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Natural science and pseudoscience


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Natural science and pseudoscience

  1. 1. Natural Science and “pseudo-science”<br />Presenter: NanaseIsaka<br />Research Assistant: Manaka Yamaguchi<br />
  2. 2. Science<br />Definition<br />- understanding nature of science through evidence, meaningful experiments, weighing of possibilities, testing hypothesis, and establishing theories, to get to conclusion<br />Examples 1) Evolution 2) Acupuncture<br />
  3. 3. Example of Science -Evolution<br />Evidence- fossil, Galapagos Islands<br />Well researched by biologists<br />It can be changed when proven wrong<br />
  4. 4. Example of Science -Acupuncture<br />Evidence / research<br />- Skin release adenosine when punctured<br />Experiment<br />- Using leukemic rats<br />
  5. 5. Pseudo-science<br />Definition<br /><ul><li>lack of experiment. rely on myth, or religion.
  6. 6. subjective validation- look at the evidence that supports their belief to rationalize it and miss out the contradicting ones
  7. 7. no progress</li></ul>Example<br /><ul><li>Flat Earth
  8. 8. Creationism</li></li></ul><li>Example of Pseudo-Science –Flat Earth<br />Supporters: the International Flat Earth Research Society <br />Beliefs: the earth is flat and plane and that it does not spin and whirl at 1000 miles/hour. <br />Belief that earth is sphere is prejudice-nothing to support it, and that pictures prove nothing. <br />The explanation they give is: Earth is circle. North Pole in center and South Pole is spread around edge. When go around the world you travel around the circle. Objects seem to disappear when they go away because of the laws of perspective. The further the object is the smaller it gets.<br />
  9. 9. Example of Pseudo-Science –Creationism<br />The belief that the universe and living organisms originate from specific acts of divine creation, as in the biblical account, rather than by natural processes such as evolution.<br />Creationists are strongly opposed to a world brought on by evolution e.g.) Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species<br />The experiment haven’t been conducted and no proof<br /><ul><li>therefore, it is not science, but pseudo science</li></li></ul><li>Difference <br />Whether scientific hypotheses are testable or not.<br />Vagueness -if a statement is sufficiently vague, it will be impossible to verify or falsify it.<br /> e.g.) ‘Quartz crystals can restore the balance and energy of your life’<br /><ul><li>Need some kind of criteria (preferably measurable ones) </li></ul>Ad hoc exceptions <br /><ul><li>‘All swans are white’ showing a black one</li></ul>’All swans are white except that mutation’<br />Good hypothesis is one that is general in nature and does not keep making exceptions every time it meets counter-examples.<br />
  10. 10. Difference<br />Indicators<br />- importance of evidence, meaningful experiments, hypothesis, theories as result.<br />Science<br /><ul><li>constantly updated </li></ul>ex) textbook<br />Pseudo-science<br />- no updating<br />
  11. 11. Ways of Knowing<br />Pseudo<br />Science<br />Science<br />Both<br /><ul><li>Perception</li></ul>- Language<br />- Reason<br />- Emotion <br />
  12. 12. Works Cited<br />Acupuncture Scientifically Proven Effective. Bukisa. May. 30, 2010. Web. Nov. 14, 2010.<br />Charles Darwin the Theory of Evolution. Galapagos Cruises. Web. Nov 14, 2010.<br />Cine, Austin. Evolution is a Scientific Theory – Evolution Meets Criteria for Scientific Theory. <br /> Web. Nov. 14, 2010.<br />Cline, Austin. Subjective Validation. Web. Nov. 14, 2010.<br />Coker, Rory. Distinguishing Science and Psuedoscience. Quackwatch. May 30, 2001. Web. Nov. 14, 2010.<br />Difference Between Science and Pseudo Science.Difference Web. Nov. 14, 2010.<br />Examples of Pseudoscience. Web. Nov. 15, 2010.<br />Isaak, Mark. What is Creationism? The Talkorigins Archive. May 30, 2000. Web. Nov. 15, <br /> 2010.<br />Martynowicz, Daniel. Acupuncture Pain Killing Chemical Discovered. News by the Second. Jun. 9, 2010. Web. Nov. 14, 2010.<br />Randi, James. Science Pseudoscience: the Differences. Freethinker. Web. Nov. 15, 2010.<br />Ruse, Michael. Creationism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Oct. 29, 2007. Web. Nov. <br /> 15, 2010.<br />