Cognitive model is used in a number of psychological processes like perception , learning , attitude formation , and motivation
Eg : Positive – Praising a subordinate in completion of a task , etc . Negative – Criticism for not wearing the desired uniform . Eg : Primary – Age , Gender , Food , etcSecodary – Praise , recognition , etc
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Our aim is to know and understand the following topics.• What is Learning ?• Components of learning process.• Learning theories.• Reinforcement.• Learning Organization.• Learning vs. Knowledge.
According to Dictionary of Psychology , learning means “ The process of acquiringthe ability to respond adequately to a situation which may or may not have beenpreviously encountered , the favorable modification of response tendenciesconsequent upon previous experience s particularly, the building of new series ofcomplex coordinated motor response; the fixation of items in memory so that theycan be recalled or organized ; the process of acquiring insight into a situation. “
Different approaches have been proposed toexplain the phenomenon of Learning. These haveemerged as models or theories , which can begrouped into 3 categories :-1) Conditioning / Behaviouristic Theory. o Classical Conditioning. o Operant Conditioning.2) Cognitive learning Theory.3) Social learning Theory.
Conditioning Theory Conditioning is the process in which an ineffective object or situation becomesso much effective that it makes the hidden response apparent. This is based on the premise that learning is establishing association betweenresponse and stimulus. Classical Conditioning Operant
Classical Conditioning• Classical conditioning states that behaviour is learned by repetitive association between stimulus and a response (S-R Association).• This theory is given by famous Russian physiologist and Nobel Prize winner , Ivan Pavlov.
Classical Conditioning ExampleFor example, at a manufacturing plant, every time the top executives fromthe head office would make a visit, the plant management would clean upthe administrative offices and wash the windows. This went on for years.Eventually, employees would turn on their best behavior and look prim andproper whenever the windows were cleaned even in those occasions whenthe cleaning was not paired with visit from the top brass. People had learntto associate the cleaning of the windows with the visit from the head office.
Operant Conditioning• It implies that behaviour is voluntary and it is determined, maintained and controlled by its consequences.• It involves relationship between three elements-o Stimulus situation.o Behavioural response to situation.o Consequence of response.
Operant Conditioning Example For example, Operant behaviour of a driver in application of brakes toavoid accident.Here, the possibility of accident without application of brake is stimulussituation, application of brake is the behaviour, and avoidance ofaccident is the consequence of behaviour.
Cognitive Theory• This theory is based on cognitive model of human behaviour. This model draws heavily from the work done by Edward C. Tolman.• The cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and free-will aspects of human behaviour
social Theory• Social Learning Theory combines and integrates both behaviouristic and cognitive concepts and emphasis the integrated nature of Cognitive, Behavioral and Environmental determinants.• It posits that learning can take place via vicarious modeling.
• Reinforcement is defined as anything that increases strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded Reinforcement.• It is very important for learning because behavioural response is conditioned by reinforcement. Stimulus event POSITIVE Behavioural response Consequences of behavioral response NEGATIVE New Behavioural Response
• Positive and Negative Reinforcement – Positive reinforcement strengthens and increase behaviour by the presentation of a desirable consequence. Negative reinforcement strengthens and increases behaviour by the termination or withdrawal of an undesirable consequence.• Extrinsic and Intrinsic Reinforcement – Extrinsic and Intrinsic are not directly related to behaviour but they generate a psychologically expected relationship. Example – acquisition for new skills , reward for good work , etc.• Primary and Secondary Reinforcement – Primary reinforcement is innately satisfying to the person and directly reduces his motivation drive. These are independent of past experiences. Secondary reinforcement depends on the individual and his past reinforcement history. These are primarily learned ones.
“ A learning organisation is is one which is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights.” - D. A. Garvin. It creates culture for effective learning and development on continuous basis. Emphasis is on team work. People are free to experiment, take risk, and asses result. High Level of Trust and Mutual Understanding. Every individual learn to enhance his capabilities.
Consultants Increasing pace of Increasing demanding and Academics change. customers. Managers Opportunity Increasing Knowledge. Dissatisfaction with Desire existing management. Top New Commitment CreatingManagement Creating Acceptance Technique / of entire LearningCommitment Vision. Structure / Workforce. Organisation. . Process.
• It ensures that everyone in the organisation participates in the Top change process and resources required for implementing the change Management are made available Commitment • Vision represents a portrait of what the organisation and its membersCreating Vision will be in future. • Each and every member of the organisation should accept the Acceptance projected vision presented by Top Management New • This represents projection of the techniques , process and structure of Techniques / the new organisation that will be formed. Structures • Projected tools can be New or Old or Both.Commitment of • It is required because changes in techniques and structures would entire require more attention and more hard work. workforce Creating • After practicing all the above steps, a Organisation can be called a Learning Learning Organisation. Organisation
Learning KnowledgeLearning is acquiring new or modifying Knowledge is that which is known,existing knowledge behaviour skills or information, enlightenment, practicalvalues and may involve synthesizing skills, acquaintances, etc.different types of information.Learning is a process of acquiring Knowledge is database of information inknowledge. our memory.