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Virtual Reality, Game Design,
and the Future of Education
Aldis Sipolins
Head of Virtual Reality and Game Design
IBM Resea...
My Background
The Holodeck Project
VR Brain Training Startup
What Is Virtual Reality?
Binocular Disparity
Binocular Disparity
Presence & Transfer
Learning in Virtual Reality
Presence
- Ecologically valid responses
- Makes learning engaging

Transfer
- True goal of lea...
"It works. Nobody’s getting sick off this… And you don’t have to teach
them anything except the most basic interactions, b...
The Virtual Reality Market
Virtual Reality Is(Finally) Here
Watershed moment in technology
- First VR headsets hitting the market


Hardware is domin...
“We believe VR devices will have multiple use cases similar to
smartphones that serve the functions of voice communication...
VR/AR Investment
00
00
00
00
00
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Q1 2016
$542m
$2,100m
$307m
$692m
$250m$223m$102m$26m
Oculus (Fac...
0 m
100 m
200 m
300 m
400 m
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025
Projected User Base
Source: IDC Wo...
Hardware Revenue(2025)
Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
0
75
150
225
300
0 200 400 600 800
$14b
$62b
$111b...
Projected Revenue
Hardware
55%
Software
45%
Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
Software Revenue (2025)
Videogames
$23.9b
Media
$15.0b
Real Estate
$5.3b
Education
$1.4b
Engineering
$9.7b
Retail
$3.3b
He...
Virtual vs. Augmented Reality
AR
25%
VR
75%
“At this stage, we have
greater conviction in the
relative success of VR
versu...
Virtual Reality and Youth
47% know “a lot” about VR
75% will ask parents for VR device
88% said VR is “very cool”
Source: ...
Cognitive Is The Future of VR
VR generates massive amount of user data
- What users do (accuracy, reaction time)
- Where u...
Hardware
Oculus Rift
Samsung
GearVR
HTC Vive
Mobile VR High-End VR
Google
Cardboard
Google Cardboard
-
- Cheap
- Works with any smartphone
- Tons of content
- Display quality
- No position tracking
- One-bu...
Samsung GearVR
-
- Wireless
- Resolution (2560 x 1440)
- Headset cost ($100)
- No position tracking (for now)
- Specific ph...
Oculus Rift
-
- Resolution (2160 x 1200)
- Refresh Rate (90 Hz)
- Touch controllers (Q4 2016)
- Hardware requirements
- Tr...
Oculus Touch Controllers
HTC Vive
-
- Room-scale tracking (15’ x 15’)
- Resolution (2160 x 1200)
- Refresh Rate (90 Hz)
- Space requirements
- Hard...
Vive Inside-Out Tracking
Vive Motion Controllers
Which Is Better?
"It's going to change the world. The hardware is going to double in
quality every few years for another decade, to the poi...
Motion Sickness
“It’s no longer the hardware’s fault anymore. It’s the
developer’s choices that are making you sick.”
Chet Faliszek, Valve
Additional Slides
Virtual Reality & Education
Huge Potential
- Immersive, engaging lessons
- 3D concepts taught in 3D

Physical Activity
- Enhances performance and lear...
Challenges
Outcome variables
- Paper & pencil tests
- Real-world outcomes (transfer)

Cultural stigma
- VR is isolating & ...
“…adults are going to be too embarrassed to run around outside
chasing after some invisible phantom. But a nine-year-old r...
Education & Game Design
“[A good game is] one that teaches everything it has to offer
before the player stops playing. That’s what games are, in
t...
Education & Game Design
Why games?
- Fundamental human desire for fun
- Learning is hard-wired to be fun


Skill Acquisiti...
“Good design is good business”
Thomas J. Watson
The Virtual Classroom
"...since the buildings were just pieces of software, their design
wasn't limited by monetary constraints, or even by the ...
The Virtual Classroom
Watson Is The Teacher
- Explains lessons
- Answers questions
- Suggests content


Learner Models
- A...
Binocular Disparity
Thank You!
Go Make Stuff!
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education
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Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education

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Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education

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Cognitive Systems Institute Group Speaker Series - Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education

  1. 1. Virtual Reality, Game Design, and the Future of Education Aldis Sipolins Head of Virtual Reality and Game Design IBM Research: Education and Cognitive Sciences
  2. 2. My Background
  3. 3. The Holodeck Project
  4. 4. VR Brain Training Startup
  5. 5. What Is Virtual Reality?
  6. 6. Binocular Disparity
  7. 7. Binocular Disparity
  8. 8. Presence & Transfer
  9. 9. Learning in Virtual Reality Presence - Ecologically valid responses - Makes learning engaging
 Transfer - True goal of learning - Near vs. far transfer
 Physical Activity - Room-scale tracking allows for mild exercise - Elevated heart rate enhances learning
  10. 10. "It works. Nobody’s getting sick off this… And you don’t have to teach them anything except the most basic interactions, because our brains know all about three dimensional space. It’s startling and perhaps insulting what we’ve tolerated as interaction models until now.” Tycho Brahe (Jerry Holkins), Penny Arcade
  11. 11. The Virtual Reality Market
  12. 12. Virtual Reality Is(Finally) Here Watershed moment in technology - First VR headsets hitting the market 
 Hardware is dominated by big players - Facebook, Google, HTC 
 Software/infrastructure is not - IBM in prime position with Cognitive + Cloud + Watson
  13. 13. “We believe VR devices will have multiple use cases similar to smartphones that serve the functions of voice communication, texting, email, video, internet browsing, and social platforms. In our view, consumers will be able to use a single VR device to play videogames, watch video programming and live events, and shop.” Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
  14. 14. VR/AR Investment 00 00 00 00 00 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Q1 2016 $542m $2,100m $307m $692m $250m$223m$102m$26m Oculus (Facebook) Magic Leap (Google) Source: Pitchbook Virtual Reality Analyst Report
  15. 15. 0 m 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Projected User Base Source: IDC Worldwide Augmented and Virtual Reality Hardware Forecast 315 million 95 million 200k 9.6 million
  16. 16. Hardware Revenue(2025) Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research 0 75 150 225 300 0 200 400 600 800 $14b $62b $111b $99b$63b $110b Average Sale Price ($) AnnualShipments(millions) Game Consoles Desktops Laptops TelevisionsTablets VR/AR
  17. 17. Projected Revenue Hardware 55% Software 45% Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
  18. 18. Software Revenue (2025) Videogames $23.9b Media $15.0b Real Estate $5.3b Education $1.4b Engineering $9.7b Retail $3.3b Healthcare $10.5b Military $2.9b Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
  19. 19. Virtual vs. Augmented Reality AR 25% VR 75% “At this stage, we have greater conviction in the relative success of VR versus AR given VR’s technological progress and momentum, and the early formation of an ecosystem of vendors and partners” Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research
  20. 20. Virtual Reality and Youth 47% know “a lot” about VR 75% will ask parents for VR device 88% said VR is “very cool” Source: The New Reality of Virtual Reality and the Potential With Youth
  21. 21. Cognitive Is The Future of VR VR generates massive amount of user data - What users do (accuracy, reaction time) - Where users are (3D position + rotation) - How users interact (motion controller gestures) 
 More data sources on the horizon - Wearables (heart rate, respiration) - Vision tracking - Brain imaging (EEG sensors) 
 Cognitive makes this data meaningful - Predict performance - Suggest content
  22. 22. Hardware
  23. 23. Oculus Rift Samsung GearVR HTC Vive Mobile VR High-End VR Google Cardboard
  24. 24. Google Cardboard - - Cheap - Works with any smartphone - Tons of content - Display quality - No position tracking - One-button input +
  25. 25. Samsung GearVR - - Wireless - Resolution (2560 x 1440) - Headset cost ($100) - No position tracking (for now) - Specific phones - Phone cost ($800) +
  26. 26. Oculus Rift - - Resolution (2160 x 1200) - Refresh Rate (90 Hz) - Touch controllers (Q4 2016) - Hardware requirements - Tracking range - Cost ($600) +
  27. 27. Oculus Touch Controllers
  28. 28. HTC Vive - - Room-scale tracking (15’ x 15’) - Resolution (2160 x 1200) - Refresh Rate (90 Hz) - Space requirements - Hardware requirements - Cost ($800) +
  29. 29. Vive Inside-Out Tracking
  30. 30. Vive Motion Controllers
  31. 31. Which Is Better?
  32. 32. "It's going to change the world. The hardware is going to double in quality every few years for another decade, to the point where, 10 years from now, it's going to be hard to tell the difference between virtual reality and the real world.” Tim Sweeney, founder of Epic Games
  33. 33. Motion Sickness
  34. 34. “It’s no longer the hardware’s fault anymore. It’s the developer’s choices that are making you sick.” Chet Faliszek, Valve
  35. 35. Additional Slides
  36. 36. Virtual Reality & Education
  37. 37. Huge Potential - Immersive, engaging lessons - 3D concepts taught in 3D
 Physical Activity - Enhances performance and learning - Lifelong brain health - Helps autism, ADHD, obesity/diabetes
 A New Frontier - Education & VR is unexplored territory Virtual Reality & Education vs.
  38. 38. Challenges Outcome variables - Paper & pencil tests - Real-world outcomes (transfer)
 Cultural stigma - VR is isolating & passive - VR is social & active 
 Age restrictions - 13+ for now
  39. 39. “…adults are going to be too embarrassed to run around outside chasing after some invisible phantom. But a nine-year-old running around the yard, playing kickball with Pikachu? Like, oh my God. Kids are going to love this thing so much.” Jesse Schell, Schell Games
  40. 40. Education & Game Design
  41. 41. “[A good game is] one that teaches everything it has to offer before the player stops playing. That’s what games are, in the end. Teachers. Fun is just another word for learning.” Ralph Koster, A Theory of Fun
  42. 42. Education & Game Design Why games? - Fundamental human desire for fun - Learning is hard-wired to be fun 
 Skill Acquisition - Instruction, exploration, integration - Variable Priority Training 
 Positive Reinforcement - Make every interaction rewarding - Utterly intuitive user experience design
  43. 43. “Good design is good business” Thomas J. Watson
  44. 44. The Virtual Classroom
  45. 45. "...since the buildings were just pieces of software, their design wasn't limited by monetary constraints, or even by the laws of physics. So, every school was a grand palace of learning, with polished marble hallways, cathedral-like classrooms, zero-g gymnasiums [way cool!], and virtual libraries containing every (school-board approved) book ever written” Ernest Cline, Ready Player One
  46. 46. The Virtual Classroom Watson Is The Teacher - Explains lessons - Answers questions - Suggests content 
 Learner Models - Accuracy, reaction time - Heart rate, breathing, EEG… - Personality & preferences 
 Adaptive Social Learning - Collaborative lessons - Real-time changes to optimize learning
  47. 47. Binocular Disparity
  48. 48. Thank You!
  49. 49. Go Make Stuff!

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