Sustainable behaviors

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The expansion model of business and our global economy have created a culture of consumption. Users around the world are being encouraged to adapt new technologies and their related products. Our complicated systems caused huge traps in our societies from abuse of shared resource, beating the rules, and seeking the wrong goals. These current forms of global capitalism are ecologically and socially unsustainable. All these deprivations are causing in resentments and many unsustainable behaviors against the collective concerns of the societies. Therefore, these critical areas are necessary domain for designer’s active participation.
This journal explores how sustainable behavior context could harmonize the individual concerns of the citizens with collective concerns of the society, so in the long term prevent the mentioned traps in our systems. Through studying our natural capital, frameworks, and system thinking the journal investigates the requirement for enabling people to live as they like, but in a sustainable pattern.
There are different groups of frameworks that can help designers that all share the nature as model and mentor. Everything in nature is about optimization; there is no waste or discrimination. So, these models are our blueprint to reach to a sustainable future. The journal commences with introducing sustainability and sustainable behavior context. Then related history, theories, and influential leaders are described. Based on sustainable behavior goals, concept of Natural Capitalism, related frameworks, and system thinking will be presented. Finally, crucial elements in practicing sustainable behavior and related case studies will be discussed.

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Sustainable behaviors

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLEBehaviorsNajmeh MirzaieProf. Scott BoylstonFall 2012
  2. 2. Contents2Sustainability and Sustainable behaviorHistory and TheoriesThe Expansion ModelThe Sustainability ModelWicked ProblemsPrescriptive and Predictive TheoriesInfluential leadersVictor J. PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniNatural CapitalismFrameworksBiomimicry and Industrial ecologyCradle to Cradle and Lean thinkingLife Cycle Analysis (LCA)Total BeautySocial Return on Investment (SROI)Thinking in systemsSustainable Behaviors in practiceSustainable living in organizationsThe social Impact of new global capitalismCommunity-based social marketingUser experiences and designers influenceConclusion
  3. 3. 3SustainabilityandSustainable behavior
  4. 4. 4is ways of living in which current economic,environmental & social concerns are responsibly embracedand infuse our various endeavors.Stuart Walker, Sustainable by DesignSustainability
  5. 5. “Sustainability indesign is about fullyengaging in the worldin a way that isempathetic, intuitive,and aesthetic.”Stuart Walker, Sustainable by Design5Napa, CAPhoto by Najmeh Mirzaie
  6. 6. “Sustainable development is a type of adevelopment that would enable us to meetour needs in ways that would notjeopardize the potential of futuregenerations to meet their needs.”Our common future, 19876Sustainable Development
  7. 7. “Sustainable development is a type of adevelopment that would enable us to meetour needs in ways that would notjeopardize the potential of futuregenerations to meet their needs.”Our common future, 19877Sustainable Development
  8. 8. 8least energy to beproduced and used &could be recycledCurrently, the idea is growing that to reallyeffect change, sustainable design must becapable of changing userbehavior.Sustainable Behavior
  9. 9. 9Currently, the idea is growing that to reallyeffect change, sustainable design must becapable of changing userbehavior.This notion of thesignificance of user behavior in terms ofenvironmental implications has led to design forwhat is called“sustainable behavior.”least energy to beproduced and used &could be recycledSustainable Behavior
  10. 10. 10Sustainable Behavior“Behavior change is the corner-stoneof sustainability.”Dough McKenzie-Mohr, 2011
  11. 11. 11Sustainable Behavior“Behavior change is the corner-stoneof sustainability.”Dough McKenzie-Mohr, 2011
  12. 12. 12Sustainable behavior goal is to create a harmonizationbetween these two concerns with key element ofbehaviors.User-Centered Design Society-CenteredDesignSustainable Behavior
  13. 13. 13Chicago1909IndustrialRevolutionhttp://theoccasionalceo.blogspot.com/History and TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityWicked problems
  14. 14. 14History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityWicked problemsDesign was about• artistic sensibilities and making money• giving form to materials and forms for mass production• is embedded in customer culture
  15. 15. 15History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityWicked problemsTime magazine, March, 2012http://www.bellona.org/weblog/1298561302.96http://212access.com/commute-nj-to-nyc/1)Uncontrollablegrowth of humanpopulation3) Consumptionhttp://victorsellsout.blogspot.com/2012/11/a-short-one-scene-sketch-i-wrote-while.html2)Pollution5) Transformation4) Wastehttp://www.scienceclarified.com/Vi-Z/Waste-Management.html#b
  16. 16. 16History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityWicked problems1)Uncontrollablegrowth ofhumanpopulation3) Consumption2)Pollution5) Transformation4) WasteThese five criteria havebeen considered as themain changes of ourhuman society that impactthe ecology.Zach Nilsson, Deep ecology presentation, AppliedTheory in Sustainability, Fall 2012
  17. 17. 17ExpansionModelTheworldmarketsproductsforemost astoken ofeconomicexchangecapitabecomea part of theaccumulation ofprivate orcorporate wealthHistory & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainability
  18. 18. 18ExpansionModelTheworldmarketsproductsforemost astoken ofeconomicexchangecapitabecomea part of theaccumulation ofprivate orcorporate wealthContinuing& powerfulisBecause ofPoliticalpower &control areseriousdefensepolicy ofglobalsustainabilityHumanBettermentrequiretechnologicalinnovationHistory & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainability
  19. 19. 19no restraints onproduct refinementdifferent level of qualityconspicuousconsumptionExpansion ModelResultsHistory & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainability
  20. 20. 20no restraints onproduct refinementdifferent level of qualityconspicuousconsumption1. extraordinary range of products 2. symbolic statement3.demand withno end4. Radical MonopolyExpansion ModelResultsHistory & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainability
  21. 21. 21History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityno restraints onproduct refinementdifferent level ofqualityconspicuousconsumption1. extraordinaryrange of products2. symbolicstatement3.demand withno end4. RadicalMonopolyExpansion ModelResultsConcept ofWell-beingdesigning effective,accessible, beautiful productsdemocratization ofaccess to productssocial disasterecological disaster
  22. 22. 22History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainability
  23. 23. 23History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilitySustainabilityModelTheworlda systemecologicalchecksecologicalbalancesfiniteresources
  24. 24. 24History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilitySustainabilityModelTheworlda systemecologicalchecksecologicalbalancesfiniteresourcesis drivingdynamicgrowth ofproduction& tradedisableToaccommodatedevelopment ofan emergingglobal economy
  25. 25. 25History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityPrimary Question for Design ProfessionPredictive theoriesHow to reinvent design culture to culture of sustainability?
  26. 26. 26History & TheoriesIndustrial revolutionExpansion ModelWicked problemsSustainability ModelCulture of sustainabilityPrimary Question for Design ProfessionHow to reinvent design culture to culture of sustainability?Prescriptive environmental scenarios and theories
  27. 27. 27Influential Leaders"Act so that the effects of your action are compatiblewith the permanence of genuine human life".Hans JonasVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio Manzini
  28. 28. 28Victor Papanek(1923–1998),Design for the Real World: HumanEcology and Social Change (1971)Socially responsible designInfluential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio Manzini“Industrial designers has putmurder on a mass productionbasis, they have become adangerous breed.”Design practices shouldfocus on• products, lowtechnology• designing for thedisabled• creating new goodsto counter growingenvironmentalproblems• indigenous people
  29. 29. 29Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniPioneer of social approach in designDesign Issues, from 1984There is not any social changes betweendesigners, they have failed to promotethe argument of what they want to see.Victor MargolinThe scope of research of social design• public• the economics of social interventions• lives of underserved populations• manufacturing socially responsibleproducts• the way they are received by populationsin needDesigners areamong those whosepositivecontributions areessential to buildingof a more humaneworld.Designer asproducers.
  30. 30. 30Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio Manzinileader in sustainable development"Hero for the Planet”The Hannover Principles: Design for Sustainability asguidelines for the City of Hannovers EXPO 2000.Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, 2002Eliminate our wastediversitysystems like a treeLess bad is not good, is lessbad!A regulation aboutchecking the safety ofcompanies materialsIt is a time for responsible designing for7.044 billion population of the world.William McDonough
  31. 31. 31Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniA widely published author and speakerDesign IssuesTwo terms as President of the Design Research SocietyRichard BuchananThe implication of the ideathat design is grounded inhuman dignity and humanrights.Design is not merely anadornment of cultural life butone of the practical disciplines ofresponsible action.Expand the role of design in sustaining,developing, and integrating human beingsinto broader ecological and culturalenvironments.
  32. 32. 32Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniRichard BuchananFour Domains of Design to solve Wicked ProblemsDesign has a capacity to connect and integrateuseful knowledge from the arts and sciences alike,but in ways that are suited to the problems andpurposes of the present.
  33. 33. 33Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniEzio ManziniEzio ManziniAn Italian design strategistOne of the world’s leading experts on sustainable designFounder of the DESIS(Design for Social Innovation towards Sustainability)Small, local, open and connectedWhen there is noroom for choice,there is no design.• Promote a sustainable wellbeing• Enable people to live as they like, andin a sustainable way.• Enhance social innovation, and steer ittowards more sustainable ways oflivingPassive to activeUser as a co-producerA system that enable people to fulfilltheir potentialsDesign should changetowards socialization
  34. 34. 34Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniEzio ManziniEthic of ResponsibilityRadical changesrequiresSocialexpectationsSocietysystemsinSocialinnovationsWill result ininCreativecommunitiesDesignersbehaviorsSocial agentbecomeAsPartnersofMicrotransformationLocal systemdiscontinuityChallengingtraditional waysmeans
  35. 35. 35Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniEzio ManziniEthic of ResponsibilityRadical changesrequiresSocialexpectationsSocietysystemsinSocialinnovationsWill result ininCreativecommunitiesDesignersbehaviorsSocial agentbecomeAsPartnersofWillbeachievedbyMicrotransformationNew radicalism inconsumption scenariosLocal systemdiscontinuityDurability Services Decreased consumptionArtifact life cycleUser RelationshipChallengingtraditional waysmeans
  36. 36. 36Influential LeadersVictor PapanekVictor MargolinWilliam McDonoughRichard BuchananEzio ManziniEzio ManziniEthic of ResponsibilityRadical changesrequiresSocialexpectationsSocietysystemsinSocialinnovationsWill result ininCreativecommunitiesDesignersbehaviorsSocial agentbecomeAsPartnersofWillbeachievedbyMicrotransformationNew radicalism inconsumption scenariosLocal systemdiscontinuityDurability Services Decreased consumptionArtifact life cycleUser RelationshipChallengingtraditional waysmeansCooperativestrategieshasConsistency with thefundamentalprincipleslow energy andmaterial intensityhigh regenerativepotentialare
  37. 37. 37Natural CapitalismChatsworth House, UKPhoto by Najmeh Mirzaie“Humankind has inherited a 3.8 billion year store ofnatural capital. At present rates of use anddegradation, there will be little left by the end ofthe next century.”(Hawken & et. al, 1999)
  38. 38. NaturalCapitalismAll the resourcesfrom water to oilLiving systems fromgrasslands to oceanserious connectionsthe production and useof human-made capitalsupply of naturalcapitalisadvocatesbetweenand
  39. 39. 39NaturalCapitalismAll the resourcesfrom water to oilLiving systems fromgrasslands to oceanserious connectionsthe production and useof human-made capitalsupply of naturalcapitalfour centralstrategiesenabling means ofcountries, companies,and communitieshuman financialmanufacture naturalisadvocatesbetweenandproposeasto operate in away thatwere valuedFor necessarycapitals ofeconomy(Hawken & et. al, 1999, Natural Capitalism;Creating the Next Industrial Revolution)
  40. 40. 40NaturalCapitalismAll the resourcesfrom water to oilLiving systems fromgrasslands to oceanserious connectionsthe production and useof human-made capitalsupply of naturalcapitalfour centralstrategiesenabling means ofcountries, companies,and communitieshuman financialmanufacture naturalisadvocatesbetweenandproposeasto operate in away thatwere valued1. Radical resourceproductivity For necessarycapitals ofeconomy2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capital(Hawken & et. al, 1999, Natural Capitalism;Creating the Next Industrial Revolution)
  41. 41. 41NaturalCapitalismAll the resourcesfrom water to oilLiving systems fromgrasslands to oceanserious connectionsthe production and useof human-made capitalsupply of naturalcapitalfour centralstrategiesenabling means ofcountries, companies,and communitieshuman financialmanufacture naturalisadvocatesbetweenandproposeasto operate in away thatwere valued1. Radical resourceproductivitycornerstoneFor necessarycapitals ofeconomyis ofstop theruin ofbiosphereProfitablebiosphereto employpeopleBecause ofprotect the living systems& social consistencytherefore2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capital(Hawken & et. al, 1999, Natural Capitalism;Creating the Next Industrial Revolution)
  42. 42. 42NaturalCapitalismAll the resourcesfrom water to oilLiving systems fromgrasslands to oceanserious connectionsthe production and useof human-made capitalsupply of naturalcapitalfour centralstrategiesenabling means ofcountries, companies,and communitieshuman financialmanufacture naturalisadvocatesbetweenandproposeasto operate in away thatwere valued1. Radical resourceproductivitycornerstoneFor necessarycapitals ofeconomyis of2. Biomimicrya new science about creativeadoption of natureis3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capital(Hawken & et. al, 1999, Natural Capitalism;Creating the Next Industrial Revolution)a shift from economy ofgood & purchases to oneof service and flowisreinvestment insustaining, restoring, &expanding stocks ofnatural capitalrefers to
  43. 43. 43NaturalCapitalismAll the resourcesfrom water to oilLiving systems fromgrasslands to oceanserious connectionsthe production and useof human-made capitalsupply of naturalcapitalfour centralstrategiesenabling means ofcountries, companies,and communitieshuman financialmanufacture naturalisadvocatesbetweenandproposeasto operate in away thatwere valued1. Radical resourceproductivitycornerstoneFor necessarycapitals ofeconomyis of2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy a shift from economy ofgood & purchases to oneof service and flowis4. Investing innatural capitalreinvestment insustaining, restoring, &expanding stocks ofnatural capitalrefers to(Hawken & et. al, 1999, Natural Capitalism;Creating the Next Industrial Revolution)a new science aboutcreative adoption ofnatureisstop theruin ofbiosphereProfitablebiosphereto employpeopleBecause ofprotect theliving systems& socialconsistencytherefore
  44. 44. 44Four central strategiesnatural capitalism1. Radicalresourceproductivity2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capitaleconomy ofgood &purchaseseconomy ofservice & flowIs a shiftto
  45. 45. 45Four central strategiesnatural capitalism1. Radicalresourceproductivity2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capitaleconomy of good& purchaseseconomy ofservice & flowIs a shifttomanufacturerswherelong-lastingupgradable durablesServices
  46. 46. 46Four central strategiesnatural capitalism1. Radicalresourceproductivity2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capitaleconomy of good& purchaseseconomy ofservice & flowIs a shifttomanufacturerswherelong-lastingupgradable durablesServicesresults ratherthan equipmentsatisfactionrather thanproduct itself.andsellinggoal is
  47. 47. 47Four central strategiesnatural capitalism1. Radicalresourceproductivity2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capitaleconomy of good& purchaseseconomy ofservice & flowIs a shifttomanufacturerswherelong-lastingupgradable durablesServicesresults rather thanequipmentsatisfaction rather thanproduct itself.andsellinggoal isProductsrepairreuseForcontinuousremanufacturing
  48. 48. 48Four central strategiesnatural capitalism1. Radicalresourceproductivity2. Biomimicry3. Service & floweconomy4. Investing innatural capitaleconomy of good& purchaseseconomy ofservice & flowIs a shifttomanufacturerswherelong-lastingupgradable durablesServicesresults rather thanequipmentsatisfaction rather thanproduct itself.andsellinggoal isProductsrepairreuseForcontinuousremanufacturingCradletocradleproduct is ameans, notan end!
  49. 49. 49FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on Investment
  50. 50. 50FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentBiomimcryBiomimicryA new scienceisEcologicalstandardsRightness ofinnovationsusesTojudge
  51. 51. 51FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentBiomimcryBiomimicryA new scienceisEcologicalstandardsRightness ofinnovationsusesTojudgetakesinspirationsNature’s designs &processesfromHuman problemsTo solve
  52. 52. 52FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentBiomimcryBiomimicryA new scienceisEcologicalstandardsRightness ofinnovationsusesTojudgetakesinspirationsNature’s designs &processesfromHuman problemsTo solveA new wayView EvaluationNatureisofofNatureMODEL MEASURE MENTORasAre connected
  53. 53. 53Industrial ecology changing our very nichewithin the ecosystem learning how to be self-renewing right where we are.Moves towardsThree types of systems in natureType I-(The Industrialevolution)Type II(Present industrialflows)Type III(Blueprint of ourfuture survival)FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentBiomimcryTable 1- Ten commandments of mature ecosystems, Type III1) Use waste as a resource2) Diversify and cooperateto fully use the habitatPeaceful coexistence and precompetitive cooperation betweencompanies in a similar niche allows for innovation at lower costs.3) Gather and use energyefficiently4) Optimize rather thanmaximizeSlowing down the through out of the materials and emphasizing thequality rather than quantity of the new things is required as qualityprovides durability.5) Use materials sparingly6) Don’t foul your ownnestPerhaps the best way to keep from fouling our air, water, and soil is tostop producing toxins, or irregularly high fluxes of any sort.7) Don’t draw downresources8) Remain in balance withthe biosphere9) Run on information What we need to establish are feedback links among and withinbusinesses as well as feedback from the environment to businesses.10) Shop locally The idea of an economy that suits the land and takes advantage of itslocal attributes would bring us closer to mirroring organisms that haveevolved to be local experts.
  54. 54. 54FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentCradle to CradleCalling for the transformation of human industry throughecologically intelligent designCreating products, industrial systems, buildings, evenregional plans that allow nature and commerce to fruitfullyco-exist.McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry(Services to companies- Leaving a positive footprint on theplanet instead of reducing a negative footprint)
  55. 55. 55FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentCradle to CradleCalling for the transformation of human industry through ecologicallyintelligent designCreating products, industrial systems, buildings, even regional plansthat allow nature and commerce to fruitfully co-exist.McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry(Services to companies- Leaving a positive footprint on the planetinstead of reducing a negative footprint)Biological and technical nutrientsEco- effectiveness (Zero waste)instead of eco-efficiencyNatural capitalism
  56. 56. 56FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentCradle to CradleA factory whoseoutputs arecleaner than itsinputs.(Zero waste)RedesigningmanufacturingprocessesSharply reduce toxicitythroughout life cycle of productsin manufacturingfocusing on materialsand process selectionRequired to keep technical &biological materials separated10) Shop locally(Industrial ecology)The idea of an economy that suits the land and takes advantageof its local attributes would bring us closer to mirroringorganisms that have evolved to be local experts.All sustainability is local.
  57. 57. 57FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentCradle to CradleA factory whoseoutputs arecleaner than itsinputs.(Zero waste)RedesigningmanufacturingprocessesSharply reduce toxicitythroughout life cycle of productsin manufacturingfocusing on materialsand process selectionRequired to keep technical &biological materials separated“any human activity which absorbsresources but creates no value iswaste.”Ohno-senseiLean thinking(continuous flowsof values definedby customers)Eliminationof waste
  58. 58. 58FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleLife Cycle AnalysisTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentCradle to CradleA factory whoseoutputs arecleaner than itsinputs.(Zero waste)RedesigningmanufacturingprocessesSharply reduce toxicitythroughout life cycle of productsin manufacturingfocusing on materialsand process selectionRequired to keep technical &biological materials separated“any human activity which absorbsresources but creates no value iswaste.”Ohno-senseiLean thinking(continuous flowsof values definedby customers)Eliminationof waste3. Service & floweconomy
  59. 59. 59FrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleLife Cycle AnalysisTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentTotal Beautycreated by Edwin DatcheskiA quantitative framework and a point system to calculate the totalimpacts of products and services.Unsustainable products can’t possibly be beautiful.A scoring system for assessing the beauty of products based on uglypoints for particularly bad performances criteria, material use, energyinefficiency, or social ills.often provides the required knowledge for designers during theconcept and prototype phases.Table 2- Five criteria to encompass sustainability by Edwin Datcheski1.Cyclic Processes that close the loop between used resources and generated waste.2.Solar Renewable sources of material and energy that derived from sun.3.Safe All releases of life cycle should be safe or input for others.4.Efficient Energy and material use (including water) in manufacturing should be reduced to90% of average levels. (in 1990s)5.Social Desirable solutions for human basic rights and natural justice should be considered.
  60. 60. 60Measure social economic impacts.A new framework with no specific standard.Translation of social values into some type of monetary return.Social Impact Assessment Social issuespectrumHass Business School,UC Berkeley3.Outputs (social valuecreation)2.Activities that createimpacts1.Input (benefits ofsolutions)tracksApproach tocalculate SROIEstablish & describethe impact value chain4.Overall outcome of theorganization’s impactFrameworksBiomimcryCradle to CradleLife Cycle AnalysisTotal BeautySocial Return on InvestmentSocial Return on Investment
  61. 61. 61Thinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage points
  62. 62. 62SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage pointsSystemisa setofelementsor partscoherentlyorganized &interconnectedthat isina pattern orstructureproducesa characteristicset of behaviorsfunction orpurpose
  63. 63. 63SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage pointsSystemisa setofelementsor partscoherentlyorganized &interconnectedthat isina pattern orstructureproducesa characteristicset of behaviorsfunction orpurposeProductServiceSystemA sociallyconstructedsystemisproducts andservicesofcooperativecapability offulfilling a user’sneed.with
  64. 64. 64Traps-The destruction they cause is often blamedon particular actors or events, although it isactually a consequence of system structure.SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage pointsSystemisa setofelementsor partscoherentlyorganized &interconnectedthat isina pattern orstructureproducesa characteristicset of behaviorsfunction orpurposeProductServiceSystemA sociallyconstructedsystemisproducts andservicesofcooperativecapability offulfilling a user’sneed.with
  65. 65. 65System traps based on designing sustainable behaviorsTrap/opportunity Description The way out NotesTragedy of thecommonsRefers to abuse of sharedresource and lack ofaccountability that willcause in• Ecological tragedy(losing resources anddiversity)• Social tragedy (Deathof people because ofdeficiency!)• Educate• Privatizeresources• RegulateaccessThe structure ofcommon systems makesselfish behavior muchmore convenient andprofitable thanresponsible behavior tothe whole communityand to the future.Drift to lowperformance/“eroding goal”The desired stateinfluenced by theperceived state of theworst performance of thepast that cause lowerstandards.• Absolutestandards• Goalssensitive tothe bestperformanceof the pastHandprint (increasingpositive footprints)instead of decreasingour negative footprintsto create awarenessabout successful resultsof actions towardsustainability.Shifting theburden to theintervenor-AddictionRefers to masking the realproblem by reducing asymptom and short-termthinkingStrengtheningthe ability of thesystem to bear itsown burdensIt is connected toManzini’s idea aboutempowering thecommunities.Rule beating Refers to actions abidingby the letter, and not thespirit of the ruleReleasingcreativity inachieving thepurpose of therule. (based onfeedback)Rule beating becomes aproblem only when itleads the system intolarge distortion,unnatural behaviors thatmake no sense inabsence of the rules.Seeking theWrong GoalGoals shouldreflect the realwelfare of thesystem.Systems should alwaysproduce results, not justefforts.SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage points
  66. 66. 66“Leverage points- places in the system where a small change couldlead to a large shift in behavior.”Jay Forrester, World Model, Club of RomeWorld model introduced growth as a leverage point.SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage points
  67. 67. 67Leverage pointsNo. Leverage/Power pointDescription Notes Type12 Numbers Constants and parameters such as subsidies,taxes, standardPhysical11 Buffers The size of stabilizing stocks relative to theirflows (increasing the capacity of the bufferincreasing the stability of the system)10 Stock and flowstructuresPhysical systems and their nodes of intersection9 Delay Refers to the lengths of time relative to the ratesof system changes. It is always easier to slowdown the change rate, so that inevitablefeedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.More leverage in designing thebehavior is in slowing down theeconomic growth, so technologiesand process can keep up with it.8 Balancingfeedback loopThe strength of feedbacks relative to the impactsthey are trying to correctWe drastically narrow the range of conditionsover which the system can survive.Information7 ReinforcingFeedback LoopThe strength of the gain of driving loopsReinforcing loops are sources of growth,explosion, erosion, and collapse in the system.A system, with a uncheckreinforcing loop will ultimatelydestroy itself/ Slowing down theeconomic & population growth6 InformationFlowsThe structure of who does and does not haveaccess to information/ Missing information flowsis one of the most common causes of systemmalfunction.Systematic tendency of humanbeings to avoid accountability fortheir own decisions is one of themain reasons for unsustainablebehaviors.5 Rules The role of system defines its scope, boundaries,degree of freedom. So, if you want to understandthe deepest malfunctions of systems, payattention to the rules and to who has power overthem.4 Self-organization Refers to the power to add, change, or evolvesystem structureThe ability to self-organize is thestrongest form of system resilienceand is effective in promotingdiversification and self-evolvingabilities, especially in communities.3 Goals Refers to the purpose or function of the system The goal of keeping the populationin balance & evolving has to trumpthe goal of each population toreproduce without limit.2 Paradigms The mind-set out of which the system-its goals,structure, rules, delays, parameters-arises. It isthe deepest set of beliefs about how the worldworks among a society.We can change paradigm bybuilding a model of the systemwhich takes us outside the systemand forces us to see it as a whole.1 TranscendingParadigmsTo keep oneself unattached in the arena ofparadigms, be flexible
  68. 68. 68SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage pointsthe community level &involving direct contactBehaviorchangeonly directly affect ourprogress towardsustainabilitypowerfully affecthow people viewthemselvessignificantly affecttheir support forpolicy changesNew paradigms Move toward
  69. 69. A strong sense of communityand a recognizable bond69SystemsThinking in systemsSystemsProduct service systemsSystem TrapsLeverage pointsthe community level &involving direct contactSelf-organizationRemoving the addictionParticipationSustainablecommunityDynamics ofculture
  70. 70. 70Sustainable behaviorsin practiceSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  71. 71. 71Sustainable living in organizationsSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influenceThe principles of living systems in eco-systemstwo sets of characteristics that are helpful in encouragingsustainable behaviors in organizations:1. Strong sense of community andcollective identity about common values2. Openness to the outside world
  72. 72. 72Sustainable living in organizationsSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influenceThe principles of living systems in eco-systemstwo sets of characteristics that are helpful in encouragingsustainable behaviors in organizations:1. Strong sense of community andcollective identity about common values2. Openness to the outside worldmentally and emotionally healthyworking environmentsis citizens of a city or a countryrule beating and seeking the wronggoal traps will be diminished.One step further for designers
  73. 73. 73The social ImpactSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influenceOur new global capitalismis structured largely around networks offinancial flows.areas that are not valuable from informational capitalism anddo not have a special interest for political powers areintentionally being deprived of wealth, information, and basictechnological requirements that enable them tocommunicate, innovate, and practically live.ecologically & socially unsustainable
  74. 74. 74The social ImpactSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influenceOur new global capitalismis structured largely around networks offinancial flows.areas that are not valuable from informational capitalism anddo not have a special interest for political powers areintentionally being deprived of wealth, information, and basictechnological requirements that enable them tocommunicate, innovate, and practically live.ecologically & socially unsustainableresentmentsunsustainable behaviors against thecollective concerns of the societies
  75. 75. 75Community-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence“We live in a finite world and humanitywill eventually be forced to adoptsustainable practices.”Dough McKenizie-Mohr
  76. 76. 76Community-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence“We live in a finite world and humanity will eventually be forced toadopt sustainable practices.”Dough McKenizie-MohrMost programs are based on large information-based campaigns.They underestimate the difficulty and complexity of the process.Community-based social marketing five steps:1. selecting behaviors to be encouraged2. identifying barriers & benefits3. developing strategies to address these barriers4. conducting a pilot with a small group of a community5. broad-scale implementation and assessment of impacts.
  77. 77. 77Community-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence“We live in a finite world and humanity will eventually be forced toadopt sustainable practices.”Dough McKenizie-Mohr3-1-Commitmentoccasions that provide people with opportunities to frequently engage in an activityPublic and durable commitments enrich the likelihood of following engagements.3-2-Social NormsDescriptive- mainstream behaviorInjunctive norms- perceptions of what should or should not be done by individuals within a culturemaking the norm visible at the time of user behavior occurrenceThe results of similar projects have shown that we are likely to beinfluenced by the behavior of those we perceive to be similar to ourselves.Five tools:3-3- Social Diffusion3-4-Prompts3-5- CommunicationVivid, tangible, and personalized presentation of information.3-6- IncentivesEnhancing motivations3-7- Convenience
  78. 78. 78Community-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence• Environmental Protection; “Help save theenvironment. You can show your respect for natureand help save the environment by reusing your towelsduring your stay.”• Descriptive Norms: “Join your fellow guests in helpingto save environment. Almost 75% of the guests whowere the asked to participate in our new resourcesavings programs do help by using their towels morethan once. You can join your fellow guests in thisprogram to help save the environment by reusing yourtowels during your stay.”• Room Descriptive norms: The room-specific descriptivenorm replaced the sentence regarding reuse rates inthe hotel with one specific to the room. “75% of theguests who stayed in this room participated in our newresource saving program by using their towels morethan once.”Increasing hotel towel reusePhoenix hotel in 2008 to test the effectiveness ofthese messagesA standard messageGoldstein & et al, 2008Journal of Consumer Research
  79. 79. 79Community-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence• Environmental Protection; “Help save theenvironment. You can show your respect for natureand help save the environment by reusing your towelsduring your stay.”• Descriptive Norms: “Join your fellow guests in helpingto save environment. Almost 75% of the guests whowere the asked to participate in our new resourcesavings programs do help by using their towels morethan once. You can join your fellow guests in thisprogram to help save the environment by reusing yourtowels during your stay.”• Room Descriptive norms: The room-specific descriptivenorm replaced the sentence regarding reuse rates inthe hotel with one specific to the room. “75% of theguests who stayed in this room participated in our newresource saving program by using their towels morethan once.”Increasing hotel towel reusePhoenix hotel in 2008 to test the effectiveness ofthese messagesA standard messageGoldstein & et al, 2008Journal of Consumer Research• As the result, in the standard method37% of the guests reused their towels.• With card reference reuse for thehotel 44%, and• in specific appeal for the room 49% ofthe guests reused their towels.
  80. 80. 80Using Social Norms to Reduce Household EnergyConsumptionIn 2005, over a period of four weeksinformation was delivered to households in the Cityof San Marcos, CA, reduced electricity consumptionCommunity-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influenceFigure 29- Suggestions for conservingenergy with social norms for city ofSan Marcos(Schultz, 2007)Difference between dailyenergy consumption for the fourconditions created (descriptivenormative feedback only vs. descriptivefeedback combined with an injunctivemessage). (Schultz & et al, 2007)
  81. 81. 81Using Social Norms to Reduce Household EnergyConsumption• who had received information that included a sad face,had reduced their electricity use by 6.0 %.• who received the standard information without the sadface had reduced their usage by 4.6 %.• received the happy face in addition to the standardinformation increased their usage by only 1 % threeweeks after receiving the second door hanger• while those that did not receive a happy face increasedtheir use by 10 %.Community-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  82. 82. 82Making biking convenientCommunity-based social marketingSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influencein Amsterdam in 1965.In 2009, 100 bike sharing programs were registered and in2010 another 45 programs were introduced.In total approximately 139,000 bikes are being shared indifferent programs around the worldVelin in Paris averaging an amazing 20,600rentals a day in2008 with a price € 1.70 for one dayA system for renting Vélib’ bicycles in Paris(Erlanger , 2008).Self-service rental stations in Paris(Erlanger , 2008).Montreal’s bike sharing system, known as“bixi”http://thecityfix.com/blog/bixi-lands-boston-london/Montreal’s bikesharing system, known as“bixi” Pay station with solar powerhttp://www.bixisystem.com/what-we-do/the-station/
  83. 83. 83Delf University of TechnologyThe extent to which a user considers the implication as personally beneficial defines whattype of influence is possible or appropriate.StrongWeakApparentHiddenUser experiences & designer’s influenceSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  84. 84. 84User experiences and designer’s influenceUser experiences & designer’s influenceSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  85. 85. 851. Create a perceivable barrier for undesired behavior(Strong and apparent):• very effective strategy,• the results could be situational and temporary• PunisherA perceivable barrier for undesiredbehaviorhttp://www.ecofriend.com/eco-tech-burger-king-testing-energy-harvesting-speed-bump.htmlUser experiences & designer’s influenceSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  86. 86. 862. Provide the user with arguments for specific behavior.(Weak and apparent):• address, form, or change attitudes, rather than directlyfacilitating a behavior• providing objective information about the consequences ofcertain behavior.Arguments for specific behavior,Consequences of smokinghttp://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/tomchiversscience/100079380/will-banning-tobacco-displays-in-shops-help-prevent-young-people-smoking/User experiences & designer’s influenceSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  87. 87. 873. Generate optimal conditions for a specific behavior. (Weakand hidden):• designing and manipulating an optimal situation• create natural occurrences of the desired behavior• without interfering in the underlying psychologicalprocesses of the behavior4. Make the desired behavior the only possible behavior toperform (Hidden and strong):All the other behaviors except the desired behavior areimpossible in this situation.optimal conditions for a specificbehavior, Coffee machine in theoffice hallwayhttp://www.oncoffeemakers.com/which-is-the-best-office-coffee-machine.htmlUser experiences & designer’s influenceSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influence
  88. 88. User experiences & designer’s influenceSustainable behaviorSustainable living in organizationsThe social impactsCommunity-based social marketingUser experience & designer influenceSustainable everyday, scenarioof urban life by Manzini
  89. 89. 89Massive Change* http://www.massivechange.com/exhibitionhttp://www.brucemaudesign.com/http://www.institutewithoutboundaries.com/Figure 40- Massive change (Mau and et al, 2004)
  90. 90. 90Massive change exhibition, Energy areahttp://www.robertharshman.com/360vr/mca/mca-energy-2.htmlMassive Change
  91. 91. 91Massive change exhibition, Material areahttp://www.robertharshman.com/360vr/mca/mca-materials-2.htmlMaterial strategy for Massive change(Mau and et al, 2004)Massive Change
  92. 92. 9248- Massive change exhibition, Information areahttp://www.robertharshman.com/360vr/mca/mca-global.htmlMassive Change
  93. 93. 93Green TM• the importance of the usability of products that we as designers are bringing to society tosupport sustainable behavior.• In 2006 a project was conducted in the Netherlands to apply eco-feedback to electronic andelectrical devices in people’s homes.• But, the campaign was confronted with some usability problems as some participants foundthe meter too complex to use.• Therefore, Delft University of Technology helped the campaign redesign the meter.Example of a usage problems with theoriginal product, physical design of theproduct forced users to use the productupside down.(Menheere, 2006)The final design of the Greeny™Energy Meter(Menheere, 2006)
  94. 94. 94“Design is not merely an adornment of culturallife but one of the practical disciplines ofresponsible action for bringing the high values ofa country or a culture into concrete reality,allowing us to transform abstract ideas intospecific manageable form.”Richard Buchanan

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