The Rich Architecture Heritage Of Country
By Stating The Monuments in India
India is among one of the rare
and unique countries in the world which
stands for its ancient cultures and traditions,
which range through a span of centuries. It is
clearly evident from the remains of the
ancient monuments and traces in the
different parts of India. The Indian
monuments are the living examples which
takes us back to thousands of years and helps
in exploring the history of India
1. Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC-1700BC)
2. Maha Janapadas period
(600 BC—200 AD)
3. Middle Ages
(200 AD—1526 AD)
4. Indo-Islamic architecture
5. Colonial Architecture
6. Modern Architecture
Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC-
• The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze
Age civilization , located in the northwestern
region of the Indian subcontinent
• The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest
• The civilization is noted for its cities built of
brick, roadside drainage system, and
Maha Janapadas period
(600 BC—200 AD)
• Sanchi Stupa
• Ajanta Caves
• Ellora caves
• Sarnath Stupa
• The Buddhist vihara at Sanchi, famous for
its Great Stupa is located at Sanchi in Madya
• The Great Stupa at Sanchi is the oldest stone
structure in India and was originally
commissioned by the emperor Ashoka in 3rd
• The Stupa has several chambers, which
contains the relics of Buddha.
• The Stupa is surrounded by four gateways
that represent various scenes from the life of
Lord Buddha and the Jataka tales
• The national emblem of India was derived
from the Ashoka Pillar of Sanchi Stupa.
• Sanchi Stupa is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
• AJANTA is world's greatest historical monument
recognised by UNESCO .
• There are 30 caves in Ajanta . chaitya-grihas and
• These caves were discovered in AD 1819 and
were built up in the earlier 2nd century BC-AD.
• All paintings shows heavy religious influence and
centre around Buddha, Bodhisattvas, incidents
from the life of Buddha and the Jatakas.
• These 34 monasteries and temples,
extending over more than 2 km.
• It is Situated in ‘Aurangabad’ Maharashtra.
• Ellora is an UNESCO World Heritage Site and
forms one of major tourist attraction
• Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock-
• Hindu, Buddhist and Jain rock-cut temples
and viharas and mathas were built between
the 5th century and 10th century
• Sarnath is a famous place in Varanasi and it is the
destination for cultures like Hindu, Buddha and
• Sarnath is the place where Gautama Buddha first
taught the Dharma then Buddhist Sangha has
originated as well as came into existence .
• There is a village 1 km away from the Sarnath
known as the Singhpur where ‘Shreyansanath’
was born. He was known as the eleventh
Tirthankara of Jainism. This is why the sarnath is
also an important pilgrimage site for Jainism.
(200 AD—1526 AD)
1. The Shore Temple – Mahabalipuram
2. Sun Temple - Konark
3. Khajuraho Group of Monuments
4. Meenakshi Amman Temple- Madhurai
The Shore Temple –
• It is a structural temple, built with blocks
of granite, dating from the 8th century AD.
• It is one of the oldest structural stone temples
of South India.
• It was built on a promontory sticking out into the
Bay of Bengal at Mahabalipuram, a village
• These temples were built by three generations of
the Pallava Kings and it took 200 years to plan
and create the site
• Most of these monuments are monolithic,
i.e. carved out of one single rock.
• The Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
has been classified as a UNESCO World
Sun Temple, Konark
• Konark is one of the well known tourist
attractions of Orissa.
• Konark houses a temple dedicated to the Sun
• Even in its ruined state it is a magnificient temple
reflecting the genius of the architects
• The name Konark is derived form the words Kona
- Corner and Arka – Sun
• Konark is also known as Arkakshetra.
• This temple built by the Ganga King
• It is one of the grandest temples of India and
was referred to as the Black Pagoda
• The temple complex is in the shape of a
gigantic chariot, having elaborately carved
stone wheels, pillars and walls.
• he temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
• Khajuraho is located right in the heart of Central
India, Madya Pradesh.
• Khajuraho has the largest group of medieval
Hindu and Jain temples and is well-known for
erotic sculptures adorning the temples.
• A few of the temples in Khajuraho are dedicated
to the Jain pantheon and the rest to Hindu God's
, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and various Devi
• There were about 85 Hindu temples at
• Built during the reign of Chandela Empire
• The Khajuraho group of monuments has been
listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
• It considered the "high point" of Indian
architectural genius during the medieval
• Archeological Survey of India has ranked
Khajuraho temples as the best preserved
Meenakshi Amman Temple
• Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu
temple located on the southern bank of
the Vaigai River in the temple city of
Madurai, Tamil Nadu
• It is dedicated to Parvati, known
as Meenakshi and her consort Shiva.
• It was on the list of top 30 nominees for the
"New Seven Wonders of the World"
• In fact, the temple is as vital to the aesthetic
heritage of South India as the Taj Mahal is to
• The temple attracts 15,000 visitors a day,
around 25,000 on Fridays, and receives an
annual revenue of Rs sixty million (~US$1
• There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in
• is a temple complex in Cambodia and the
largest religious monument in the world.
• It was constructed as a Hindu temple.
• Angkor Wat was dedicated to Vishnu.
• The temple is classical style of Khmer
Viraat Ramayan Mandir
• is an upcoming Hindu temple complex in
• with an estimated budget of ₹500 crore.
• The construction of the temple is scheduled to
start in June 2015.
• Masjid- Jahān-Numā, commonly known as
• It is the largest mosque in India, located in
• It was built by Mughal emperor Shah
Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1
• The courtyard can accommodate more than
• Jama Masjid was inaugurated by an imam
from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan.
• The mosque has been the site of two attacks,
one in 2006 and another in 2010
Agra Fort, Agra
• Agra Fort was built primarily as a military
structure by Akbar but was later transformed
into a palace by his son, Shah Jahan.
• Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son
Aurangzeb for eight years in the octagonal
tower of Agra Fort.
• Today you can see the Taj Mahal from
octagonal tower as easily as Shah Jahan did
• Agra Fort was modelled after the Rajput fort
built by Raja Man Singh.
• The Diwan-i-Khas of Agra Fort once housed
Shah Jahan’s legendary Peacock Throne, which
was inset with precious stones including the
famous Koh-i-noor diamond
• It is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor
“Humayun” in Delhi, India.
• The tomb was commissioned by Humayun's
• designed by ‘Mirak Mirza Ghiyas’, a Persian
architect chosen by Bega Begum.
• It was the first garden-tomb on the Indian
• . It was also the first structure to use red
sandstone at such a scale
• The tomb was declared a UNESCO World
Heritage Site in 1993
• Indo- Persian architecture style
Arc de Triomphe
• The construction of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris
was ordered in 1806 by Napoleon, the French
• The names of 128 battles of the first French
Republic and Napoleon's Empire are written on
the white walls under the vault together with the
names of the generals who took part in them.
• The construction of Arc de Triomphe was
completed in 1836, long after Napoleon's death
• It is the one of the largest war monument in
• The monument was designed by ‘Edwin
• It took approximately 10 years to complete
the construction work on the monument
• The walls of India gate Have been inscribed
with the name of Indian Soldiers, who died in
the ‘world war I ’ and ‘Afghan war’
• The height of the India gate approximately 42
metres and has many important roads are
spreading out from it.
• The Arch of India gate houses a shrine, inside
which is the ever burning “Amar Jawan Jyothi”
• Amar Jawan Jyothi was unvieled on Jan 26 in
1972 by the Prime Minister ‘Indira Gandi’
• The flame of the Jyothi burns day and night, to
remind the nation of soldiers , who died in the
Indo-Pakistan war 1971
• India Gate serves as the venue of the Republic
• The Gateway of India was built to commemorate
the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to
Mumbai in December 1911
• The Gateway has also been referred to as the Taj
Mahal of Mumbai.
• Built in Indo-Saracenic style.
• Its design is a combination
of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles; the arch
is of Muslim style while the decorations are of
• The foundation stone for the Gateway of India
was laid on 31 March 1911.
• The final design of ”George Wittet” was
sanctioned in 1914 and the construction of
the monument was completed in 1924.
• The monument has witnessed three terror
attacks, twice in 2003 and also in 2008 when
four gunmen attacked the Taj Mahal Palace &
• The Taj Mahal reigns supreme as one of the
most recognisable and iconic images of India.
• The wonder isn’t only found in its
construction. Here stands a building that is as
rich in history as it is in opulent marble.
• The Taj Mahal was declared one of the New
Seven Wonders of the World in 2007
• It was constructed by the Mughal emperor
Shah Jahan in his lovely died wife(Mumtaj’s)
• It took 22 years to build it, they began building
it in 1631 and it was completed in 1653.
• It is estimated to have taken more than 22,000
people to build this impressive building
including laboures, painters, stonecutters,
embroidery artists, and many others
• It is said that the death so crushed the Emperor
that all his hair and beard were said to have
grown snow white within just a few months.
• The full height of the Taj Mahal is 171 metres
• More than 1,000 elephants were employed to
transport the construction materials used to
build the Taj
• Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, generally regarded as the
chief architect of the Taj Mahal, was not Indian;
he was a Persian from Iran
• 1: Shah Jahan was first inspired to build the
Taj Mahal after Mumtaz Mahal, his third
wife, died while giving birth to their 14th
child. His wife was died at age 40.
• 2: The four minarets (towers) surrounding
the Taj Mahal were constructed far away
from the main structure than usual. This was
done as a safety measure so that if any of
them fell, they would fall away from the
tomb rather than crash into the place.
• 3: There is no proof to support the long-
standing myth that artists and architects
involved with the construction of the Taj
Mahal were later put to death so that they
could never "repeat such a beautiful feat."
• 4: With construction beginning around 1632
and finishing in 1653, the Taj Mahal took an
estimated 22 years to build.
• 5: Shah Jahan's other wives and even his
favorite servant are buried in mausoleums just
outside of the Taj Mahal.
• 6: Construction of the Taj Mahal cost an
estimated 32 million Indian rupees.
• 7:A total of 28 types of precious and
semiprecious jewels are set in the marble.
• 8:Following the Taj Mahal's completion, Shah
Jahan was put under house arrest in 1658 by
his son, Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan was only able
to view the Taj Mahal from his window for the
last eight years of his life.
9:False structures and scaffolding were
constructed around the Taj Mahal throughout
different conflicts to confuse German, Japanese,
and Pakistani bomber pilots.
• 10: Four sides are perfectly Identical
• 11 : Colour Changing
• In 1200 AD, Qutub al-Din Aibak, the founder of
the Delhi Sultanate started construction of the
• . In 1220, Aibak's successor and son-in-
law Iltutmish added three storeys to the tower.
• It is not exactly erect and is slightly tilted towards
one side. This is due to the many additions and
renovations that were made on the tower over
• Qutub Minar is the tallest brick minaret in the
• There are 379 stairs inside the tower, which
lead to the top.
• The Minar contains numerous inscriptions in
• Qutub Minar is surrounded by several
historically significant monuments, which are
historically connected with the tower and are
part of the Qutub Complex. These include
the Iron Pillar of Delhi, Quwwat-ul-Islam
• "Palace of Winds" or "Palace of the Breeze”
• It is situated in Jaipur, Rajastan.
• It was essentially a high screen wall built so
the women of the royal household could
observe street festivals while unseen from the
• The structure was built in 1799 by
Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh.
• It was designed by LaLChand Ustad in the
form of the crown of Krishna, the Hindu god.
• Hawa Mahal is known so because it unique
five-storey exterior is akin to the honeycomb
of a beehive with its 953 small windows called
jharokhas through which the breeze flows in
and keeps the palace cool.
• It is a cultural and architectural heritage, a
true reflection of a fusion of Hindu Rajput
architecture and the Islamic Mughal
• The Charminar, constructed in 1591.
• It is a monument and mosque located
in Hyderabad, Telangana.
• The landmark has become a global icon of
• It means "Four Towers”
• Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah constructed this
landmark in the year 1591.
• These four minarets symbolize and honor
Islam’s 1st four Khalifas.
• It is also said that there is an underground
tunnel that links the charminar to Golconda
Fort, which was the former capital of Quli
Qutb Shah, and provides an escape route to
the royal family in case of an emergency.
• The Victoria Memorial is a large marble building
in Kolkata, West Bengal.
• Which was built between 1906 and 1921.
• It is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria.
• The Victoria Memorial's architect was William
• The design is in the Indo-Saracenic style.
• style uses a mixture of British
and Mughal elements as well
as Venetian, Egyptian, Deccani andIslamic archite
• Fatehpur Sikri is a royal city in Agra, Uttar
• city was founded in 1569 by the Emperor Akbar.
• This city served as the capital of the Mughal
Empire during 15th century.
• It is listed as one of the world’s heritage site by
• Constructions include of a series of royal palaces,
harem, courts, a mosque, private quarters and
other utility buildings.
Sydney Opera House
• The Sydney Opera House is a multi-
venue performing arts
centre in Sydney, Australia.
• Designed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon.
• The building was formally opened on 20
• The Bahai Lotus temple was designed by
Iranian architect Fariborz Sahba in the shape
of a lotus as it is common to several religions
including Hinduism and Buddhism. He has
won several international awards for this
brilliant piece of work.
• It is a place where several visitors from all
across the globe come for peace, meditation,
prayers and study.
• It is in line with the teachings of the Bahai
faith believing in the Oneness of God, the
Oneness of Religions, and the Oneness of
Mankind. As such, people of all religions and
races are welcome in the temple as it is a
place to worship the creator of the universe
and not one particular deity.
• The temple is visited by more than four
million people every year with an average of
more than 10000 visitors daily.
• The Golden Temple is regarded as the most
sacred place of worship for the Sikhs. It is
located in Amritsar, Punjab.
• The construction of the Golden Temple
started in 1588 under the aegis of the fourth
Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das Ji.
• The Golden Temple is also known as the
‘Darbar Sahib’ or ‘Harmandar Sahib.’
• Before the temple was built, the first Guru of
the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, used to meditate at
• Mughal emperor shah jahan built this massive
fort when he transferred the capital from Agra
• Every year on 15 August (on India's
independence day), prime minister of India gives
speech to the nation from the lal qila.
• The Red Fort has two main gates - the Delhi gate
and the Lahore gate. The Lahore gate got its
name because of its orientation towards Lahore.
After all, India and Pakistan used to be the same
• The Palace of Mysore is a historical palace in
the city of Mysore in Karnataka.
• The Mysore Palace is visited by more than
6 million visitors every year, making it the
second-most visited monument in India after
the Taj Mahal.
• Mysore Palace was designed by architect
• The Indo-Sarcenic architecture of the palace
which blends Hindu, Muslim, Rajput and
Gothic styles is appreciated and admired all
across the globe.
• Mysore Palace is the venue for the 10-day
Mysore Dassara festival
• Umaid Bhawan Palace, located at Jodhpur.
• It is the youngest palace of India
• The Palace was built to provide employment
to thousands of people during the time of
• It is one of the world's largest private
• Maharaja Umaid Singh had a vision to create
the largest private residence in the world.
• The architecture is a combination of lndo-
Saracenic, Classical Revival and Western Art.
• Part Palace, part hotel and part museum. The
Taj Umaid Bhawan Palace Jodhpur is part
palace, part hotel and part museum.
Basilica of Bom Jesus
• The Basilica of Bom Jesus is located
in Goa, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
• The basilica holds the mortal remains of St.
• The church is located in Old Goa, which was
the capital of Goa in the early days
of Portuguese rule
• The foundation stone was laid in 1594 and
completed in 1605.
• The Cellular Jail, also known as Kālā Pānī.
• It was a colonial prison in the Andaman and
• The Cellular Jail used to be one of the biggest
jails in Asia. Today this place is a famous
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST)
• It is a historic railway station in Mumbai.
• Designed by Frederick William Stevens with
influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic
Revival architecture and traditional Mughal
• CST is the India’s second most photographed
• CST has become the busiest train station in
• The station roughly handles 3 million
passengers commuting daily.
• The interiors are ornamented which gives this
structure the look of a cathedral. The ceilings
were knowingly kept high to give a sense a
space even when there is heavy traffic. Thus,
passengers don’t feel claustrophobic even
when the hallways are full with people.
• Akshardham or Swaminarayan Akshardham
complex is a Hindu mandir, and a spiritual-
cultural campus in New Delhi.
• Opened 6th November 2005
• Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of
Palace of Westminster in London.
• The tower has become one of the most
prominent symbols of the United Kingdom.
• It has Gothic Revival style
Rajabai Clock Tower
• The Rajabai Clock Tower is a clock tower in
• The Rajabai Clock Tower was designed by Sir
George Gilbert Scott , an English architect.
• The tower was closed to the public after it
became a frequent spot for those attempting
to commit suicide.
• It is located in the confines of the Fort campus
of the University of Mumbai.