Nose and tongue

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includes, nasal cavity, histology , embryology and gross anatomy of tongue and nose,

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Nose and tongue

  1. 1. Dr Laxman Khanal MS- Human Anatomy Date: 19- June- 20126/19/2012 1212413114 1
  2. 2.  Which epithelium lines the nasal cavities ?  How many pair of pharyngeal arches persists in human embryo?  Median cleft lip is due to failure of fusion of which processes?  Which one is the largest nasal meatus ?  Name the muscle attached to the nose.  Name the largest vessel supplying nasal cavity.6/19/2012 1212413114 2
  3. 3.  Which of the tongue papilla does not contain taste buds?  What is the safety muscle of tongue?  Lymphatic of tip of the tongue drains to which lymph node?  Anterior 2/3rd of tongue is related with which pharyngeal arch?  What is ankyloglossia ?6/19/2012 1212413114 3
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  5. 5.  Nose – gross anatomy/ functions  Nose – embryology  Nose – vascular/nerve supply  Tongue – gross anatomy/functions  Tongue – embryoogy  Tongue – vascular/ nerve supply  Clinical coorelation6/19/2012 1212413114 5
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  7. 7.  Made up of external nose , nasal septum and a pair of nasal cavities.  Nasal cavities open through nares anteriorly and choanae posteriorly.  Nasal cavities separated from each other by nasal septum, from oral cavity by hard palate and from skull by skull bones(FSE).6/19/2012 1212413114 7
  8. 8.  Lateral to nasal cavities lies the orbit  Each nasal cavities has lateral wall, medial wall, roof and floor.  Nose is formed by  Cartilage - septal, alar and lateral  Bones  Skin(up to vestibules) and inner mucosal lining6/19/2012 1212413114 8
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  13. 13.  Sphenoethmoidal recess- sphenoid sinus  Superior meatus  Posterior ethmoidal sinus  Middle meatus  Anterior and middle ethmoidal sinus  Maxillary and Frontal sinus  Inferior meatus- NLD6/19/2012 1212413114 13
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  16. 16. The nose is formed from five facial prominences: the frontal prominence gives rise to the bridge; the merged medial nasal prominences provide the crest and tip; and the lateral nasal prominences form the sides (alae)6/19/2012 1212413114 16
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  20. 20. Paranasal air sinuses develop as diverticula of the lateral nasal wall and extend into the maxilla, ethmoid, frontal, and sphenoid bones. They reach their maximum size during puberty and contribute to the definitive shape of the face.6/19/2012 1212413114 20
  21. 21.  Both external and internal carotid arteries  Maxillary artery  Sphenopalatine artery- major vessel  Greater palatine artery  Facial artery  Superior labial  Lateral nasal6/19/2012 1212413114 21
  22. 22.  Ophthalmic artery  anterior ethmoidal  Posterior ethmoidal In the anterior region of the medial wall there are anastomoses between branches of the greater palatine, sphenopalatine, superior labial, and anterior ethmoidal arteries, and where the vessels are relatively close to the surface . This is the major site of epistaxis (Little’s area or kisselbach’s area)6/19/2012 1212413114 22
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  24. 24.  Olfactory nerve – smell  Maxillary nerve – general sensation  Ophthalmic nerve – general sensation  Facial nerve – parasympathetic and motor  T1 – sympathetic supply Pterygopalatine ganglion- parasympathetic ganglion6/19/2012 1212413114 24
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  26. 26.  Anterior part of nose  Submandibular lymph nodes  Posterior part of nose  Upper deep cervical  Retropharyngeal (sometime)6/19/2012 1212413114 26
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  31. 31.  Mobile muscular organ attached to the mandible, hyoid and skull by muscles.6/19/2012 1212413114 31
  32. 32.  Root- post 1/3rd  Lingual tonsil  Foramen caecum  Sulcus terminalis  Body-ant 2/3rd  Apex  Lingual papilla6/19/2012 1212413114 32
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  34. 34.  Extrinsic muscles  Intrinsic muscles  Genioglossus  Superior longitudinal  Hyoglossus  Inferior longitudianal  Styloglossus  Transverse  Palatoglossus  Vertical Attached to the bone No bony attachment and Changes the and Changes the movement of tongue shape of the tongue6/19/2012 1212413114 34
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  36. 36.  Each pharyngeal arch is supplied by its own cranial nerve.  1- trigeminal nerve (mandibular nerve)  2- facial nerve.  3- glossopharyngeal nerve.  4- superior laryngeal branch of Vagus nerve.  6- recurrent branch of Vagus nerve6/19/2012 1212413114 36
  37. 37.  Body – from tuberculum impar and two lingual swellings. Related with first pharyngeal arch.  Root – from hypobrachial eminence (copula). Related with 2nd and 3rd arch but 3rd arch overlies the 2nd.  Posterior most part derived from 4th arch.  Muscles- from occipital myotomes.6/19/2012 1212413114 37
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  39. 39. Arterial supply Venous drainage  Lingual artery –  Dorsal lingual vein branch of external  Deep lingual vein carotid artery Both drain to the IJV6/19/2012 1212413114 39
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  41. 41.  Anterior 2/3rd  General sensation- lingual nerve  Taste – chorda tympani  Posterior 1/3rd  General sensation- glossopharyngeal nerve  Taste – glossopharyngeal nerve6/19/2012 1212413114 41
  42. 42.  Motor supply to all muscles by 12th nerve except………  Vallate papillae are innervated by 9th nerve  Taste sensation from posterior most part of tongue is carried out by 10th nerve6/19/2012 1212413114 42
  43. 43.  Post 1/3rd – jugulo-omohyoid  Ant 2/3rd - Submandibular lymph nodes.  Tip of tongue- submental lymph nodes.6/19/2012 1212413114 43
  44. 44. Median cleft lip A rare abnormality, is caused by incomplete merging of the two medial nasal prominences in the midline. This anomaly is usually accompanied by a deep groove between the right and left sides of the nose.6/19/2012 1212413114 44
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  46. 46. Oblique facial clefts produced by failure of the maxillary prominence to merge with its corresponding lateral nasal prominence. When this occurs, the nasolacrimal duct is usually exposed to the surface.6/19/2012 1212413114 46
  47. 47.  epistaxis  Anosmia  DNS  Allergic rhinitis6/19/2012 1212413114 47
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  49. 49.  Lingual thyroid- thyroid tissue is present on the base of tongue between circumvallate papillae and epiglottis.6/19/2012 1212413114 49
  50. 50.  Ankyloglossia Limited tongue movement secondary to the abnormal attachment to the floor of mouth. Also has familiar pattern.6/19/2012 1212413114 50
  51. 51.  Hairy tongue elongation and hyperkeratosis of filiform papillae resulting in hairy appearance. Common in anterior to circumvallate papillae.6/19/2012 1212413114 51
  52. 52.  Fissured or Scrotal or Plicated tongue.  Associated with Melkersson- Rosenthal syndrome.6/19/2012 1212413114 52
  53. 53.  Lingual varicosities  dilated tortuous vein on ventral surface of tongue.  Associate with cardiopulmonary disease and aging process.6/19/2012 1212413114 53
  54. 54.  Syphilis chancre  Associated with Non tender lymphadenopathy.  Primary syphilis6/19/2012 1212413114 54
  55. 55.  Syphilis Gumma  Painless ulcer in tertiary syphilis.6/19/2012 1212413114 55
  56. 56.  Erythema migrans or Geographic tongue the lesions persist for a short time in one area, then disappear completely and reappear in another area.6/19/2012 1212413114 56
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