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Ultrasound machine

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Ultrasound machine presentation with circuits and working.

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Ultrasound machine

  1. 1. ULTRASOUND MACHINE Prepared BY: Shahreen Gul 1544 Laraib Mumtaz 1522 Namra Afzal 1528
  2. 2. MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY. • Transducer: Probe Pulse Control • CPU (Central Processing Unit) • Key Board • Display • Storage device • Printer
  3. 3. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT OF MACHINE
  4. 4. ULTRASONIC TRANSMITTER.
  5. 5. ULTRASOUND PHYSICS: • What is sound/ultrasound? • How is ultrasound produced • Transducers - properties
  6. 6. SOUND: • Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that travels in a straight line
  7. 7. WHAT IS ULTRASOUND? • Ultrasound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave with a frequency exceeding the upper limit of human hearing, which is 20,000 Hz or 20 kHz. Medical Ultrasound 2MHz to 16MHz
  8. 8. Human HairHuman Hair SingleSingle CrystalCrystal Microscopic view of scanhead
  9. 9. TRANSDUCER DESIGN: Size, design and frequency depend upon the examination
  10. 10. TRANSDUCER CONSTRUCTION
  11. 11. ULTRASOUND PRODUCTION: • Transducer contains piezoelectric elements/crystals which produce the ultrasound pulses
  12. 12. THE RETURNING ECHO: • Reflected echoes return to the scanhead where the piezoelectric elements convert the ultrasound wave back into an electrical signal • The electrical signal is then processed by the ultrasound system
  13. 13. PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL • AC applied to a piezoelectric crystal causes it to expand and contract – generating ultrasound.
  14. 14. PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS • The thickness of the crystal determines the frequency of the scanhead Low Frequency 3 MHz High Frequency 10 MHz
  15. 15. FREQUENCY VS. RESOLUTION: The frequency also affects the QUALITY of the ultrasound image • The HIGHER the frequency, the BETTER the resolution • The LOWER the frequency, the LESS the resolution
  16. 16. FREQUENCY VS. RESOLUTION • A 12 MHz transducer has very good resolution, but cannot penetrate very deep into the body • A 3 MHz transducer can penetrate deep into the body, but the resolution is not as good as the 12 MHz
  17. 17. ULTRASONIC RECEIVER
  18. 18. WORKING
  19. 19. INTERACTIONS OF ULTRASOUND WITH TISSUE Reflection Refraction Transmission Attenuation
  20. 20. IMAGE FORMATION Electrical signal produces ‘dots’ on the screen Brightness of the dots is proportional to the strength of the returning echoes
  21. 21. INTERACTIONS OF ULTRASOUND WITH TISSUE • Reflection • The ultrasound reflects off tissue and returns to the transducer, the amount of reflection. • The ultrasound image is formed from reflected echoes transducertransducer
  22. 22. ATTENUATION & GAIN Sound is attenuated by tissue More tissue to penetrate = more attenuation of signal Compensate by adjusting gain based on depth.
  23. 23. ULTRASOUND GAIN • Gain controls • receiver gain only does NOT change power output • Increase gain = brighter • Decrease gain = darker
  24. 24. BALANCED GAIN Gain settings are important to obtaining adequate images. balanced
  25. 25. REFLECTED ECHO’S Strong Reflections = White dots Diaphragm, tendons, bone
  26. 26. REFLECTED ECHO’S No Reflections = Black dots • Fluid within a cyst, urine, blood • Echofree.
  27. 27. TYPES • 3D • Doppler ultrasound
  28. 28. USES • Gynacology • Cardiology • Urology • Tumour detection
  29. 29. DISADVANTAGE • Heat development • Cavity formmation

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