Kublingo is one of them. Now they plant trees to protect their environment and reduce the effects of bad storms. They also plant medicinal trees, such as moringa and others that provide easy treatments for certain ailments. Kumblingo loves its environment because it is beautiful and provides for their needs. Because thecommunitycaresforitsenvironment,ithasanewlife. Before GEMP, it was difficult for women to have roles in projects and public life. They had no land and no voice. During farming season, they would work on the rice paddies, but during the other six months of the year, they had nothing to do. Even when women had a few goats or guinea fowls, men could take them away at any time, leaving them with nothing. Women could not own any assets. Even so, they needed to keep up with their obligations in the home and feed and care for their families. Firewood was scarce, and women were so desperate to find it, that they would strip live wood to bring home. They did not realize that this practice harmed the treesandwas badfortheenvironment. In 2009, the leadership called everyone together to talk about the environment. Men and women were put into groups to make a contribution to improving their environment. At that time, it was discovered that women had “no resources” to give. In fact, they seemed to have “no roles.” Traditional leaders and many of the men recognized that women were disadvantaged. Women were given land to do some farming. Once they were included, women began to change. They were willing to cooperate and suggested new activities. If their husbands were not available to do their share of the work at the nursery, women would fill in for them, and husbands would do the same for their wives. Women and men planned activities together in communitymeetings,andthenstartedtodothesameathome. Before GEMP, it was difficult for women to sit with their husbands or even to look into their faces. It was inappropriate for women to eat with men. If a man allowed his wife to eat with him, he would be called “woman.” Men were afraid that women would take over. They did not want to lose their power or women's submissiveness. Now through conversations and discussions, women and men became more confident with each other. They eat together, bathe togetherandevenhavejointbankaccounts! The relationship between husbands and wives has extended to children. Children are invited to sit with their mothers and fathers to plan together. Instead of shouting at or beating a child, parentssitdown anddiscuss theissues withthem,leavingthechildtothinkaboutchoices. 12
  14. 14. The community now cares for all its children. Before they found it difficult to pay for children's hospitalization, but now they are able to pay easily. Families earned so little money and placed so little priority on children's education that most boys and girls went to school with no slippers and no uniforms. Men were against girls going to school after Primary Grade 6. They used to think that the girls should marry so that they could gain a bride price of several cows. Now they encourage girls to continue their education. Teenage pregnancy used to be a big problem. Parents would beat the girls and they would run away. Now they can give birth and go back to school. Given these new circumstances, teenage pregnancy has reduced. Orphans used to be rejected by the community, but now they are assisted to go to school. All in all, the community thinks about children as the future, and in order to take better care of them, many husbands and wiveshavedecidedtopracticefamilyplanning. Questions forDiscussion: 1. Earlier in the story, people said that women took “live” wood for firewood. What implications does this have for the environment? Can you give other examples of things that women do to make a living that damage the environment? Why do they do these things? 2. At the beginning of the story, people said that women had “no resources” and “no roles.” Do you think that is true? What did they mean by that? What resources and roles do most womeninpoorcommunitieshave? 3. List all the disadvantages that women had compared to men in the story. What are the causesofthesedisadvantages? 13
  15. 15. 4. What were the changes that women, men, girls and boys experienced as a result of the project? Why did these changes occur? What do these changes tell us about gender? Developyourown definitionofgenderwithinthecontextofthisstory. 5. Describe what Kumblingo will be like in another five years. What will men, women, boys andgirlsbedoing? Willgenderroleshavegonethroughanothertransformation? 6. What do changing roles of men and women have to do with the environment and sustainablelandmanagement? The progress of a project has to be monitored to ensure that the expected results are happening. Think about some of the changes you read about in the case studies and in your own projects.Many of the changes are related to the environment and, at the same time, related to gender. An important way of monitoring whether a project has mainstreamed gender and transformed gender relations is to use gender-sensitive indicators. Gender-sensitive indicators will let you know whether there are changes in gender relations – women's and men's dynamics of power and control. Here are some features of gender relations that should change after implementing a projectongenderandsustainablelanduse: · participationinprojectsandcommittees · awareness,knowledge,skills · decision-makingpowers · rolesandresponsibilitiesinthehousehold,communityandleadership · how roles,tasks,resourcesarevalued · accesstoandcontrolofprojectresourcesandbenefits · accesstoandcontrolofhouseholdandcommunityresourcesandbenefits. All this information should be sex-disaggregated, so that differences between men and women can be highlighted and inequities addressed. Sex-disaggregated data presents information separatelyforwomenandmen,andasrequired,boys andgirls. When you are monitoring a project, answer the following questions to ensure that gender equalityis mainstreamed. 1. Does themonitoringplaninviteinputandfeedbackfromwomenandmen? 2. Aregenerateddata,analysisandreportssex-disaggregated? 3. Aregenderindicatorseffectivelyusedandassessed? 4. Does monitoring consider both women's and men's roles (even if those roles are different)? 5. Is progress towardobjectivesandexpectedresultsrelatedtomenorwomenontrack? 6. Have any gender issues of inequity arisen that were not identified at the project design stage? If so, how cantheybeaddressed? 4. ProjectMonitoring 14
  16. 16. Indicators 5. ProjectEvaluation MonitoringandEvaluationTools Here are some examples of gender-sensitive indicators for gender and alternative and sustainable livelihoods. You can use these and others that you develop to assess whether your projectisontracktochanginggenderrelations,roles,responsibilitiesandhow theyarevalued. At the end of your project, you will want to evaluate whether it has been successful – in achieving its goals for sustainable land use, and toward gender equality. Evaluation should be as systematic and objective as possible. Therefore, tools are developed to collect gender-sensitive and sex-disaggregated data. These tools can be used at the end of the project, but also at the beginning (baseline) and mid-point toassess progress overtime. Here are some examples of gender-sensitive tools for gender and alternative and sustainable livelihoods. If you use these tools at the beginning, middle and end of your project, you will see changes in how men and women have access to and control over resources; and in their roles and responsibilities. You may also discover some changes in gender relations that you did not expect! You should determine whether these are positive and progressive changes, or negative and counter-productive. When it comes time to designing a new phase of your project or even a brand new project, take these lessons into accounttoensurethatyourprojectwillimplementallactivitiesnecessarytopromotegenderequality. Gender-sensitive indicators for Gender and Alternative and Sustainable Livelihoods 1. # and type of livelihood interventions initiated by women 2. % of women involved in non-traditional livelihood options 3. # and kind of non-traditional livelihood options women engaged in 4. % of women accessing credit and legal service to support their businesses 5. # of women and men who have savings in traditional and non-traditional financial institutions and are able to access credit for livelihood activities 6. # of women extension workers 7. % of women accessing extension services 8. % of women who have access to extension information 9. # and type of women-friendly technologies that promote more efficient economic activities for women 10. % of women utilizing improved technologies 11. Confidence level of women on technology use 12. # of meals families can afford provide per day 13. # of women and men groups that have established a fund for their livelihood activities 15
  17. 17. A. Household Survey Questionnaire 1. Which livelihood activities are men and women in your household engaged in? 1. How many of these activities do husband and wife engage in jointly? 2. Have there been any changes in how husband, wife and children share household tasks? 3. Who in your household makes major decisions about the profit generated from the livelihood activities? a. Husband b. Wife c. Jointly B. Focus group Interview Questions: Women 1. Do you think that since the project started there have been changes in how families make decisions about spending money? If yes, in your opinion, what accounts for these changes? 2. What do you think about men carrying babies to hospital? 3. How have you benefited from moringa processing? 4. Which activity do you think makes you the most money? C. Focus group Interview Questions: Men 1. Do you think that since the project started there have been changes in how families make decisions about spending money? If yes, in your opinion, what accounts for these changes? 2. What do you think about women owning small ruminants? Do you agree? What effect has this activity had on you and your family? Activity Men Women Jointly Soap making Shea butter processing Dawadawa processing Basket weaving Cotton spinning Bee keeping Dry season gardening Guinea fowl rearing Sheep rearing Goat rearing Khebab processing Soya beans processing Groundnut oil extraction 16
  18. 18. 3. What do you think about men carrying babies to hospital? Would you do it if you had to? Wouldyou liketohaveacloserrelationshipwithyour children? 4. What do you think about women making decisions about how to spend their money? What about your own money – would you allow women to help you manage it? Do you evermakedecisionsaboutmoneyjointly? Has thisarrangementbeensuccessful? C. Group Interviewwith CEMC Executive 1. Are there any observable changes in livelihood activities in the community since the projectstarted?Ifyes,whatarethesechanges? 2. Whatis thecompositionof womenintheCEMC? 3. Who organizes men and women to carry out livelihood activities?How do you organize menandwomentocarryoutlivelihoodactivities? 4. Whatis thelevelofparticipationof womeninlivelihoodactivities? 5. What challenges do you face during implementation of livelihood activities? With women? Withmen? D. ObservationGuideat ProjectSite(listofwhat tolook out for) 1. Check materials/equipmentandendproductsof thelivelihoodactivity 2. Checkregisterof womenandmentrainedinlivelihoodactivities 3. Verifywhetherthegroup hasabankaccount 4. Check records such as minutes of meetings, attendance register for meetings, and other transactions. This is the end of this module. Best wishes as you mainstream gender, empowering women and men insustainable land managementprojects. 17

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