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Indian architecture

The rich Indian Architecture Heritage by stating the monuments in the country snd compare to world architecture styles

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Indian architecture

  1. 1. The Rich Architecture Heritage Of Country By Stating The Monuments in India
  2. 2. India is among one of the rare and unique countries in the world which stands for its ancient cultures and traditions, which range through a span of centuries. It is clearly evident from the remains of the ancient monuments and traces in the different parts of India. The Indian monuments are the living examples which takes us back to thousands of years and helps in exploring the history of India
  3. 3. 1. Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC-1700BC) 2. Maha Janapadas period (600 BC—200 AD) 3. Middle Ages (200 AD—1526 AD) 4. Indo-Islamic architecture 5. Colonial Architecture 6. Modern Architecture
  4. 4. Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC- 1700BC) • The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization , located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent • The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations • The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.
  5. 5. Maha Janapadas period (600 BC—200 AD) • Sanchi Stupa • Ajanta Caves • Ellora caves • Sarnath Stupa
  6. 6. Sanchi Stupa • The Buddhist vihara at Sanchi, famous for its Great Stupa is located at Sanchi in Madya Pradesh. • The Great Stupa at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka in 3rd century BCE.
  7. 7. • The Stupa has several chambers, which contains the relics of Buddha. • The Stupa is surrounded by four gateways that represent various scenes from the life of Lord Buddha and the Jataka tales • The national emblem of India was derived from the Ashoka Pillar of Sanchi Stupa. • Sanchi Stupa is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  8. 8. AJANTA CAVES • AJANTA is world's greatest historical monument recognised by UNESCO . • There are 30 caves in Ajanta . chaitya-grihas and monasteries. • These caves were discovered in AD 1819 and were built up in the earlier 2nd century BC-AD. • All paintings shows heavy religious influence and centre around Buddha, Bodhisattvas, incidents from the life of Buddha and the Jatakas.
  9. 9. Ellora caves • These 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km. • It is Situated in ‘Aurangabad’ Maharashtra. • Ellora is an UNESCO World Heritage Site and forms one of major tourist attraction • Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock- cut architecture
  10. 10. • Hindu, Buddhist and Jain rock-cut temples and viharas and mathas were built between the 5th century and 10th century
  11. 11. Kapadokya
  12. 12. Petra
  13. 13. Sarnath Stupa • Sarnath is a famous place in Varanasi and it is the destination for cultures like Hindu, Buddha and Jain. • Sarnath is the place where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma then Buddhist Sangha has originated as well as came into existence . • There is a village 1 km away from the Sarnath known as the Singhpur where ‘Shreyansanath’ was born. He was known as the eleventh Tirthankara of Jainism. This is why the sarnath is also an important pilgrimage site for Jainism.
  14. 14. Middle Ages (200 AD—1526 AD) 1. The Shore Temple – Mahabalipuram 2. Sun Temple - Konark 3. Khajuraho Group of Monuments 4. Meenakshi Amman Temple- Madhurai
  15. 15. The Shore Temple – Mahabalipuram • It is a structural temple, built with blocks of granite, dating from the 8th century AD. • It is one of the oldest structural stone temples of South India. • It was built on a promontory sticking out into the Bay of Bengal at Mahabalipuram, a village of Chennai • These temples were built by three generations of the Pallava Kings and it took 200 years to plan and create the site
  16. 16. • Most of these monuments are monolithic, i.e. carved out of one single rock. • The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  17. 17. Sun Temple, Konark • Konark is one of the well known tourist attractions of Orissa. • Konark houses a temple dedicated to the Sun God. • Even in its ruined state it is a magnificient temple reflecting the genius of the architects • The name Konark is derived form the words Kona - Corner and Arka – Sun • Konark is also known as Arkakshetra.
  18. 18. • This temple built by the Ganga King Narasimha Deva. • It is one of the grandest temples of India and was referred to as the Black Pagoda • The temple complex is in the shape of a gigantic chariot, having elaborately carved stone wheels, pillars and walls. • he temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  19. 19. Khajuraho Temples • Khajuraho is located right in the heart of Central India, Madya Pradesh. • Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples and is well-known for erotic sculptures adorning the temples. • A few of the temples in Khajuraho are dedicated to the Jain pantheon and the rest to Hindu God's , Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and various Devi forms • There were about 85 Hindu temples at Khajuraho
  20. 20. • Built during the reign of Chandela Empire • The Khajuraho group of monuments has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • It considered the "high point" of Indian architectural genius during the medieval times. • Archeological Survey of India has ranked Khajuraho temples as the best preserved monuments.
  21. 21. Meenakshi Amman Temple Madurai • Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu • It is dedicated to Parvati, known as Meenakshi and her consort Shiva. • It was on the list of top 30 nominees for the "New Seven Wonders of the World"
  22. 22. • In fact, the temple is as vital to the aesthetic heritage of South India as the Taj Mahal is to North India • The temple attracts 15,000 visitors a day, around 25,000 on Fridays, and receives an annual revenue of Rs sixty million (~US$1 million) • There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in the temple
  23. 23. Angkor Wat • is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world. • It was constructed as a Hindu temple. • Angkor Wat was dedicated to Vishnu. • The temple is classical style of Khmer architecture.
  24. 24. Viraat Ramayan Mandir • is an upcoming Hindu temple complex in Kesaria, Bihar. • with an estimated budget of ₹500 crore. • The construction of the temple is scheduled to start in June 2015.
  25. 25. Indo-Islamic architecture
  26. 26. JAMAMASJID • Masjid- Jahān-Numā, commonly known as Jama Masjid. • It is the largest mosque in India, located in Delhi. • It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees • The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 persons
  27. 27. • Jama Masjid was inaugurated by an imam from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan. • The mosque has been the site of two attacks, one in 2006 and another in 2010
  28. 28. Agra Fort, Agra • Agra Fort was built primarily as a military structure by Akbar but was later transformed into a palace by his son, Shah Jahan. • Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb for eight years in the octagonal tower of Agra Fort. • Today you can see the Taj Mahal from octagonal tower as easily as Shah Jahan did centuries ago.
  29. 29. • Agra Fort was modelled after the Rajput fort built by Raja Man Singh. • The Diwan-i-Khas of Agra Fort once housed Shah Jahan’s legendary Peacock Throne, which was inset with precious stones including the famous Koh-i-noor diamond
  30. 30. Humayun’s Tomb • It is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor “Humayun” in Delhi, India. • The tomb was commissioned by Humayun's son Akbar.(1569-70) • designed by ‘Mirak Mirza Ghiyas’, a Persian architect chosen by Bega Begum. • It was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent.
  31. 31. • . It was also the first structure to use red sandstone at such a scale • The tomb was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993 • Indo- Persian architecture style
  32. 32. Arc de Triomphe • The construction of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris was ordered in 1806 by Napoleon, the French Emperor. • The names of 128 battles of the first French Republic and Napoleon's Empire are written on the white walls under the vault together with the names of the generals who took part in them. • The construction of Arc de Triomphe was completed in 1836, long after Napoleon's death in 1821.
  33. 33. India Gate • It is the one of the largest war monument in India • The monument was designed by ‘Edwin Lutyenes’ • It took approximately 10 years to complete the construction work on the monument (1921-1931) • The walls of India gate Have been inscribed with the name of Indian Soldiers, who died in the ‘world war I ’ and ‘Afghan war’
  34. 34. • The height of the India gate approximately 42 metres and has many important roads are spreading out from it. • The Arch of India gate houses a shrine, inside which is the ever burning “Amar Jawan Jyothi” • Amar Jawan Jyothi was unvieled on Jan 26 in 1972 by the Prime Minister ‘Indira Gandi’ • The flame of the Jyothi burns day and night, to remind the nation of soldiers , who died in the Indo-Pakistan war 1971
  35. 35. • India Gate serves as the venue of the Republic Day Parade
  36. 36. Gateway of India
  37. 37. • The Gateway of India was built to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to Mumbai in December 1911 • The Gateway has also been referred to as the Taj Mahal of Mumbai. • Built in Indo-Saracenic style. • Its design is a combination of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles; the arch is of Muslim style while the decorations are of Hindu style.
  38. 38. • The foundation stone for the Gateway of India was laid on 31 March 1911. • The final design of ”George Wittet” was sanctioned in 1914 and the construction of the monument was completed in 1924. • The monument has witnessed three terror attacks, twice in 2003 and also in 2008 when four gunmen attacked the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower.
  39. 39. Taj Mahal
  40. 40. • The Taj Mahal reigns supreme as one of the most recognisable and iconic images of India. • The wonder isn’t only found in its construction. Here stands a building that is as rich in history as it is in opulent marble. • The Taj Mahal was declared one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007
  41. 41. • It was constructed by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in his lovely died wife(Mumtaj’s) memory. • It took 22 years to build it, they began building it in 1631 and it was completed in 1653. • It is estimated to have taken more than 22,000 people to build this impressive building including laboures, painters, stonecutters, embroidery artists, and many others
  42. 42. • It is said that the death so crushed the Emperor that all his hair and beard were said to have grown snow white within just a few months. • The full height of the Taj Mahal is 171 metres (561 feet). • More than 1,000 elephants were employed to transport the construction materials used to build the Taj • Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, generally regarded as the chief architect of the Taj Mahal, was not Indian; he was a Persian from Iran
  43. 43. Amazing Facts
  44. 44. • 1: Shah Jahan was first inspired to build the Taj Mahal after Mumtaz Mahal, his third wife, died while giving birth to their 14th child. His wife was died at age 40.
  45. 45. • 2: The four minarets (towers) surrounding the Taj Mahal were constructed far away from the main structure than usual. This was done as a safety measure so that if any of them fell, they would fall away from the tomb rather than crash into the place.
  46. 46. • 3: There is no proof to support the long- standing myth that artists and architects involved with the construction of the Taj Mahal were later put to death so that they could never "repeat such a beautiful feat."
  47. 47. • 4: With construction beginning around 1632 and finishing in 1653, the Taj Mahal took an estimated 22 years to build. • 5: Shah Jahan's other wives and even his favorite servant are buried in mausoleums just outside of the Taj Mahal. • 6: Construction of the Taj Mahal cost an estimated 32 million Indian rupees. • 7:A total of 28 types of precious and semiprecious jewels are set in the marble.
  48. 48. • 8:Following the Taj Mahal's completion, Shah Jahan was put under house arrest in 1658 by his son, Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan was only able to view the Taj Mahal from his window for the last eight years of his life.
  49. 49. 9:False structures and scaffolding were constructed around the Taj Mahal throughout different conflicts to confuse German, Japanese, and Pakistani bomber pilots.
  50. 50. • 10: Four sides are perfectly Identical • 11 : Colour Changing
  51. 51. Qutub Minar • In 1200 AD, Qutub al-Din Aibak, the founder of the Delhi Sultanate started construction of the Qutub Minar. • . In 1220, Aibak's successor and son-in- law Iltutmish added three storeys to the tower. • It is not exactly erect and is slightly tilted towards one side. This is due to the many additions and renovations that were made on the tower over the years.
  52. 52. Pisa Tower
  53. 53. • Qutub Minar is the tallest brick minaret in the world. • There are 379 stairs inside the tower, which lead to the top. • The Minar contains numerous inscriptions in Arabic
  54. 54. • Qutub Minar is surrounded by several historically significant monuments, which are historically connected with the tower and are part of the Qutub Complex. These include the Iron Pillar of Delhi, Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque etc.
  55. 55. Hawa Mahal • "Palace of Winds" or "Palace of the Breeze” • It is situated in Jaipur, Rajastan. • It was essentially a high screen wall built so the women of the royal household could observe street festivals while unseen from the outside. • The structure was built in 1799 by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh.
  56. 56. • It was designed by LaLChand Ustad in the form of the crown of Krishna, the Hindu god. • Hawa Mahal is known so because it unique five-storey exterior is akin to the honeycomb of a beehive with its 953 small windows called jharokhas through which the breeze flows in and keeps the palace cool. • It is a cultural and architectural heritage, a true reflection of a fusion of Hindu Rajput architecture and the Islamic Mughal architecture.
  57. 57. Char Minar
  58. 58. • The Charminar, constructed in 1591. • It is a monument and mosque located in Hyderabad, Telangana. • The landmark has become a global icon of Hyderabad. • It means "Four Towers” • Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah constructed this landmark in the year 1591.
  59. 59. • These four minarets symbolize and honor Islam’s 1st four Khalifas. • It is also said that there is an underground tunnel that links the charminar to Golconda Fort, which was the former capital of Quli Qutb Shah, and provides an escape route to the royal family in case of an emergency.
  60. 60. Victoria Memorial
  61. 61. • The Victoria Memorial is a large marble building in Kolkata, West Bengal. • Which was built between 1906 and 1921. • It is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria. • The Victoria Memorial's architect was William Emerson. • The design is in the Indo-Saracenic style. • style uses a mixture of British and Mughal elements as well as Venetian, Egyptian, Deccani andIslamic archite ctural influences.
  62. 62. Fatehpur Sikri
  63. 63. • Fatehpur Sikri is a royal city in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. • city was founded in 1569 by the Emperor Akbar. • This city served as the capital of the Mughal Empire during 15th century. • It is listed as one of the world’s heritage site by UNESCO. • Constructions include of a series of royal palaces, harem, courts, a mosque, private quarters and other utility buildings.
  64. 64. Sydney Opera House • The Sydney Opera House is a multi- venue performing arts centre in Sydney, Australia. • Designed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon. • The building was formally opened on 20 October 1973.
  65. 65. Lotus Temple
  66. 66. • The Bahai Lotus temple was designed by Iranian architect Fariborz Sahba in the shape of a lotus as it is common to several religions including Hinduism and Buddhism. He has won several international awards for this brilliant piece of work. • It is a place where several visitors from all across the globe come for peace, meditation, prayers and study.
  67. 67. • It is in line with the teachings of the Bahai faith believing in the Oneness of God, the Oneness of Religions, and the Oneness of Mankind. As such, people of all religions and races are welcome in the temple as it is a place to worship the creator of the universe and not one particular deity. • The temple is visited by more than four million people every year with an average of more than 10000 visitors daily.
  68. 68. Golden Temple
  69. 69. • The Golden Temple is regarded as the most sacred place of worship for the Sikhs. It is located in Amritsar, Punjab. • The construction of the Golden Temple started in 1588 under the aegis of the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das Ji. • The Golden Temple is also known as the ‘Darbar Sahib’ or ‘Harmandar Sahib.’ • Before the temple was built, the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, used to meditate at the site.
  70. 70. Red Fort • Mughal emperor shah jahan built this massive fort when he transferred the capital from Agra to Delhi. • Every year on 15 August (on India's independence day), prime minister of India gives speech to the nation from the lal qila. • The Red Fort has two main gates - the Delhi gate and the Lahore gate. The Lahore gate got its name because of its orientation towards Lahore. After all, India and Pakistan used to be the same country once.
  71. 71. Mysore Palace • The Palace of Mysore is a historical palace in the city of Mysore in Karnataka. • The Mysore Palace is visited by more than 6 million visitors every year, making it the second-most visited monument in India after the Taj Mahal. • Mysore Palace was designed by architect Henry Irving
  72. 72. • The Indo-Sarcenic architecture of the palace which blends Hindu, Muslim, Rajput and Gothic styles is appreciated and admired all across the globe. • Mysore Palace is the venue for the 10-day Mysore Dassara festival
  73. 73. Budapest Parliament
  74. 74. Umaid Bhawan • Umaid Bhawan Palace, located at Jodhpur. • It is the youngest palace of India • The Palace was built to provide employment to thousands of people during the time of famine. • It is one of the world's largest private residences.
  75. 75. • Maharaja Umaid Singh had a vision to create the largest private residence in the world. • The architecture is a combination of lndo- Saracenic, Classical Revival and Western Art. • Part Palace, part hotel and part museum. The Taj Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur is part palace, part hotel and part museum.
  76. 76. St. Peter’s Basilica
  77. 77. Basilica of Bom Jesus • The Basilica of Bom Jesus is located in Goa, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • The basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier. • The church is located in Old Goa, which was the capital of Goa in the early days of Portuguese rule • The foundation stone was laid in 1594 and completed in 1605.
  78. 78. Cellular Jail • The Cellular Jail, also known as Kālā Pānī. • It was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. • The Cellular Jail used to be one of the biggest jails in Asia. Today this place is a famous national monument.
  79. 79. Alcatraz
  80. 80. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) • It is a historic railway station in Mumbai. • Designed by Frederick William Stevens with influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings. • CST is the India’s second most photographed building.
  81. 81. • CST has become the busiest train station in Asia. • The station roughly handles 3 million passengers commuting daily. • The interiors are ornamented which gives this structure the look of a cathedral. The ceilings were knowingly kept high to give a sense a space even when there is heavy traffic. Thus, passengers don’t feel claustrophobic even when the hallways are full with people.
  82. 82. St Pancras railway station
  83. 83. Akshardham • Akshardham or Swaminarayan Akshardham complex is a Hindu mandir, and a spiritual- cultural campus in New Delhi. • Opened 6th November 2005
  84. 84. Big Ben • Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of Palace of Westminster in London. • The tower has become one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom. • It has Gothic Revival style
  85. 85. Rajabai Clock Tower • The Rajabai Clock Tower is a clock tower in South Mumbai. • The Rajabai Clock Tower was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott , an English architect. • The tower was closed to the public after it became a frequent spot for those attempting to commit suicide. • It is located in the confines of the Fort campus of the University of Mumbai.